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 Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)

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Jan Neil Enanoria Gador



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PostSubject: Assignment #6: Improvement of the Internet Connectivity in University of Southeastern Philippines   Thu Oct 01, 2009 6:47 pm


Supposing that I am an IT (Information Technology) consultant or let’s say that I am already an IT consultant and I am hired by the university president to give my insights, idea, or suggestions to improve the internet connectivity of the school first, I would remind them of the importance of the internet, not only to the students but to the teachers and staffs as well. The internet has become a very strong medium of information and undoubtedly it has helped people, especially students, in increasing their knowledge. You can find all kinds of stuffs in the internet searching the world wide web, some say that the internet is pure truth compared to what people read in the newspapers and televisions because the news is manipulated by corporate guys to keep people living in fear (I actually got this from a couple of movies, a part of me tells me this is true and another part tells me it is not). Anyway, I just wanted to point out how important the internet is.

Before giving my suggestions on how to improve the internet connectivity of the school the first thing I would like to point out is that the internet would be made available and accessible in the whole school campus. What I mean is that the whole school campus would be provided internet connection through wifi. I do know that at the event when I give this suggestion the first thing that would pop out is the money issue or the budget. Setting a wifi connection in the whole campus would mean money, but considering the fact that there are many wifi connections strewn across the school campus, and I mean many, and these are not made available to everyone, especially the students of the school. What is the purpose of putting wireless networks scattered across the school campus but locking it by setting access codes so that the students couldn’t use it? Why not make it available to everyone where everyone can benefit from it because I do not think that the cost would increase by just removing the access codes.

USING HIGH END COMPUTERS


On to my suggestions (by the way I do not have much knowledge about improving internet connectivity, what I will be saying are those that I know of and those that I heard and researched.) My first suggestion would be to use high-end computers which also have high processing speed because sometimes it’s not just because the internet connection is low but the processing is slow. No matter how fast or how large your internet bandwidth is, the performance will still be poor. This solution could help improve the performance of the computers and to fully benefit the internet connection in the university. However, this solution is not practical because purchasing high-end computers would mean spending a lot of money, considering that a computer set costs a lot, this solution is not practical for the university to be implemented because honestly the university lacks the budget to purchase new sets of computers or is saving its budget for a more important cause. I only suggested this solution because it can also be a solution for the improvement of the internet connectivity.

REMOVING THE FILTERS


I have not actually proven that this is true but I want to put it because it does have some point. I have read something in the internet that the filters or the blocking of URL’s or websites can slow or degrade the internet connectivity. You can see it in the site that I included below. The article states that enabling web blocking can degrade internet connectivity up to fifty percent (50%). This has been happening especially in internet cafes because some are mandated to put filters so that the customers or users can not access pornographic sites. However in our case, the university blocks not only pornographic sites but also including web sites like download sites or social networking sites. I know that the purpose of the computer laboratories like the Nodal in the Institute of Computing and the computer laboratory in the university library is dedicated for academic use but we must not forget that the students do pay to be able to use these computers and the internet service. I also think it would be unfair or rather foul because even sites that do not have explicit content are also blocked. If the goal of the university is to prevent students from accessing sites that contain explicit contents the university could very well utilize servers like in internet cafes. I saw this kind of server where the one operating or administering the server can detect if a certain user is accessing web sites which contain explicit content because the programs or web sites being accessed from a certain computer can be seen in the server. The university could use this which will improve the internet connectivity and at the same time prevent students from accessing prohibited web sites by denying them access of the computer if ever a user accesses one. By this the internet bandwidth can be properly utilized and will not be put to waste. This could be a solution to improve internet connectivity in the university without spending a lot of money.

REEVALUATE AND REDO

The third suggestion would be reevaluate all factors concerning “internet connectivity”. There are many factors that affect how fast or how slow an internet connection is. These factors can be the network topology, hardware and software used, threats, etc. Network topology is the physical interconnections of the elements of a computer network. I have first encountered the term network topology during our data communications subject and from it I learned that the topology of a certain computer network could also affect the internet connectivity. Determining the proper topology for a certain computer network could improve and utilize of its element’s capacity. By means of determining the best topology for the computer network of the university it could improve the internet connectivity of the school. Hardware and software are also determining factors that affect internet connectivity. I think the school is currently using UTP and fiber optic cables which I may say are the proper cables to be used because it reduces noise (I also learned this from our data communications subject by the way). On the software side, the university could also use softwares that could speed up internet connectivity like WEBROCKET and SpeedConnect Internet Accelerator which I think was just released in the internet. Using these kinds of softwares offers advantages and disadvantages. These software speeds up your internet connection by maximizing your connection to its maximum potential because it adapts your modem to its maximum potential. However its advantage is that it reduces or rather degrades the quality of the interface which in the case of the students is still a good choice because I think the students would rather prefer good internet connectivity rather than good interface. There are also programs or applications that when used could slow the processing of the computer because it eats up the memory of the computer and when most of the memory is being used the tendency is that when a certain user opens a web browser the processing is slow and so the performance is also slow. Threats, these factors greatly affect computer performance. Threats like viruses, worms and malwares, programs that are written and made to destroy or spread havoc in computers. Since I was in first year college, whenever I use the internet service in the nodal I always encounter viruses and I always get to bring home viruses, worms and malwares whenever I save something in the flash drive. Now I’m in my fourth year in this university although my standing is still three and half years, I still encounter viruses and the like. Well it seems that suppressing the entry of viruses into your computer cannot be helped especially when you have internet connection but as long as it can be controlled it would put your computer to a safer state. In the case of the university where the budget is limited, they could always resort to practical solution to these threats such as maintaining an updated antivirus which could block and destroy virus and the like. This way, the performance of the computers would not be affected and the internet connectivity would be utilized to its utmost potential.

INCREASING BANDWITH

I actually forgot the current bandwidth that the university is currently employing and I would not fully recommend this suggestion but because it can also improve the internet connectivity of the university this suggestion still has a “say”. Increasing bandwidth could really improve the internet connectivity but at the same time it also has a great deal of money. However, if the university manages to increase its bandwidth but is unable to manage to change its computers to a high-speed computer the internet connection would still not be used in its maximum potential. The laboratories in the Institute of Computing has been currently upgraded but still it encounters the same problems as before but at least the processing does not take as long as before.

CHANGING INTERNET PROVIDER

If all else fails I think the last solution would be to change the internet provider. In choosing a good internet provider you would need to consider some things. The first thing you would need to consider is the bandwidth and the cost because the bigger the bandwidth the bigger the price. Bandwidth is the amount of data that downloaded by you using the connection. You would also need to know the appropriate bandwidth needed for your computer network. Second is the download speed, you would also need to consider determining the download speed that you need because the download speed depends on the location of your computer network. Third thing you need to consider is the contracts, you should be aware of it. One thing to look for is the insurance or the money back guarantee because you may want to ask your money back if you are not contented with the internet service. The last thing to consider is the freebies I think this is the most important thing to be considered. Customers must read other customer reviews of the internet provider that you might want. Reading reviews will give you insights about the internet provider and always remember that reading one customer review will not be enough.


Reference:

Web Blocking/Filtering
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joverly gonzales



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PostSubject: Assignment#6   Sat Oct 03, 2009 4:28 pm

When the time comes that I will be hired as an IT consultant of the university and they want my suggestion about the internet connection be improve, hmmmm…..

Arrow Infrastructure
Telecommunication infrastructure remains one of the major issues affecting technology deployment required for growth and development. There has however, been massive improvement in infrastructure over the past few years. Telecommunications and Network Services (TNS) and Facilities Planning has been upgrading the campus telecommunications (voice, data) infrastructure. The project, known as Telecommunications Infrastructure Project, or TIP.

Arrow Technology
As the world becomes increasingly dependent on instantaneous, on-demand global communication, opportunity calls for those who can keep the lines open and messages flowing.
From the transfer of voice, video and data for immediate communication to the use of satellite transmissions for video conferencing and the infrastructure for the Internet and other distance learning capabilities, telecommunications technology keeps the world connected.
The Telecommunications Technology (TEL) department at Texas State Technical College provides superior instruction on the latest industry-standard Telecommunications skills and equipment.
Once thought of as only telephone wiring and switching, this technology encompasses electronics, computers, fiber optics, broadband transmission and new compression technologies. It includes popular alternatives to traditional telephone service, such as cellular telephones and paging services.

Arrow Faster connection and download with ISDN
An ISDN connection works in the same way as a standard dial-up, but you need a digital (ISDN) line (marketed by BT as Business or Home Highway) and an ISDN card, external ‘modem’ (terminal adapter), pbx or router.
ISDN will give you a faster and more stable connection - a few seconds to connect rather than the 20-30 seconds experienced with an analogue modem - and faster downloads. Web pages should appear about 30-50% faster. And ISDN is nearly twice as fast as the best modem connection for uploading data, so sending e-mail and uploading to a website will be quicker too.
An ISDN line gives you two channels, which can be used as two separate phone lines. Call costs per minute and per channel are the same as for an analogue line, while line rental for a business line is about twice as much as for one analogue line (after inclusive calls and discounts).
In addition, there is an initial installation fee and the cost of the new ISDN "modem", but since you have the usability of two analogue lines it doesn't cost any more to run than two analogue lines.

Arrow Unmetered means inclusive call costs - not always-on
You pay a monthly or annual subscription to an ISP and they give you a freephone (0800 or similar number) to connect with. Packages with inclusive call costs, known as unmetered Internet access, are available by agreement between BT (which owns most of the local wiring infrastructure), the other telcos and the ISPs.
This depends on BT giving the others freephone numbers at a fixed cost per subscriber, rather than for timed or data traffic usage, but there is more to this than money. If many people were to subscribe to these services and stay connected for much longer periods - or even all day - then exchanges and trunk lines could become overloaded, resulting in many more engaged tones. For this reason many ISPs automatically disconnect dormant connections after a certain period of inactivity.

Arrow "Always-on" cable and ADSL connections are becoming more widely available
These give you a permanent connection and much faster data speeds. For ADSL you need a standard BT telephone line, and pay for a connection through an ISP which provides an ADSL “modem" as part of the installation cost. BT replaces the standard socket with a '"splitter" box, which gives you a normal phone socket as well as the ADSL socket. There is now a self-installed option at lower cost for a residential account but not yet for business accounts.
The ADSL modem or router connects your standalone PC or network to the ADSL network. You can use the standard socket for analogue voice calls at the same time as the ADSL line is being used for your Internet connection, but there could be some problems or limitations using it with an analogue modem or fax machine.
Connections from a single computer to the modem could be by USB or by Ethernet card and cable, in the same way as for a LAN. There are business and residential services with different contention ratios, service levels and costs, there are single and multi-user connections, and there are three different download speeds.
Some ISPs will give you one or more fixed IP addresses, so you can run a server over ADSL, although as the service has no Quality of Service guarantee it would be unwise to run a business-critical server application over an ADSL line.
Similar considerations apply to cable connections, which differ slightly according to the cableco involved.

Arrow Mobile ‘on the move’ and wireless ‘on the pause’ connectivity
The latest mobile phones offer Internet access on the move using WAP (wireless application protocol) and GPRS, and ‘3’ now offer third generation UMTS over a growing network. Connection may be made through a laptop using an appropriate card or via a mobile phone handset using a cable, infrared or ‘Bluetooth’ connection.
WiFi (802.11 standard) ‘hotspots’ are springing up in airports, railway stations, hotels, coffee shops etc. where local wireless network connections are available if you have a wireless card in your laptop and a subscription to the relevant service.

Arrow Satellite could bring always-on downloads or broadcast Internet channels
A mass market satellite connection means having a dish on the exterior of the building for download and a normal telephone or some other connection for upload. Download speeds can be similar to ADSL or Cable modem but upload is limited to the dial-up speed. Two-way broadband satellite is now available across the UK but installation and running costs are relatively expensive when compared to ADSL or Cable.
The mass market is for Internet through a TV whether by satellite or other form of digital link. But home usage is likely to be different from business usage, and services may develop accordingly.

Arrow Leased lines for permanent connection with Quality of Service guarantees
This is the way corporate and specialist service or heavy user companies connect. They run servers that require high or guaranteed upload capacity, serving applications which are core or critical to their businesses. For most small businesses it is more economical to have servers co-located, or server applications hosted and possibly maintained by specialist companies. Remotely located servers can have operating systems and applications administered by you or your staff using a more economical Internet connection. An economical alternative to the traditional Leased Line could be an SDSL (Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line) connection, operating at 2Mbps in each direction, although these are likely to be limited by technological limitations and commercial viability to a radius of around 3km from major city centre exchanges.

Steps/processes
Use of the Internet enabled an order of magnitude improvement in the auto insurance coverage change business process cited above. Similarly, there are a number of other technologies that help in process improvement efforts like the Internet. Here are 10 of those technologies and examples that show how they are helping Lean improvement:
1. The Internet: Web portals have enabled organizations business processes from order entry to logistics to customer service to be performed from anywhere, anytime by their employees. In some cases, these organizations are making these portals available even for their end-customers on an around-the-clock basis, making it very convenient. It used to take a week or more for an application for a new credit card to be approved or rejected by a credit card company. Now, a consumer can apply for a credit card online and get an decision in seconds. A good question to ask in any Lean process improvement effort is: "Is there a way, the Internet can increase the process cycle efficiency for this business process?"
2. Wireless Connectivity: Many property and casualty insurance companies have rolled out wireless connectivity to claims adjusters that are on the road, especially in case of catastrophic events like the devastation wreaked by Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. In the absence of wireless connectivity, information about claims may be sent by paper back to a central office where someone enters the same information into a claims software system. Wireless connectivity has the potential of having the claims adjusters entering the information directly into the claims software system remotely, cutting days from the business process.
3. Automated Workflow Systems: Automated workflow systems cut down the time, work items wait in a queue for processing. Many business processes suffer from wasteful physical movement of paper from desk to desk. When a piece of paper reaches the next destination, it waits behind other work items that arrived before it. Automated workflow systems can keep the work items moving, raising alerts if work items have been waiting for too long a time, re-routing themselves to others if someone is busy, etc. They also provide visibility into exactly where the bottlenecks may be in a business process, enabling sane Lean process improvement efforts to smooth these out.
4. Scanning and Digitization: Computing and computer storage have become so inexpensive that many organizations scan and digitize most official documents that come in as paper. These may be legal documents or invoices from vendors of services, supplies, or raw material. Thereafter, it enables the circulation of these digital versions of these documents rather than wasteful movement of physical paper across the company. Digitization also enables processes to move geographically long distances effortlessly, enabling employees from geographically dispersed office locations to participate in the same workflow, for example.
5. Service-Oriented Architectures: If an organization is using the most up-to-date transportation companies to handle its shipping needs, it can initiate a delivery from it own corporate applications seamlessly. These shipping companies have made their backend software systems accessible to any organizations' software systems using service-oriented architectures (SOA). The SOA technology enables software systems in the same or disparate organizations talk to each other and exchange information automatically, without any human intervention. Many large corporations have realized enormous gains in process cycle efficiency in their supply chain business processes by allowing suppliers' and customers' software talk to their backend software systems using SOA. By enabling automatic exchange of data between organizations' computers in an electronic form, SOA eliminates wasteful and time-consuming exchange of paper and redundant entry of data in to multiple computer applications.
6. Document Management Systems: Document management systems allow an organization to execute business processes that require collaboration across geographies, and even continents. They allow two people in different cities or countries to work collaboratively on a business process by making sure the changes they make are done in an orderly fashion and nothing is lost during the collaboration. Document management systems allow the check-out of documents for editing and require checking them back in once they are done. Thus changes made by different people on the same document are not lost. In many business processes, this has the potential of eliminating waste due to motion and most importantly the quality of the collaboration involved. In the absence of such systems, more time may be expended in sending documents back and forth by e-mail and coordinating changes made to the same documents by different people.
7. Business Process Monitoring and Measurement: Lean process improvement efforts are usually highly targeted at certain steps of a business process. Pareto's principle applies to business processes also: 80 percent of the bottlenecks and improvement usually comes from 20 percent of the steps in a business process. Business process monitoring and measurement solutions may provide a good idea of where these bottlenecks are, and – more importantly – make sure that service levels needed by individual process steps are met fully so that the whole process works as required.
8. Business Process Management Systems: Business process management systems (BPMS) enable streamline and integrate different software systems that may be involved in a business process. By providing an overall framework for the business process, BPMS systems enable smooth flow of business processes across different departments, functions and backend software systems. They also provide monitoring and reports that can help a Lean process improvement effort with measurement before and after improvement efforts.
9. Business Rules Systems: Business rules systems enable the automation of wasteful manual activities in many business processes. For example, automobile insurance underwriters may have this simple business rule: "If the applicant is a male under 21 years of age and the car is a convertible, set the application apart for manual underwriting." Those cases that are not cover by this rule – or other rules which the company might institute – can automatically be approved or rejected by an automated system. The business rule system in this case enables the automation of an otherwise, wasteful and time-consuming, manual business process.
10. Online CRM Systems/Self-Service FAQ Systems: Many organizations have placed customer relationship management (CRM) systems online as part of their web site. A customer can login and create a trouble ticket online for a support or service request instead of talking to a customer support representative on the telephone. Many organizations are using self-service frequently asked questions (FAQ) sections on their web sites where customers can see if their problem has been faced by other customers, and what the solution was, in those cases. These systems enable the speed up of customer service and support processes. FAQ sections on company web sites may even eliminate service or support calls if they answered their questions or solved their service or support problem. They are convenient for end customers since they are available on the Internet, around the clock, providing even better service than when done manually by telephone.
Lean process improvement efforts have the goal of increasing process velocity and improving PCE. A number of new information technologies offer the promise of achieving these goals by their judicious and appropriate use. In some cases, these technologies have the potential of improving process velocity and efficiency by orders of magnitude. They do this by significantly cutting down waste in the form of unnecessary transportation, waiting and manual data entr

References
http://www.waco.tstc.edu/tel/tel_aas/index.php
http://www.isixsigma.com/library/content/c061211a.asp


Last edited by joverly gonzales on Sat Oct 17, 2009 4:13 pm; edited 1 time in total
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aeros salaga



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PostSubject: As IT Consultant   Mon Oct 05, 2009 5:40 am

If you were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved?


First let us identify each element of this topic:

IT Consultant

Job description:

An IT consultant works in partnership with clients, advising them how to use information technology in order to meet their business objectives or overcome problems. Consultants work to improve the structure and efficiency and of an organsiation's IT systems. IT consultants may be involved in a variety of activities, including marketing, project management, client relationship management and systems development. They may also be responsible for user training and feedback. In many companies, these tasks will be carried out by an IT project team. IT consultants are increasingly involved in sales and business development, as well as technical duties.

Tasks typically involve:

• meeting with clients to determine requirements;
• working with clients to define the scope of a project;
• planning timescales and the resources needed;
• clarifying a client's system specifications, understanding their work practices and the nature of their business;
• traveling to customer sites;
• liaising with staff at all levels of a client organization;
• defining software, hardware and network requirements;
• analyzing IT requirements within companies and giving independent and objective advice on the use of IT;
• developing agreed solutions and implementing new systems;
• presenting solutions in written or oral reports;
• helping clients with change-management activities;
• project managing the design and implementation of preferred solutions;
• purchasing systems where appropriate;
• designing, testing, installing and monitoring new systems;
• preparing documentation and presenting progress reports to customers;
• organizing training for users and other consultants;
• being involved in sales and support and, where appropriate, maintaining contact with client organizations;
• Identifying potential clients and building and maintaining contacts.

Reference: http://www.prospects.ac.uk/links/ITConsult/



Technology

Technology is a broad concept that deals with human as well as other animal species' usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt to its environment. Technology is a term with origins in the Greek technología (τεχνολογία) — téchnē (τέχνη), 'craft' and -logía (-λογία), the study of something, or the branch of knowledge of a discipline.[1] However, a strict definition is elusive; "technology" can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include "construction technology", "medical technology", or "state-of-the-art technology". The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons. Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms. Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology




Infrastructure

Infrastructure can be defined as the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, power grids, telecommunications, and so forth. Viewed functionally, infrastructure facilitates the production of goods and services; for example, roads enable the transport of raw materials to a factory, and also for the distribution of finished products to markets. In some contexts, the term may also include basic social services such as schools and hospitals. In military parlance, the term refers to the buildings and permanent installations necessary for the support, redeployment, and operation of military forces. In this article, infrastructure will be used in the sense of technical structures or physical networks that support society, unless specified otherwise.
The term infrastructure has been used since 1927 to refer collectively to the roads, bridges, rail lines, and similar public works that are required for an industrial economy, or a portion of it, to function. The term also has had specific application to the permanent military installations necessary for the defense of a country. Perhaps because of the word's technical sound, people now use infrastructure to refer to any substructure or underlying system. Big corporations are said to have their own financial infrastructure of smaller businesses, for example, and political organizations to have their infrastructure of groups, committees, and admirers. The latter sense may have originated during the Vietnam War in the use of the word by military intelligence officers, whose task it was to delineate the structure of the enemy's shadowy organizations. Today we may hear that conservatism has an infrastructure of think tanks and research foundations or that terrorist organizations have an infrastructure of people sympathetic to their cause. The Usage Panel finds this extended use referring to people to be problematic, however. Seventy percent of the Panelists find it unacceptable in the sentence FBI agents fanned out to monitor a small infrastructure of persons involved with established terrorist organizations.

Reference: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/infrastructure
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrastructure


Innovations

The term innovation refers to a new way of doing something. It may refer to incremental and emergent or radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations. Following Schumpeter (1934), contributors to the scholarly literature on innovation typically distinguish between invention, an idea made manifest, and innovation, ideas applied successfully in practice. In many fields, something new must be substantially different to be innovative, not an insignificant change, e.g., in the arts, economics, business and government policy. In economics the change must increase value, customer value, or producer value. The goal of innovation is positive change, to make someone or something better. Innovation leading to increased productivity is the fundamental source of increasing wealth in an economy. Innovation is an important topic in the study of economics, business, design, technology, sociology, and engineering. Colloquially, the word "innovation" is often synonymous with the output of the process. However, economists tend to focus on the process itself, from the origination of an idea to its transformation into something useful, to its implementation; and on the system within which the process of innovation unfolds. Since innovation is also considered a major driver of the economy, especially when it leads to increasing productivity, the factors that lead to innovation are also considered to be critical to policy makers. In particular, followers of innovation economics stress using public policy to spur innovation and growth.

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innovation

…in this situation, or in this moment I am already a professional IT personnel. If I am ask or hired by the president of the University to become an Information technology Consultant what are the thing I could suggest about all the elements said above to improve the Internet Connectivity of the University. On the Technology, as describe or as being identified above, I can say that it is very important or the heart of IT. Considering Technology as the main problem of the University, I could only say that we need to move our way of competency on the fashion of today’s world. We need to improve the technology of the University so that we can be in the flow of today’s world that we are living. We are dealing with internet connectivity of the University, and the question is, as an Information Technology consultant how can I improve it using Technology. Internet is a piece of technology, so therefore I can say that through satisfying the proper technology or improve the technology that the University have is a key to improve the internet connectivity of the University. Example, the University has a weak internet connection and the users are having a problem because the data that are transferred to the other domain are having a delay that would take much time, because of poor internet connectivity still problems arises. The solution of it by focusing on technology or the resources that the University, we just need to use the right facilities or resources in order to have a fast connectivity, if the University is using the coaxial cable for LAN connectivity to each users or offices of course as we measure the area of the University that device is not really recommendable, so we need to change the device use into a proper one such as fiber optic cable that can satisfy the area of the University and to have a faster internet connectivity, and also the main problem of poor connectivity is from the source of connection you are acquiring, so as a consultant I should recommend the faster internet connectivity source.
Next is by infrastructure, here are some example of discussing IT infrastructure, Investing in IT infrastructure is one of the most challenging tasks facing senior managers who often feel ill equipped to make these decisions. Investing in the right infrastructure at the right time enables rapid implementation of future electronically based business initiatives and cost reduction of current business processes. This paper presents a framework for senior executives to view IT infrastructure in business terms and to lead in making investment decisions. By studying 180 electronically based business initiatives in 89 top performing enterprises we identified the specific infrastructure capabilities needed for different types of business initiatives and how this capability is provided as an integrated IT infrastructure. An integrated IT infrastructure has ten clusters of IT infrastructure services fine tuned to the enterprise's set of electronically based business initiatives. Using the frameworks for describing IT based business initiatives, executives can identify the future family of initiatives (i.e., their desired strategic agility) the enterprise desires to lead their industry with. This is a process of strategic choice and balancing investing in longer-term agility with shorter-term cost minimization. Successful enterprises get this infrastructure balance right more often than not because they make regular, systematic modular and targeted investments while having a clear picture of their own overall infrastructure capability and how each incremental investment adds value. To lead on multiple dimensions in strategic agility required an integrated infrastructure with high capabilities in all infrastructure clusters and a deliberate approach to data management to manage conflicts. The paper concludes with a set of suggested steps to link an enterprise's desired strategic agility with the above average infrastructure capability needed. So being an IT consultant of the University I need to identify the infrastructure capabilities of the University if their infrastructure is capable of renovation or not.
Innovation, here is some article how innovation take place to improve a certain thing. “Mr. McGee said companies need “IT innovation of the third kind.” The first kind of IT innovation occurs when IT practitioners improve technical solutions to meet IT needs that were identified and initiated by IT people. This can be done through infrastructure modernization with faster Internet speeds, cheaper storage, or improved flexibility through virtualization. The second kind of IT innovation occurs when IT practitioners design innovative IT solutions to meet business needs that were identified and initiated by business people. This can achieved with more CRM channels, smarter business intelligence analytic tools, or better mobile devices. “The third kind of IT innovation takes place when IT practitioners design innovative IT solutions to meet business needs that were identified and initiated by IT people,” Mr. McGee said. “While innovation itself is the first imperative, focusing the value of IT to your organization over the coming years will require attention to five more imperatives.” The six imperatives for innovation of the third kind include: Innovate, Globalize, Connect, Socialize, Advance, and Industrialize.” Through innovation is much recommended to a certain company changes or company that needs improvement, as to our problem the poor internet connectivity of the University innovation or in other words “improvement, advancement and originality”, these things are very important to achieve you goals.
Other thing to do in order to satisfy the need of the University is the process of your work or the steps you are going through is very important so that by achieving your goals of your work it should be organized and well planned.
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PostSubject: Improving Internet Connectivity of the School   Tue Oct 06, 2009 6:06 pm

The popularity of internet really grows today. Wherever you go, in home, school or office, internet is very popular and is widely used by many people.

How does internet work? The Internet is based on a series of standard technical protocols which allow various computers located around the world to access specified files on other computers and then view those files. Specifically, the protocol in question is TCP/ IP. TCP/IP allows computes to describe data to one another over a network. Every computer hooked to the Internet understands these two protocols and so can communicate amicably. TCP/IP is, as that fancy little slash mark suggests, actually two separate things that work together. TCP - transmission control protocol - takes the information you want to send over the Internet and breaks it down into small chunks of data called "packets." IP - Internet Protocol - takes over and routes those packets through computers to get them to their destination. When the packets arrive at the destination computer, TCP reassembles them into something recognizable. These two protocols allow information to be addressed, routed, and reassembled. You use this technology every single time you use the web. There are other protocols involved too. STMP - simple, text mail protocol - works with e-mail. FTP - file transfer protocol - is essential for uploading and downloading files to and from other computers. That familiar http in your browser's location or address bar stands for hypertext transfer protocol. All of these protocols ensure that the computers attempting to communicate with each other - through e-mail or web pages or any other mechanism - understand each other. Your computer connects to an Internet Service Provider. You may be dialing up or you may be using high bandwidth method, such as DSL or cable, to connect. Your computer connects to your ISP's server. Once there, your ISP provides you with the gateway to connect to any other computer that has opened itself up to the world. When you type in a domain, that domain is translated into a number - the IP address - and you are taken to that specific computer. Once there, your web browser allows you to look at specific files. These files can include programming, text, pictures, sound, or video in various combinations.

In schools, internet is important especially for students in their researches. Almost all of the information today can be found in the World Wide Web. Here in University of Southeastern Philippines, internet is used by almost all of the students. They can go to the virtual library, or they can go the Computer Nodal located at the second floor Engineering Building to surf the web.

But there are some problems on the internet connectivity of the school. Sometimes, the internet is slow. Sometimes it cannot be accessed. These are some of the problems of the students on the internet connectivity of the school.


How to improve internet connectivity of the school?

Use fiber optic cable
Fiber-optic cable is a networking medium capable of conducting modulated light transmissions. Compared to other networking media, it is more expensive, however, it is not susceptible to electromagnetic interference and is capable of higher data rates than any of the other types of networking media discussed here. Fiber-optic cable does not carry electrical impulses, as other forms of networking media that employ copper wire do. Instead, signals that represent bits are converted into beams of light. Even though light is an electromagnetic wave, light in fibers is not considered wireless because the electromagnetic waves are guided in the optical fiber. The term wireless is reserved for radiated, or unguided, electromagnetic waves. Fiber-optic cable used for networking consists of two fibers encased in separate sheaths. If viewed in cross section, you would see that each optical fiber is surrounded by layers of protective buffer material, usually a plastic such as Kevlar, and an outer jacket. The outer jacket provides protection for the entire cable. Usually made of plastic, it conforms to appropriate fire and building codes. The purpose of the Kevlar is to furnish additional cushioning and protection for the fragile hair-thin glass fibers. Wherever buried fiber-optic cables are required by codes, a stainless steel wire is sometimes included for added strength. The light-guiding parts of an optical fiber are called the core and the cladding. The core is usually very pure glass with a high index of refraction. When the core glass is surrounded by a cladding layer of glass or plastic with a low index of refraction, light can be trapped in the fiber core. This process is called total internal reflection, and it allows the optical fiber to act like a light pipe, guiding light for tremendous distances, even around bends. More than one spectrum of light can be transmitted through the cable. Although this gives a higher bandwidth, it decreases the distance at which the cable can carry data.

Fiber optic systems have many attractive features. These include improved system performance, immunity to electrical noise, signal security, and improved safety and electrical isolation.
Other advantages include reduced size and weight, environmental protection, and overall system economy. Advantages of Fiber Optics
• System Performance
• Greatly increased bandwidth and capacity
• Lower signal attenuation (loss)
• Immunity to Electrical Noise
• Immune to noise (electromagnetic interference [EMI] and radio-frequency interference [RFI]
• No crosstalk
• Lower bit error rates
• Signal Security
• Difficult to tap
• Nonconductive (does not radiate signals)Electrical Isolation
• No common ground required
• Freedom from short circuit and sparks
• Size and Weight
• Reduced size and weight cables
• Environmental Protection
• Resistant to radiation and corrosion
• Resistant to temperature variations
• Improved ruggedness and flexibility
• Less restrictive in harsh environments
• Overall System Economy
• Low per-channel cost
• Lower installation cost

Router Maintenance

Routine maintenance is key in keeping a router in peak condition. Follow these steps to keep a router working properly.

Step 1: Take the Router Apart
Open the top of the router and take a picture before you start taking things apart. Detach the wires that connect the brushes to the motor and replace the brushes.
Step 2: Replace the Switch
To replace the switch, pull one wire off the old switch and put it in the same position on the new switch. Then, do the same with the second wire. This ensures that the right wire is going into the proper side of the power switch. Do not use pliers to pull on the wires.
Step 3: Eliminate Dust Inside the Router
Dust inside the tool can interfere with electrical contacts. Compressed air can sometimes blow too hard on delicate parts, so use a brush to gently dust the inside of the router.
Step 4: Make Sure All Parts Are in Good Shape
Check the collet. If it needs to be replaced, make sure to get the correct model that will fit your router. Next, check the base. If the base needs to be replaced, unscrew it and replace with a new one. If the base is still usable, but has a few scratches on it, rub the base lightly on a piece of sandpaper to smooth them out. Make sure to do this on a flat surface. Spray lubricant on the plunge rods. Wipe the excess lubricant off and check the action to make sure the router plunges smoothly. If it does not move freely, check the springs. They may need to be replaced.

Simple Steps:

1. Do some basic maintenance on your PC. Run Disk Defrag, a scan disk, a virus scan, a malware scan, and clear your recycle bin. An unusually slow Internet connection experience is often the only sign that your computer is infected with viruses or other malware. Delete old files and temporary files. Never allow the free space on your C: drive to be less than 10% of the total size or twice the installed RAM (which ever is larger). A well maintained PC will operate much better than a PC that has never had any maintenance. Google or your local computer repair store should be able to help you with this if you don't know how.
2. Reset Your Network. Sometimes restarting your network if you have one will drastically increase the speed of your connection.
3. Optimize your cache or temporary Internet files. These files improve your Internet connection performance by not downloading the same file over and over. When a web site puts their logo graphic on every page your computer only downloads it when it changes. If you delete the temporary files it must be downloaded again. if you disable the cache, it must be downloaded every time you view a page that uses it.
4. Never bypass your router. Most routers include a firewall that is very difficult for hackers to defeat. If you don't need to use Wireless then hook your computer directly to your router. Routers will only slow down your connection by a few Milli-seconds. You won't notice the difference but the hackers will.
5. If you are using a Wireless router, make sure it doesn't conflict with a cordless phone or wireless camera. Wireless routers come in two varieties; 802.11bg (2.4Ghz) or 802.11a (5.8Ghz) If you are using a 2.4Ghz Cordless phone and 2.4Ghz Wireless router then your Internet connection speed will slow while you use the cordless phone. The same is true of wireless security cameras. Check on your phone and camera, if it's 900Mhz then it's fine. If it says 2.4Ghz or 5.8Ghz then it could be the cause of your slow connection speed while they're in use.
6. Call your Internet service provider (ISP). Sometimes you just have bad service. They can usually tell if your connection is substandard without having a technician come to your home. Just be nice and ask.
7. Upgrade your computer. If your computer is slow, it doesn't matter how fast your Internet connection is, the whole thing will just seem slow. You can only access the Internet as fast as your PC will allow you to.
8. Replace your old cable modem. Any solid-state electronics will degrade over time due to accumulated heat damage. Your broadband modem will have a harder and harder time 'concentrating' on maintaining a good connection as it gets older (signal to noise ratios will go down, and the number of resend requests for the same packet will go up). An after-market cable modem as opposed to a cable-company modem will frequently offer a better connection.
9. Often your connection speed is slow because other programs are using it. To test if other programs are accessing the Internet without your knowing, Click Start, Click Run. Type "cmd" (without quotes). Type "netstat -b 5 > activity.txt". After a minute or so, hold down Ctrl and press C. This has created a file with a list of all programs using your Internet connection. Type activity.txt to open the file and view the program list. Ctrl Alt Delete and open up the Task Manager. Go to the process menu and delete those processes that are stealing your valuable bandwidth. (NOTE: Deleting processes may cause certain programs to not function properly)

Simple Tips:
• Call your ISP and have them verify all of your TCP/IP settings if you are concerned. Ask them to verify that your Proxy settings are correct.
• Don't expect dial up or high speed lite service to be fast. The Internet is primarily geared towards Broadband Connections. Sometimes, you have to wait a little.
• Download programs that make browsing faster
• Upgrade your RAM. This will not only improve your regular computer use, but it will affect the speed of your Internet connection because your computer works faster.
• Use the Stop button to stop loading pages once you've gotten what you want.
• Sometimes malware on your computer can eat up your bandwidth. Make sure you have an up-to-date malware protection program.

General good practices

There are several techniques that your users can implement on their own to help keep bandwidth utilisation to a minimum. While there is never a guarantee that users will completely comply with the techniques in this list, making them aware of these techniques will empower them to start making bandwidth management part of their daily routine. These techniques of network etiquette aren't really rules, so much as guidelines for being a good net neighbor.

Optimise your web browser

Every web browser includes options that will limit bandwidth usage. Some of these options include:

1. Disable bandwidth-hungry plugins like Java and Flash. Unless a particular site requires Java for access, it can simply be disabled. Since the vast majority of Java and Flash applications are simple animations, games, and videos, there is rarely any need to download them except for entertainment purposes. Use the HTML version of sites that include both HTML and Flash options. Note that many sites require the use of JavaScript, which is significantly smaller and faster than Java, and can usually be enabled without any noticeable speed penalty.
2. Disable automatic updates. While keeping your browser software up-to date is vitally important from a security point of view, updating in an ad-hoc and automatic way may waste significant bandwidth at peak times. While this can be sped up considerably using a good caching proxy or a local software update repository, simply disabling automatic updates immediately reduces background bandwidth usage. You must remember to manually update the software when the network is not busy in order to apply security patches and feature updates.
3. Increase the size of the local cache. If there are sufficient resources on the local machine, increase the browser size. More is generally better, but a cache of several hundred megabytes is usually reasonable.
4. Disable pop-ups. Pop-up windows are nearly always unwanted advertisements containing large images or flash movies, and will automatically consume significant amounts of unintentionally requested bandwidth. Popups can be disabled in all modern browsers. Well-coded sites that require pop-up windows for functionality will still work, and the user can always allow pop-ups on a case by case basis.
5. Use ad blocking software. By blocking ads before you download them, you can save bandwidth and reduce user frustration. Free and commercial ad blocking packages are available for every browser.
6. Install anti-spyware tools. Malicious sites may install spyware programs that consume bandwidth and introduce security problems. These attacks nearly always come through the web browser. Using a spyware detection and removal tool will keep these problems to a minimum.
7. Disable images. For many kinds of online work, graphical images may not be required. Since graphic files are considerably larger than HTML code, disabling the display of images (even temporarily) can significantly improve response time and reduce bandwidth use. If possible, configure your browser to only display graphics when explicitly requested.

Of course, the most effective bandwidth optimisation tool is simply refraining from requesting information that you don't need. The more you request from a busy network, the longer everyone will have to wait for their requests to be filled. Be considerate of your fellow network users, and your network will be healthier and faster.


http://www.wikihow.com/Maximize-the-Speed-of-Your-Internet-Connection
http://bwmo.net/pdf/bwmo-ebook.pdf
http://www.tpub.com/neets/tm/105-4.htm
http://www.fatetek.net/lessons/lesson23.shtml
http://www.techsoup.org/learningcenter/connections/archives/page10206.cfm
http://www.diynetwork.com/how-to/how-to-maintain-a-router/index.html
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Michelle Adlawan



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Oct 06, 2009 6:55 pm

It is not undeniable that the internet connectivity of the school is not really that good therefore the students and as well as the faculty and staff of the university cannot access internet connection without delay. The problem is caused by the infrastructure used by the university. IT infrastructure however is the particular form that Information Technology takes in an organization to achieve selected goals or functions.
Today, system requires an understanding of major islands or constellations of technologies: data processing systems, telecommunications, and office technologies. These islands of technology must be closely coordinated to easily track, plan and manage them. In addition, it would be easier to recognize problems and find system solutions using this new IT infrastructure.

The IT industry is so diverse and IT consultants perform such a variety of tasks that your career may develop into a number of different industries and sectors. And if I were hired as an IT consultant of the university, I would definitely improve the infrastructure used by the school. The information technology infrastructure consists of a mixture of computer hardware supplied by different vendors, including mainframes, PCs, and servers which are networked to each other. This new IT infrastructure of the university should be highly networked and promote the flow of information across the enterprise, incorporates public infrastructure, such as telephone systems, the Internet, and public network services and gives more processing power to the desktop through client/server computing and mobile personal information devices that provide remote access to the desktop from outside the organization.
As the first step of applying the new infrastructure of the university, the university should also drive into a new kind of technology to use. The suggested steps below are the first process in having good internet connectivity.


  • Ditch the modem.
The first tip is to get rid of the modem and move to ADSL. Broadband is available at low cost in most areas. The technicians in the school would visit keyword broadband to see if it's supported by his exchange. If he is on broadband he can probably skip the rest of the top tips because he'll be enjoying life rather than fretting about his connection speed.

  • Update drivers used in the university.
The network administrator of the university should perhaps be keen on the modem. Perhaps university’s fund is limited or he doesn't have ADSL in his area - read on. Driver files are updated regularly by most modem manufacturers. For some modems, he can also "flash upgrade" the software in the modem to provide the latest (and fastest) communications software. Even so, he should be sure the driver is right for his operating system.

  • Adjust the settings used in the university.
Host computers have some settings that may improve modem throughput. All data sent over the internet goes in data packets. The aim is to send packets that are as large as possible without them needing to be broken down into smaller packets which would slow down their connection speed.

  • Make use of FTP download wherever possible.
If students want to download files, they can often choose between FTP or HTML download. FTP, (File Transfer Protocol,) is much faster for file transfers so they should choose that when they can.

  • A high-speed port should be used.
The school most has really old computers, and this should surely be applied. The serial port may use an old slow chip called UART. The answer is to fit high speed serial port with a 16550 UART chip or to fit an internal modem which includes one of these beasties.

  • Use a download tool.
As I’ve observed, it is not likely for the students to choose to download something while they do their research in the school laboratories and the E-library of the university. The school’s computer technician needs the right tool to manage the reconnection.

  • Use a faster browser.
Once computer users have connected to Yahoo, they can start any browser and run it in a second window. Opera is one of the fastest so why not download a free copy and give it a test run?

  • Manage the computer cache.
Every time university offices use the internet, images and other files are downloaded onto machine’s hard disk. If a particular image or other file is needed in a subsequent session, it can be pulled from the disk faster than it could be downloaded again. They are kept in a "Temporary Internet Files" folder, often called Cache. When the folder is full, Windows deletes the oldest files. University employees can vary the size of this folder by visiting Control Panel and selecting Internet Options. If they increase it, then more files can be stored on hard disk but if they go too far, then a slow PC may spend too long searching cache. They'll need to experiment to find the right level for their computers and internet connection speed.

  • Define a blank homepage.
Each time students start a browser outside their Google window, the browser will go to the defined homepage. If this is slow, they should change the home page to a fast web site. If they are a real speed nut, set it to blank. To do this, go to Internet Options as above, and select Use Blank. Now their external browser is up and running in record time.

  • Avoid displaying images. Text only windows are much faster to download. Computer technicians can easily restore images when required. If they make these changes and they'll be cruising in the fast lane.


Internet plays a critical role in the new infrastructure. It is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standardized internet protocol suite (TCP/IP). It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables wireless connections and other technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail, in addition to popular services such as online chat, file transfer and file sharing, online gaming, and voice over internet protocol (VoIP) person-to-person communication via voice and video. This connectivity is a measure of how well computers and computer-based devices can communicate with one another and share information in a meaningful way without human intervention.

Technological development is the process of research and development of technology. If the school would adapt the change in its infrastructure in to a high distinguished one, there’s a chance that the school could become one of the good schools in the country with high IT infrastructure.



Sources:
Chapter 9 - The Internet and the New Information Technology Infrastructure, Management Information Systems, Eight Edition
http://www.broadbandinfo.com/





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basith_jumat



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sat Oct 10, 2009 7:04 pm

If I were hired as an IT consul;tant i would like to suggest the following for a benefits of the University..

• The Information Technology Consultant works with user groups to solve business problems with available technology including hardware,
software, databases, and peripherals. Services may include studying and analyzing systems needs; systems development; systems
process analysis, design, and re-engineering; feasibility studies; developing requests for proposals; evaluating vendor products and
making recommendations on selection. Enterprise support may require knowledge of business management, systems engineering operations research, and management engineering. Duties are performed at various levels within the defined category

• Probably focus your technical skills on predictable technologies: Microsoft server and desktop OSs, Microsoft Office software, e-mail platforms, and TCP/IP. Particularly ambitious IT consultants might add VoIP, Cisco, SonicWALL, and other network technologies to their plate, too.
But you may be missing a cash cow if you overlook Intuit products. The company recently reported a 9 percent increase in quarterly revenue vs. the third quarter 2008. With third quarter 2009 revenue of $1.4 billion, someone is buying Intuit products, and many of those people could be your clients.

• A consultant is a professional that provides expert advice in a particular domain or area of expertise such as accountancy, information technology, the law, human resources, marketing, medicine, finance or more esoteric areas of knowledge, for example engineering and scientific specialties such as materials science, instrumentation, avionics, and stress analysis. See related Certified Management Consultant and MBA.
• An expert in a specialized field brought in to provide independent professional advice to an organization on some aspect of its activities. A consultant may advise on the overall management of an organization or on a specific project, such as the introduction of a new computer system. Consultants are usually retained by a client for a set period of time, during which they will investigate the matter in hand and produce a report detailing their recommendations. Consultants may be established in business independently or be employed by a large consulting firm. Specific types of consultants include management consultants and internal consultants.

I would like to suggest the following for the Infrastructure which is the computer hardware and sofware infrastructure: Computers should be running at least Pentium-2.0Ghz w/48.8K modem. Computer technician would use different "internet software" ( pick and choose what works better ). Network technician would also use different operating systems ( WinXP or WinVista or Linux ). Host computers should upgrade to faster hardware ( Pentium 4, Dual Core, Core 2 Duo, AMD Sempron, AMD Athlon ) and upgrade to faster connection ( DSL or Full T1,T2 ).

University internet server needs to have a 24 hour dedicated connection to the internet and it should be internet server == a "unix machine" + firewall + router + phone lines to ISP. Another suggestion is to switch to a "better/faster/larger" ISP ( not the slow commercial online services ).

I would suggest the innovations in cable modem/router tweaking to improve university internet connection speed. All modems make it possible for established communications channels to support a wide variety of data communication. Similar to other modems, a cable modem receives and sends data by modulating and demodulating signals. However, cable modems differ from other modems because they also function like routers. Broadband Internet data is delivered into the home or office over a coaxial cable line that also carries television signals. The information travels like a TV channel through the coaxial cable line. The cable modem separates the data from the television signals and directs the data to the PC and video to the television.

Local traffic is the biggest speed cap that plagues cable modems or a source of a slow cable internet connection. Cable modems work on a network/grid that connects to a T3 router running at 45 Megabits per second. Depending on where computers placed, they could have a busy grid, or a not-so-busy one. Then there is Internet traffic. Network administrator’s best bet if he really needs the speed is to pick a time where not as many people are on. There is a noticeable difference in traffic between 2 AM and 6 PM.

There are a number of ways to improve the performance of university cable modem/router. Unlike old fashioned dial-up modems, there isn't a whole lot he can do to increase the speed of computer cable connection. He can tweak the way the broadband Internet cable connection sends the data/packets back and forth. If he is new to this whole thing, there are a number of programs that will automatically set the best values for the connection. Some of the most popular programs are EasyMTU, I-Speed, Intelli Dial-Up, Smartalec, Smartplay.

There’s also Web browser called Voyager 5000 made by Smartalec that’s much faster than regular Internet Explorer. Updating the drivers on computer’s (Network Interface Card) can give the most noticeable speed boost above everything else. Some good places to check for drivers would be: www.drivershq.com, www.download.com, and even www.altavista.com.

Improving university cable internet speeds with connection teaming is also an option. Midpoint has a feature called connection teaming. Connection teaming combines multiple connections to the Internet for increased bandwidth. Along with connection teaming, the software splits large files being downloaded into multiple smaller parts and downloads each part at the same time along each connection. Cable modem companies sometimes allow network technician to purchase additional IP address for a monthly fee. @Home does this for $5 per IP address. @Home caps the bandwidth per account, not IP address - but at the very least, it might increase the efficiency of internet connection and allow the throughput to closer reach the capped maximum speed.
On a very basic level, host computer’s performance also affects the Internet performance as well. If university computer isn't running at its best, neither will the broadband Internet connection.

VOICE OVER IP-INTERNET TELEPHONY

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is a technology used for sending sound via network based on IP protocol, which is e.g. Internet. It allows for integration of telephony and data transmission into one net thanks to treating sound as an ordinary stream of data. This technology is more and more often perceived as an alternative to casual telephone networks due to its numerous advantages. VoIP enables making phone calls also to subscribers who do not have Internet and use traditional telephone network or a mobile.

The basic principle of the technology\'s operation is relatively simple, namely the speech signal is transferred to digital representation, it undergoes compression with a proper codec and then it is divided into packets and sent via IP protocol. Many new technologies are used here, including logical elements and special protocols. Logical elements are necessary for, among others, managing notifications and storing information on it, routing packets etc. New protocols are mainly signal protocols, which means that they are used for making connections and multimedia sessions, determining user\'s location, translation of addresses, negotiations of parameters of the notification link, disconnecting and managing notifications, billings and realizations of safety mechanisms. At present two main protocols are used for VoIP, namely H.323 and SIP.

H.323 Protocol
The first version of the protocol was adopted over 10 tears ago, namely in 1996, the second one in 1998. It belongs to the family of H.32x protocols, which describe multimedia connections inside various networks:
H.320 - narrow-band digital networks ISDN
H.321 - broad-band digital networks ISDN and ATM
H.322 - packet networks with guaranteed band
H.323 - packet networks with no guaranteed band
H.324 - analogue POTS networks

All of these protocols support various sets of audio and video codecs, depending on the band made available in the network. They can operate with transmission control (TCP) or without it (UDP), where in VoIP connections no control protocols are used due to additional delays. H.323 supervises the process of sending multimedia data in packet networks, performing this task in real time. Components of H.323 precisely define how particular components of the system, operating according to the protocol, initiate multimedia sessions and how working posts exchange compressed audio and video data between themselves. H.323 supervises processes of sending multimedia data in packet networks, performing this task in real time. Architecture of telephone IP network, base on H.323 standard, consists of four basic elements: terminals, gatekeepers, gateways and MCU (Multipoint Control Units).
Terminals are clients who have the possibility of initiation and receiving notifications. They are also used for sending and receiving two-way stream of data. A terminal can be both, software operating on a PC and a special device designed for this purpose. All terminals should make carrying out a telephone conversation possible, while data or video service is optional.
Gatekeepers manage the so-called zone, which is a collection of terminals, gateways and MCU. H.323 standard divides the net into these zones. Notifications inside a net are managed by a gatekeeper. Inter-zone notifications can engaged many gatekeepers. A gatekeeper, when present in the net, supervises the course of all telephone conversations carried out in a zone. Its basic tasks are the following: control of the available band, routing notifications, receiving, refusing notifications in a zone, translation of addresses and user authorization. Gatekeeper is also an interface to other H.323 networks. A \"gatekeeper\" is an optional element of the network but if it is present in a given subnetwork, then the terminals can use it.
A gateway is responsible for connecting the telephone IP network to other types of network. For example, a gateway can connect H.323 network with SIP, PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) or ISDN networks. The gateway must provide an interface of real time between various transmission formats and communication procedures. Moreover, it is responsible for establishing and disconnecting connections in both connected networks. The gateway must therefore have mechanisms converting various formats at its disposal and it must operate networks based on various technologies. MCU runs conferences in which at least three end points participate. An MCU unit manages conference resources, runs negotiations between end points (agreeing on, for instance, the method of encoding audio and video data) and it can steer streams of packets containing multimedia data. MCU consists of two basic elements: Multipoint Controller (MC) and optionally a few Multipoint Processors (MP). MC is responsible for exchange of information and for negotiation of communication parameters between the end points, it runs H.255.0 signaling MP is among others responsible for mixing various multimedia data, format translations and eventual redistribution of streams from users.

What is very often possible is integration of network elements in one physical device. For example, functionality of a gatekeeper can be combined with functionality of a gateway and an MCU or an MCU can be built into the terminal so as to make conference connections possible without additional devices.


LINUX ROUTER
Everything takes place in Linux environment (distribution practically does not matter but personally I recommend Slackware). I presume that people reading this article are equipped with basic knowledge on compilations, patching and software installation in Linux systems and that they are familiar with basic principles of working with packet filter iptables and a tool for queuing tc. The following elements influence the system so that it manages the band properly:

- linux kernel in version 2.6.15.x
- patch to linux kernel -2.6.14-imq6.diff
- patch to kernel esfq-kernel.patch
- latest iptables (1.3.5 currently)
- patch for the iptables iptables-1.3.0-imq1.diff
- ipp2p module for iptables
- packet iproute2
- patch for iproute2 esfq-iproute2.patch

I suggest installation of the software in the above-stated order. Kernel 2.6.x is much more stable than series 2.4.x. The above configuration was tested by me on a big group of routers (10 ) and it has been working perfectly well. Needles to say, in Linux, you can only limit the output movement from a given interface with tc (Traffic Control). What we need then is a virtual mediation interface (the so-called IMQ) to which the Input movement should be redirected (the so-called Input). Thanks to such an operation, the input movement could be limited as output movement from a virtual IMQ. Obviously, queuing of solutions can be done without IMQ but I do not recommend this method because it is based up feigning packets, which makes later classification and prioritization impossible. I need to say a few more words on the interfaces. No network card based on Realtek\'s chipset should be used (especially RTL 8319), as they are devices designed for working posts and they lose work stability when there are more connections, which is manifested in an increase of the \'pings\' and in many other awkward phenomena. Instead of them I recommend cards based upon Intel Pro or 3com.
Another aspect is the ESFQ mechanism (Enhanced Stochastic Fair Queuing) for the WAN router. In comparison to the traditionally used SFQ mechanism, it enables just division of links with a view to connections from the source and target address (hash src, hash dst - upload, download to WAN). Thanks to this, we are able to make WAN interfaces totally independent from LAN interfaces. Briefly speaking - no queuing is necessary for LAN, the whole movement will be justly separated between them. All of the above solutions refer obviously to HTB mechanism (Hierarchic Token Bucket).

The University must ensure that the networks are maintained by their IT personnel and or technicians and the connection is monitored from time to time.

Today's networks have a significant impact on our lives - changing the way we live, work, and play. Computer networks - and in a larger context the Internet - allow people to communicate, collaborate, and interact in ways they never did before. We use the network in a variety of ways, including web applications, IP telephony, video conferencing, interactive gaming, electronic commerce, education, and more.

What are the benefits of networking? In a network, information and resources can be shared. This brings a number of advantages: You can share expensive peripherals, such as printers. In a network, all the computers can access the same printer. You can pass data between users without using floppy disks. Transferring files over the network eliminates time wasted copying files onto a floppy disk and then onto another PC. Also, there is less restriction on the size of file that can be transferred over a network. You can centralize key computer programs, such as finance and accounting. Often users need to access the same program so they can work on it simultaneously. One example would be a ticket booking office system where it would important to prevent a ticket being sold twice. You can institute automatic file backup. A computer program can be used to back up key files automatically, saving time and ensuring that all your work is safe.

In a Wide Area Network, information and resources can be shared over a greater geographical area. This brings a number of advantages: You can send and receive e-mail from all over the world, communicating messages and announcements to many people, in many different areas, quickly and inexpensively. You can transfer files to and from colleagues in other locations, or access the company network from home. You can access the vast resources of the Internet and the World Wide Web.

Internet has great effects in every people on earth that makes the people saw the as the useful tool for basically information for news, events, browsing for people and for history and many more. Internet has changed the way we communicate with our loved ones across the country because it offers more benefit than the old communication technologies. In education Internet has become a virtual assistant for students who wants research be done easily and hassle free.

http://www.cio.com/article/131600/The_Role_of_IT_in_Innovation_Friend_or_Foe_/4
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Michael George Guanzon



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PostSubject: assign #6   Mon Oct 12, 2009 8:48 am

Let me define first the following ,Internet,technology,innovation and infrastructure this can help us to have an idea what we are going to suggest and recommend to the said problem which is on how to improve the Internet connectivity.

Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. In addition it supports popular services such as online chat, file transfer and file sharing, gaming, commerce, social networking, publishing, video on demand, and teleconferencing and telecommunications.

Technology
is a broad concept that deals with human as well as other animal species' usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt to its environment. Technology is a term with origins in the Greek technología (τεχνολογία) — téchnē (τέχνη), 'craft' and -logía (-λογία), the study of something, or the branch of knowledge of a discipline.[1] However, a strict definition is elusive; "technology" can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include "construction technology", "medical technology", or "state-of-the-art technology".

Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.

Infrastructure can be defined as the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, [1] or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. [2] The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, power grids, telecommunications, and so forth. Viewed functionally, infrastructure facilitates the production of goods and services; for example, roads enable the transport of raw materials to a factory, and also for the distribution of finished products to markets. In some contexts, the term may also include basic social services such as schools and hospitals.

Innovation
refers to a new way of doing something. It may refer to incremental and emergent or radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations. Following Schumpeter (1934), contributors to the scholarly literature on innovation typically distinguish between invention, an idea made manifest, and innovation, ideas applied successfully in practice. In many fields, something new must be substantially different to be innovative, not an insignificant change, e.g., in the arts, economics, business and government policy. In economics the change must increase value, customer value, or producer value. The goal of innovation is positive change, to make someone or something better. Innovation leading to increased productivity is the fundamental source of increasing wealth in an economy.

Innovation is an important topic in the study of economics, business, design, technology, sociology, and engineering. Colloquially, the word "innovation" is often synonymous with the output of the process.


If I were hired by the university president as an IT consultant,I would suggest infrastructure in order to improve Internet connectivity..

With the increase in the ease of computer technology, Internet service providers have also upgraded their systems. Traditionally, users connected via dial-up to the Internet, but with high-speed Internet connectivity available to many areas, cable, wireless, DSL and satellite have replaced the old phone-line connection. With these new, faster connections, Internet technology can keep up with computer technology, allowing large files to be moved through the Web at speeds up to 6 megabytes per second.

ISP

An Internet service provider (ISP, also called Internet access provider, or IAP) is a company that offers its customers access to the Internet. The ISP connects to its customers using a data transmission technology appropriate for delivering Internet Protocol datagrams, such as dial-up, DSL, cable modem, wireless or dedicated high-speed interconnects.ISPs may provide Internet e-mail accounts to users which allow them to communicate with one another by sending and receiving electronic messages through their ISP's servers. (As part of their e-mail service, ISPs usually offer the user an e-mail client software package, developed either internally or through an outside contract arrangement.) ISPs may provide other services such as remotely storing data files on behalf of their customers, as well as other services unique to each particular ISP.

End-User-to-ISP Connection


ISPs employ a range of technologies to enable consumers to connect to their network.
For users and small businesses, the most popular options include dial-up, DSL (typically Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, ADSL), broadband wireless, cable modem, fiber to the premises (FTTH), and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) (typically basic rate interface).
For customers with more demanding requirements, such as medium-to-large businesses, or other ISPs, DSL (often SHDSL or ADSL), Ethernet, Metro Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN (BRI or PRI), ATM, satellite Internet access and synchronous optical networking (SONET) are more likely to be used.

Typical home user connection:

* Dial-up
* DSL
* Broadband wireless access
* Cable Internet
* FTTH
* ISDN
* Wi-Fi

Typical business type connection

* DSL
* SHDSL

Ethernet technologies
Locality
When using a dial-up or ISDN connection method, the ISP cannot determine the caller's physical location to more detail than using the number transmitted using an appropriate form of Caller ID; it is entirely possible to e.g. connect to an ISP located in Mexico from the USA. Other means of connection such as cable or DSL require a fixed registered connection node, usually associated at the ISP with a physical address.
ISP Interconnection
Just as their customers pay them for Internet access, ISPs themselves pay upstream ISPs for Internet access. An upstream ISP usually has a larger network than the contracting ISP and/or is able to provide the contracting ISP with access to parts of the Internet the contracting ISP by itself has no access to.
In the simplest case, a single connection is established to an upstream ISP and is used to transmit data to or from areas of the Internet beyond the home network; this mode of interconnection is often cascaded multiple times until reaching a Tier 1 carrier. In reality, the situation is often more complex. ISPs with more than one point of presence (PoP) may have separate connections to an upstream ISP at multiple PoPs, or they may be customers of multiple upstream ISPs and may have connections to each one of them at one or more point of presence.
An ISP makes it possible for clients to access the Internet. School, universities and institutions are some examples, although most ISPs are commercially owned. Comcast, Netscape, EarthLink, NetZero, Verizon and Qwest are examples of ISPs. These companies can provide dial-up, cable modem, DSL, wireless or satellite Internet connectivity.

Cable

A cable is two or more wires or ropes running side by side and bonded, twisted or braided together to form a single assembly. In mechanics, cables are used for lifting and hauling; in electricity they are used to carry electrical currents. An optical cable contains one or more optical fibers in a protective jacket that supports the fibers. Mechanical cable is more specifically called wire rope.

Electrical cables

Electrical cables may be made more flexible by stranding the wires. In this process, smaller individual wires are twisted or braided together to produce larger wires that are more flexible than solid wires of similar size. Bunching small wires before concentric stranding adds the most flexibility. Copper wires in a cable may be bare, or they may be coated with a thin layer of another material: most often tin but sometimes gold, silver or some other material. Tin, gold, and silver are much less prone to oxidisation than copper, which may lengthen wire life, and makes soldering easier. Tight lays during stranding makes the cable extensible (CBA - as in telephone handset cords).
Cables can be securely fastened and organized, such as by using cable trees with the aid of cable ties or cable lacing. Continuous-flex or flexible cables used in moving applications within cable carriers can be secured using strain relief devices or cable ties. Copper corrodes easily and so should be layered with Lacquer.
At high frequencies, current tends to run along the surface of the conductor and avoid the core. This is known as the skin effect. It may change the relative desirability of solid versus stranded wires.

Cables and electromagnetic fields

Any current-carrying conductor, including a cable, radiates an electromagnetic field. Likewise, any conductor or cable will pick up energy from any existing electromagnetic field around it. These effects are often undesirable, in the first case amounting to unwanted transmission of energy which may adversely affect nearby equipment or other parts of the same piece of equipment; and in the second case, unwanted pickup of noise which may mask the desired signal being carried by the cable, or, if the cable is carrying power-supply or control voltages, pollute them to such an extent as to cause equipment malfunction.

The first solution to these problems is to keep cable lengths short, since pick up and transmission are essentially proportional to the length of the cable. The second solution is to route cables away from trouble. Beyond this, there are particular cable designs that minimise electromagnetic pickup and transmission. Three of the principal design techniques are shielding, coaxial geometry, and twisted-pair geometry.

Shielding makes use of the electrical principle of the Faraday cage. The cable is encased for its entire length in foil or wire mesh. All wires running inside this shielding layer will be to a large extent decoupled from external electric fields, particularly if the shield is connected to a point of constant voltage, such as ground. Simple shielding of this type is not greatly effective against low-frequency magnetic fields, however – such as magnetic "hum" from a nearby power transformer.

Coaxial design helps to further reduce low-frequency magnetic transmission and pickup. In this design the foil or mesh shield is perfectly tubular – ie., with a circular cross section – and the inner conductor (there can only be one) is situated exactly at its centre. This causes the voltages induced by a magnetic field between the shield and the core conductor to consist of two nearly equal magnitudes which cancel each other.
The twisted pair is a simple expedient where two wires of a cable, rather than running parallel to each other, are twisted around each other, forming a pair of intertwined helices. This can be achieved by putting one end of the pair in a hand drill and turning while maintaining moderate tension on the line. Field cancellation between successive twists of the pair considerably reduces electromagnetic pickup and transmission.
Power-supply cables feeding sensitive electronic devices are sometimes fitted with a series-wired inductor called a choke which blocks high frequencies that may have been picked up by the cable, preventing them from passing into the device.

Electrical cable types
Basic cable types are as follows:

* Coaxial cable
* Multicore cable (consist of more than one wire and is covered by cable jacket)
* Ribbon cable
* Shielded cable
* Single cable (from time to time this name is used for wire)
* Twisted pair
* Twisting cable

Cable has some of the highest Internet speeds available for homeowners, with speeds between 4 and 6 Mbps. Comcast and Time Warner can also provide higher speeds, up to 16 Mbps, but are only available in certain areas and cost more. Comcast's PowerBoost technology, featuring fiber optic upgrades, has enhanced some area's speeds up to 20 Mbps. Digital cable TV providers usually bundle their digital TV cable services with digital cable Internet services.

DSL

DSL (digital subscriber line) is a family of technologies that provide digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network.
Verizon and AT&T provide DSL Internet, which is usually available from the phone company providing your house with phone services. DSL Internet connectivity is not as fast as cable but has lower prices and can still be a reliable alternative when cable is not available. Both Verizon and AT&T offer different packages with different speeds as well as useful extras such as personal homepages, email and web space.

Wireless

Wi-Fi (pronounced /ˈwaɪfaɪ/) is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance for certified products based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. This certification warrants interoperability between different wireless devices.
In some countries (and in this article) the term Wi-Fi[1][2] is often used by the public as a synonym for IEEE 802.11-wireless LAN (WLAN).

Not every IEEE 802.11 compliant device is certified by the Wi-Fi Alliance, which may be because of certification costs that must be paid for each certified device type. The lack of the Wi-Fi logo does not imply that a device is incompatible to certified Wi-Fi-devices.Wi-Fi is used by most personal computer operating systems, many video game consoles, laptops, smartphones, printers, and other peripherals.

The Wi-Fi Alliance promotes standards in order to improve the interoperability of wireless local area network products based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. It is a consortium of separate and independent companies, and agrees on a set of common interoperable products based on the family of IEEE 802.11 standards.[9] The Wi-Fi Alliance certifies products with a set of defined test procedures. The manufacturers with membership of Wi-Fi Alliance and whose products pass these tests can mark their products and packaging with the Wi-Fi logo.

A Wi-Fi enabled device such as a PC, video game console, mobile phone, MP3 player or PDA can connect to the Internet when within range of a wireless network connected to the Internet. The coverage of one or more interconnected access points — called a hotspot — can comprise an area as small as a single room with wireless-opaque walls or as large as many square miles covered by overlapping access points. Wi-Fi technology has served to set up mesh networks, for example, in London.[17] Both architectures can operate in community networks.

High-speed wireless connectivity is a more recent technology that allows laptops, cell phones and mobile devices the same speeds as desktop computers plugged into a cable or DSL line. WiMax, a wireless broadband service provider, claims that it can increase connection speed to laptops, phones and home use up to 7 Mbps, better than some cable and DSL connections. Hotspots that feature wireless ISPs such as airports, Internet cafes and public areas continue to increase in number.

Satellite

a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavor. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon.

The first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched by the Soviet Union in 1957. By 2009 thousands of satellites had been launched into orbit around the Earth. These originate from more than 50 countries and have used the satellite launching capabilities of ten nations. A few hundred satellites are currently operational, whereas thousands of unused satellites and satellite fragments orbit the Earth as space debris. A few space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.

Satellites are used for a large number of purposes. Common types include military (spy) and civilian Earth observation satellites, communication satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and research satellites. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit.

Satellites are usually semi-independent computer controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, telemetry, attitude control and orbit control.

Types of satellites

* Anti-Satellite weapons/"Killer Satellites" are satellites that are armed, designed to take out enemy warheads, satellites, other space assets. They may have particle weapons, energy weapons, kinetic weapons, nuclear and/or conventional missiles and/or a combination of these weapons.

* Astronomical satellites are satellites used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects.

* Biosatellites are satellites designed to carry living organisms, generally for scientific experimentation.

* Communications satellites are satellites stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern
communications satellites typically use geosynchronous orbits, Molniya orbits or Low Earth orbits.


* Miniaturized satellites are satellites of unusually low weights and small sizes.[12] New classifications are used to categorize these satellites: minisatellite (500–100 kg), microsatellite (below 100 kg), nanosatellite (below 10 kg).

*Navigational satellites are satellites which use radio time signals transmitted to enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location. The relatively clear line of sight between the satellites and receivers on the ground, combined with ever-improving electronics, allows satellite navigation systems to measure location to accuracies on the order of a few meters in real time.

* Reconnaissance satellites are Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications.Very little is known about the full power of these satellites, as governments who operate them usually keep information pertaining to their reconnaissance satellites classified.

* Earth observation satellites are satellites intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. (See especially Earth Observing System.)


* Space stations are man-made structures that are designed for human beings to live on in outer space. A space station is distinguished from other manned spacecraft by its lack of major propulsion or landing facilities — instead, other vehicles are used as transport to and from the station. Space stations are designed for medium-term living in orbit, for periods of weeks, months, or even years.

* Tether satellites are satellites which are connected to another satellite by a thin cable called a tether.
Weather satellites are primarily used to monitor Earth's weather and climate.[13]

* Satellite ISPs, useful for those who require high-speed Internet but are operating out of range of DSL and cable ISPs, can provide speeds up to 5 Mbps. Cable and DSL will usually be faster, more reliable and cheaper than satellite connections. Satellite should be a last option if no other Internet is available.


CableSolve R5

Cormant Technologies packs a lot of power and intelligence in Cable Solve R5 to provide end to end management and documentation of the network connectivity and infrastructure to manage, track, and audit IT assets and cabling while providing portable records through a Pocket PC Handheld device. Cablesolve R5 manages your cabling and It assets for increased employee productivity, reduced downtime , and increased cost savings.

Increase Wireless Signal Strength

Wireless connectivity has become critical to business and personal applications dependent on the internet. In order to facilitate instant access and improve network performance, it is essential to increase the signal strength...

Wireless internet access has facilitated quick and easy access to a global audience for business or personal pursuit. The speed with which you connect via the range and signal strength available largely determines the success of your online venture. Within the otherwise anonymous web world, it is essential to tap the potential of various components involved in the connectivity.

The strength of the wireless signal is very essential to capitalize on, through this medium of communication. Increased signal strength assures greater and timely communication between end points. The connectivity could be vital to business or a personal pursuit. The scope to lose out on important information is limited and critical to any related endeavor. A weak signal is indicated via:

* Slow connectivity that is not in sync with the actual design-performance.
* Regular loss of connectivity that hampers important work.

There are ways and means of increasing wireless signal strength, to extend the wireless range and improve dedicated network performance. There are a number of steps that can be implemented as part of home or office improvement, to improve overall performance of the connectivity adopted. It is important to identify the core components of the gadgetry and adopt the remedial measures and correct the signal strength in time. A little research on this arena goes a long way. The commonly adopted remedies include:

Identification and Access the Central Access Point:

You should identify a central location for the wireless router. The common observation is that the router fitted against any external surface will transmit weak signals. Preferably choose a big flat office or home space for the router set up, in order to ensure equal distribution of signal radiation over the desired area.

Select Router Placement:

Always look for an alternative to the floor, metal objects and file cabinets. These constructions interfere with the wireless signal strength.

Antenna Check:

Most antennas are omni-directional and hence most of the time, due to internal and external obstructions, they result in wasted signals. There are restrictions on the power output also. You can consider an investment in a hi-gain antenna. The hi-gain wireless signals are accessed and transmitted from a single direction and you get to choose the direction with optimum value.

Adapter Check:

The wireless network signals are ideally routed to and from the computer. However, in the absence of a good adapter, the router will be able to transmit strong signals to reach the computer, but the machine may not be able to re-transmit signals of equal strength. You could opt out of a card-based adapter and invest in a USB network adapter. The latter uses an antenna that is external. The increased range makes a huge difference to the signal strength and computer networking.

Consideration of a Repeater:

A repeater extends the network range, without a wire mess. The optimal placement is between the access point and the computing machine. The presence of a repeater instantly upgrades wireless signal strength.

Selection of a Clearer Channel:

Typically, the wireless router transmits signals on several different channels of varying clarity. You should consider changing the router channel and configuration for an improved signal strength.

Upgrade Firmware/Adapter Driver:

Router improvements come with every upgrade. Likewise, the network adapters are also updated to communicate with the adapter or driver more effectively. You should keep yourself well informed about such updates and use them for improved performance.


Consider an Extender:

Consider the use of a powerline extender instead of the ethernet cable. Once it is plugged into the router and the power socket, it provides instant access to increased signal strength.




References:

http://www.ehow.com/about_5132980_high-speed-internet-connectivity.html?ref=fuel&utm_source=yahoo&utm_medium=ssp&utm_campaign=yssp_art
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/how-to-increase-wireless-signal-strength.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_service_provider
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emilio jopia jr.



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PostSubject: MIS Assignment 6   Tue Oct 13, 2009 1:18 am

If I were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, what would I suggest in order for the internet connectivity be improved?

In order to improve the internet connectivity of university, the following factors should be considered:

Hardware
If computer is slow, it doesn't matter how fast your Internet connection is, the whole thing will just seem slow. You can only access the Internet as fast as your PC will allow you to. By replacing the hardware, with a newer or better version, in order to bring the system up to date or to improve its characteristics. Common hardware upgrades are installing additional memory (RAM), adding larger hard disks, replacing microprocessor cards or graphics cards, and installing new versions of software, although many other upgrades are often possible as well. Although upgrades are for the purpose of improving a product, there are risks involved—including the possibility that the upgrade will worsen the product. When hardware is upgraded, there is a risk that it will not be compatible with other pieces of hardware in the system. For example, an upgrade of RAM may not be compatible with existing RAM in the computer. Other hardware components may not be compatible after either an upgrade or downgrade, due to the non-availability of compatible drivers for the hardware with a specific operating system.


Type of Internet Connection
Broadband is often called "high-speed" Internet, because it usually has a high rate of data transmission.
Broadband is the transmission capacity with sufficient bandwidth to permit combined provision of voice, data and video. According to ITU report, it refers to DSL and cable modem services with band width greater than 128kbps in at least one direction. In determining the speed connection we should determine the bandwidth of internet type subscribe by the university. Bandwidth is the range of frequencies available to be occupied by signals. In analogue systems it is measured in terms of Hertz (Hz) and in digital systems in bit/s per second (bit/s), the higher the bandwidth, the greater the amount of information that can be transmitted in a given time.

Maintenance
Computer maintenance can include running a disk defrag, scanning disk, virus scanning, malware scanning, and clearing recycle bin. An unusually slow Internet connection experience is often the only sign that computer is infected with viruses or other malware. Delete old files and temporary files. Never allow the free space on C: drive to be less than 10% of the total size or twice the installed RAM (which ever is larger). A well maintained PC will operate much better than a PC that has never had any maintenance. You can google or your local computer repair store should be able to help you with this if you don't know how.



The use of Internet Speed Boosters
One way to improve internet speed is to use a internet speed booster software . It is indeed the solution for great power and web speed as it is capable of installing tweaks that lead to improved connection speed regardless of its nature - Dialup, LAN or DSL. It also monitors your computer silently in the background for processes that have been ended improperly, offering methods to free up unused virtual memory.
Boosting can be very helpful in speeding up internet connection. Like active speed, which dramatically improves any home or office Internet connection, including dial-up modems of any speed, and high-speed connections such as cable modems, DSL, ISDN, T-1, LAN, etc. It works with all Internet services, including AOL and local ISPs.



DSL and Cable Broadband Speed Tweaks

So-called broadband speed tweaks are techniques to improve performance of DSL and cable Internet connections. Home networking enthusiasts started experimenting with cable and DSL tweaks many years ago, when broadband Internet services first became popular.
Performance tweaks for low-speed (dialup) Internet often do not work for broadband links. Additionally, while broadband speed tweaks originally focused on increasing the performance of general Web surfing, speed tweaks are now more commonly made to tune specific applications like P2P file sharing systems and games.
Limitations of Broadband Speed Tweaks
First, broadband tweaks should be made only after your network is tested and running reliably. Speed tweaks are performance optimizations only, not designed to fix installation errors or basic network configuration issues.
You should expect broadband tweaks might yield only small speed increases, and then only in certain situations. For example, a tweak to improve the performance of one online game may only benefit that title and then only initially when it is loading. Broadband tweaks may help certain applications like games but at the same time slow down others like Web browsing. In general, assume any performance benefits you obtain may be on the order of 10-20% gain rather than 100-200%.
Finally, speed tweaks also can create instability on some networks. Depending on the type of equipment and Internet service you use, some tweaks will be technically incompatible and need to be avoided.

About Web Accelerators for Broadband Tweaks
Speed tweaks have been traditionally applied to the network by an administrator manually, one device at a time, but in recent years software applications have been developed to help automate and maintain tweaks.
So-called Internet download accelerators are pre-packaged software programs that automatically apply speed tweaks to a computer. Installing and running an accelerator program will automatically make the Registry, Web browser and other configuration changes. The more sophisticated applications collect information about your computers and network and apply tweaks intelligently to ensure maximum benefit.
While many Web accelerators are designed specifically for dialup networks, examples of accelerator applications useful for broadband are:
• Download Accelerator Plus
• Google Web Accelerator
• Netfury
• ONSPEED


Here are some tips on how to improve the internet connection

1 Ditch your modem. The first tip is to get rid of your modem and move to ADSL. Yes, broadband is available at low cost in most areas. Visit keyword broadband to see if it's supported by your exchange. If you are on broadband you can probably skip the rest of our top tips because you'll be enjoying life rather than fretting about your connection speed.
2 Update your drivers. Ah - still here? You must love your modem! Perhaps cash is limited or you don't have ADSL in your area - read on.
Driver files are updated regularly by most modem manufacturers. For some modems, you can also "flash upgrade" the software in the modem to provide the latest (and fastest) communications software. Even so, you should be sure the driver is right for your operating system. To find the latest drivers, just enter the modem details into a search engine such as aolsearch.aol.co.uk/ or www.google.co.uk with the word "driver". So, to find drivers for a USR Sportster modem, enter "USR Sportster driver" and follow any instructions on how to install it. You can check your current modem drivers from Control Panel. With Windows XP, Select Start | Control Panel | Phone and Modem Options | Modems | Properties | Drivers.
3 Surf when the yanks are in their PJs - the internet is much faster if the rest of the world is asleep. Try surfing while eating your bowl of breakfast corn flakes. It's much more bracing!
4 Tweak your settings. Your PC has some settings that may improve modem throughput. All data sent over the internet goes in data packets. The size of these packets is the Maximum Transmission Unit or MTU. The aim is to send packets that are as large as possible without them needing to be broken down into smaller packets which would slow down your connection speed. A modem user, should set the (MTU) to 1500, the RWIN multiplier to 10 and Time to Live to 35. Download Tweak-Me or Tweak-XP to get this done for automatically you.
5 Use FTP download wherever possible. If you want to download files, you can often choose between FTP or HTML download. FTP, (File Transfer Protocol,) is much faster for file transfers so you should choose that when you can.
6 Use a high speed port. This'll only apply to readers with really old computers. The serial port may use an old, slow chip called a UART. The answer is to fit a high speed serial port with a 16550 UART chip or to fit an internal modem which includes one of these beasties.
7 Use a download tool. There's nothing more frustrating than losing a connection near the end of a one hour download. The good news is that most downloads are resumable which means they can be restarted from where the connection failed. You need the right tool to manage the reconnection - one of the best is shareware Getright. Getright also searches for the fastest download sites and splits the download between several sites with the downloads running in parallel for the maximum possible download speed.
8 Use a faster browser. Once you've connected to AOL, you can start any browser and run it in a second window. Opera is one of the fastest so why not download a free copy and give it a test run?
9 Manage your cache. Every time you use the internet, images and other files are downloaded onto your hard disk. If a particular image or other file is needed in a subsequent session, it can be pulled from the disk faster than it could be downloaded again. They are kept in a "Temporary Internet Files" folder, often called Cache. When the folder is full, Windows deletes the oldest files.
You can vary the size of this folder by visiting Control Panel and selecting Internet Options. If you increase it, then more files can be stored on hard disk but if you go too far, then a slow PC may spend too long searching cache! You'll need to experiment to find the right level for your PC and internet connection speed.
10 Define a blank homepage. Each time you start a browser outside your AOL window, the browser will go to the defined homepage. If this is slow, you should change the home page to a fast web site. If you are a real speed nut, set it to blank. To do this, go to Internet Options as above, and select Use Blank. Now your external browser is up and running in record time.
#1 Don't display images. Text only windows are much faster to download. You can easily restore images when required. Here's how to set whether to display images: From Internet Options (see above) select the Advanced tab. Scroll down until you see the multimedia section, then select or deselect "Show pictures." Select Apply then OK to save your change.
Make these changes and you'll be cruising in the fast lane!

How to Improve Your Broadband Connection over a LAN line

Broadband Connection Speed
The only thing better than a fast broadband Internet connection, is a faster broadband Internet connection
. Broadband Internet speed tests allow you to measure your current broadband speed against that of faster broadband Internet connections. There are various programs and software packages that you can purchase through which you can increase the speed of your Internet connection. You can also make adjustments to the hardware components (Upgrade processor speed and memory levels) of your system maximizing your computer’s broadband connection potential.

If you’re not looking to purchase additional software / hardware add-ons, there are manual “tweaks” that you can make to your system through which you can boost your broadband speed.
Increasing Your Broadband Internet Speed

Let’s assume that you access the Internet via a broadband LAN line. The following are 3 examples of ways through which you can manipulate your network settings and increase your broadband speed:

Reduce your network latency by increasing the request buffer size

Tests of LAN broadband connections have shown that delays can be caused as a result of the default request buffer size setting of 4356 decimal. As it is, it has been proven that an increase to a 16384 decimal setting can allow for better performance. (Such an increase is only possible if you have the necessary memory) By utilizing this slight “tweak,” you can noticeably increase your Internet speed and broadband networking capabilities.

Altering your network task scheduler
If you’ve encountered long waits when trying to open network folders, then this “tweak” is for you. One of the default settings with broadband networking is that when you open a network folder, your system performs a test of the networked computer in order to search for scheduled tests. By disabling this option for a LAN connection, you can increase your broadband networking speed.

Increasing your network transfer rate
Transfer rate, also referred to as throughput, refers to the speed at which data can be moved from 1 location to another. Network redirector buffers serve the purpose of optimizing your disk performance, and therefore allowing for the fastest possible broadband networking speed. If you increase the number of network redirector buffers functioning on your system, you could greatly increase your throughput. An Internet speed test following this change will yield noticeable results.

References:
http://www.ehow.com/how_4602240_improve-internet-connection-speed-free.html
http://compnetworking.about.com/od/speedtweaks/Network_Speed_Tweaks_Connection_Speed.htm
http://www.computing.net/answers/networking/improve-my-internet-connection/16768.html
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athina alorro



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Oct 13, 2009 5:04 am

If you were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved?

Improve hardware specifications

The internet speed, and the speed in which you load websites is primarily up to your internet connection. However, if the website requires third-party programs to be utilized (ex: Java, Flash Player, etc.) than the ease and speed in which those programs are initiated is dependent on the speed of your processor, as well as the amount of RAM memory you have available. Changing the hardware components of the components into let’s say from 256 MB RAM to 1 GB RAM can improve the internet connectivity by increasing higher processing and memory.

In addition to connection upgrade, campus units should upgrade existing network equipment. Specifically, this involves replacing old “network hubs” with the more modern “network switches” which will further improve network performance within university.

Proper bandwidth allocation

The initial solution to the slow speed internet access would be increasing bandwidth allocation for all the computers that shares internet connection ( pretty much all the computers in the virtual library and nodal ). However, if the bandwidth is not properly allocated, the increase in internet speed would still not be felt by the majority of users. Therefore, if there is an increase in bandwidth, there should also be proper allocation of the bandwidth equally to all the computers that is used for internet connectivity in the university.


Malware, Spyware and Viruses

Sometimes the files students download from the Internet, can contain harmful software that can slow the Internet connection of the particular computer that the student is using. Viruses can be also coming from students themselves through their flash disks or create those viruses on the computer itself using applications that are already on the computers such as C and Visual Fox Pro.

This problem can be solve by enabling real-time protection, as well as automatic updates on all of your spyware and virus scanning programs, so a vast majority of these types of infections can be detected and removed immediately.

Use faster but safe internet browsers..
Since most internet browsers are freewares (meaning they can be downloaded and used for free) why not use the latest internet browser that offers faster browsing speed?

Here is an excerpt from this website SITE:

“ Using a resolution of 1920x1200 and no other applications open, the Peacemaker benchmark saw which was the fastest browser. After the dust settled, Apple's Safari 4.0 beta was clearly in the lead and was found to be over six times faster than the slowest browser, Microsoft's Internet Explorer 7.0. It should be pointed out that SeaMonkey 2.0 Alpha 3 did very well and offers significant improvements over SeaMonkey 1.1.14. Firefox 3.1 beta 3 was just released this afternoon and it offers better performance than the previous beta. Google Chrome and Opera were at the top of the performance list as well.

Based on the review made by Peacemaker benchmark, I would suggest using Apples’s Safari 4.0 instead of using Internet Explorer or Firefox as internet browsers for the computers in our virtual library and nodal in order to speed up the internet connection.
It can be a little confusing to most students at first but once they would get the hang of it and noticed the faster internet connectivity speed then it would be a win win situation.

Use Proxy servers such as Wingate

What is a proxy server and how does it improved the internet connection?

In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application program) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. One of the functions of proxy servers is caching. A caching proxy server accelerates service requests by retrieving content saved from a previous request made by the same client or even other clients. Caching proxies keep local copies of frequently requested resources, allowing large organizations to significantly reduce their upstream bandwidth usage and cost, while significantly increasing performance.

Because of those benefits, I suggest using proxy servers such as WinGate in order to improve the internet connection of the school.

WinGate Proxy Server will share most types of Internet connection, allowing multiple users to simultaneously surf the web, retrieve their email, or use other internet programs, as if they were directly connected to the Internet. Whether it is a simple dialup modem or high speed fibre, WinGate Proxy Server can help to make the most out of the connection. WinGate Proxy Server supports a wide variety of Internet protocols, allowing applications such as Web browsers, messaging software, FTP and SSL. WinGate Proxy Server also supports DirectPlay Internet games and Real Time Streaming Audio/Video.

WinGate offers Control Internet Access. With WinGate Proxy Server's user database and policies, administrators can limit and control user access to the Internet. With logging, auditing, and a real time activity and history viewer, detailed records of user activities can be easily examined. This makes WinGate Proxy Server ideal for companies, schools, Internet cafes or any environment where Internet access needs to be monitored closely.
WinGate also offer Built-in Security. WinGate Proxy Server comes with a built-in packet-inspecting firewall. Your network safety can be further enhanced with optional plug-in components, available seperately, which will scan incoming data for viruses, or filter out inappropriate content in web traffic.



Use internet speed booster freeware such as Robust Internet Speed Booster 4.2.0.0


With the advent of freewares, why not use quality freewares such as the Robust Internet Speed Booster 4.2.0.0 in order to improve the internet connectivity. This kind of software are not that heavy on the memory of the computer itself (especially if the hardware and memory components are already upgraded..hehe) .Boost and optimize the speed of your Internet connection with this set of tools. Internet Speed Booster is a utility to help you keep your system healthy and responsive. This program is a package of 3 utilities, a network pinger - which prevents you from being disconnected by your ISP (Internet Service Provider) with. full control over the Ping interval, host, and sound. Internet Speed Booster - optimizes the way your Windows PC can send and receive information across the Internet in real time to prevent fragmentation of data transfers. Free Mem utility - allows you to free physical memory or RAM on your computer. Just select a target amount of free memory and click the Optimize button. You can also schedule it to automatically optimize RAM when it falls below a certain target level. While the actual maximum transfer speed of your Internet connection cannot be changed except by upgrading your hardware, Internet Speed Booster can increase the performance of your existing modem/network hardware by optimizing Windows modem/network settings to maximize the efficiency of your current hardware. By default, your Windows PC does not manage Internet connections as optimally as possible. Internet Speed Booster allows you to change certain Windows Registry settings that affect Internet connection speed through a simple, intuitive interface, boosting your Internet performance. It's the easiest, fastest way to boost your connection speed. Best of all...it' free!
Features:
1)Offers more than 200 Windows operating systems registry tweaks
2)Boost overall performance and data transfer rates up to 500%
3)You can choose manual or automatic configuration settings
4)All connection types are supported (Cable, LAN,DSL,ISDN,T1,T2,T3 Satellite and Dial-Up), as are all software and hardware adapters.
5)Easily restore your default Windows settings with the included back-up option 6)Comprehensive help file with definitions of various terms and settings is included.

Source:
http://legitreviews.com/article/929/1/
http://3d2f.com/programs/32-629-robust-internet-speed-booster-download.shtml
 http://www.wingate.com/products/wingate/index.php
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Sarah Jean Tisara



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Oct 13, 2009 5:18 am

If you were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved? (3000words)

Arrow If I were hired by the University President as an IT consultant, I would suggest innovation in order for the internet connectivity be improved since Internet connection is an important factor for communication. It is really relevant to the students and also for all the people inside the campus. It is the fastest way to communicate, send files, and work within the campus. So why I would suggest innovation? Innovation refers to a new way of doing something. It may refer to incremental and emergent or radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations.

Working online nowadays has a far wider meaning than just surfing to while away your time. There are a lot more reasons to log on to the internet and be in touch with the rest of the world. This stresses the importance of good connectivity all the more. It is important to compare broadband deals which are available so as to obtain the most suitable deal with the best connectivity to suit your needs.

The necessity of being net-savvy has grown manifold in the past years. People of every country all over the world have started to expand their horizons by connecting to the internet. To keep track of all such developments in the world of technology, it is important that you too keep in touch too. Getting cable or DSL connections for the net can be a task which involves many hassles. The best way to be net savvy now is to obtain broadband internet which provides you superb bandwidth and great downloading speed too.

By comparing all the deals that are available, you can make sure that only the best deal is secured by you. This will help you get the best connection to log on to the net with good speed and bandwidth and that too at the lowest of prices. Compare broadband deals on the internet itself and choose the one which suits you the best.

With the increase in the provision of broadband services that it becomes all the more necessary to compare broadband deals which are available. Internet, phone and television connections are made available by the same provider and the cost too is low. It does not mean that a cheap cost service provider will get you the best of connectivity. This is what the consumers have to compare before taking up the broadband deal and make sure only the services of the best in the industry are obtained.

Compare broadband deals online and only then make a decision of the service provider for internet. The right choice of the service provider will make it easier for you to always keep in touch.
Broadband Internet access, often shortened to just broadband, is a high data rate Internet access—typically contrasted with dial-up access using a 56k modem.

Dial-up modems are limited to a bitrate of less than 56 kbit/s (kilobits per second) and require the full use of a telephone line—whereas broadband technologies supply more than double this rate and generally without disrupting telephone use.
Although various minimum bandwidths have been used in definitions of broadband, ranging up from 64 kbit/s up to 2.0 Mbit/s, the 2006 OECD report is typical by defining broadband as having download data transfer rates equal to or faster than 256 kbit/s, while the United States (US) Federal Communications Commission (FCC) as of 2009, defines "Basic Broadband" as data transmission speeds exceeding 768 kilobits per second (Kbps), or 768,000 bits per second, in at least one direction: downstream (from the Internet to the user’s computer) or upstream (FROM the user’s computer to the Internet). The trend is to raise the threshold of the broadband definition as the marketplace rolls out faster services.

Programs of organizational innovation are typically tightly linked to organizational goals and objectives, to the business plan, and to market competitive positioning.
For example, one driver for innovation programs in corporations is to achieve growth objectives. As Davila et al. (2006) note,
"Companies cannot grow through cost reduction and reengineering alone . . . Innovation is the key element in providing aggressive top-line growth, and for increasing bottom-line results"
In general, business organisations spend a significant amount of their turnover on innovation i.e. making changes to their established products, processes and services. The amount of investment can vary from as low as a half a percent of turnover for organisations with a low rate of change to anything over twenty percent of turnover for organisations with a high rate of change.
The average investment across all types of organizations is four percent. For an organisation with a turnover of say one billion currency units, this represents an investment of forty million units. This budget will typically be spread across various functions including marketing, product design, information systems, manufacturing systems and quality assurance.
The investment may vary by industry and by market positioning.
One survey across a large number of manufacturing and services organisations found, ranked in decreasing order of popularity that systematic programs of organizational innovation are most frequently driven by:
1. Improved quality
2. Creation of new markets
3. Extension of the product range
4. Reduced labor costs
5. Improved production processes
6. Reduced materials
7. Reduced environmental damage
8. Replacement of products/services
9. Reduced energy consumption
10. Conformance to regulations
These goals vary between improvements to products, processes and services and dispel a popular myth that innovation deals mainly with new product development. Most of the goals could apply to any organisation be it a manufacturing facility, marketing firm, hospital or local government.
There are two fundamentally different types of measures for innovation: the organizational level and the political level. The measure of innovation at the organizational level relates to individuals, team-level assessments, private companies from the smallest to the largest. Measure of innovation for organizations can be conducted by surveys, workshops, consultants or internal benchmarking. There is today no established general way to measure organizational innovation. Corporate measurements are generally structured around balanced scorecards which cover several aspects of innovation such as business measures related to finances, innovation process efficiency, employees' contribution and motivation, as well benefits for customers. Measured values will vary widely between businesses, covering for example new product revenue, spending in R&D, time to market, customer and employee perception & satisfaction, number of patents, additional sales resulting from past innovations. For the political level, measures of innovation are more focussing on a country or region competitive advantage through innovation. In this context, organizational capabilities can be evaluated through various evaluation frameworks, such as those of the European Foundation for Quality Management. The OECD Oslo Manual (1995) suggests standard guidelines on measuring technological product and process innovation. Some people consider the Oslo Manual complementary to the Frascati Manual from 1963. The new Oslo manual from 2005 takes a wider perspective to innovation, and includes marketing and organizational innovation. These standards are used for example in the European Community Innovation Surveys.
Other ways of measuring innovation have traditionally been expenditure, for example, investment in R&D (Research and Development) as percentage of GNP (Gross National Product). Whether this is a good measurement of Innovation has been widely discussed and the Oslo Manual has incorporated some of the critique against earlier methods of measuring. This being said, the traditional methods of measuring still inform many policy decisions. The EU Lisbon Strategy has set as a goal that their average expenditure on R&D should be 3 % of GNP.
The Oslo Manual is focused on North America, Europe, and other rich economies. In 2001 for Latin America and the Caribbean countries it was created the Bogota Manual
Many scholars claim that there is a great bias towards the "science and technology mode" (S&T-mode or STI-mode), while the "learning by doing, using and interacting mode" (DUI-mode) is widely ignored. For an example, that means you can have the better high tech or software, but there are also crucial learning tasks important for innovation. But these measurements and research are rarely done.
A common industry view (unsupported by empirical evidence) is that comparative cost-effectiveness research (CER) is a form of price control which, by reducing returns to industry, limits R&D expenditure, stifles future innovation and compromises new products access to markets.[8] Some academics claim the CER is a valuable value-based measure of innovation which accords truly significant advances in therapy (those that provide 'health gain') higher prices than free market mechanisms. Such value-based pricing has been viewed as a means of indicating to industry the type of innovation that should be rewarded from the public purse. The Australian academic Thomas Alured Faunce has developed the case that national comparative cost-effectiveness assessment systems should be viewed as measuring 'health innovation' as an evidence-based concept distinct from valuing innovation through the operation of competitive markets (a method which requires strong anti-trust laws to be effective) on the basis that both methods of assessing innovation in pharmaceuticals are mentioned in annex 2C.1 of the AUSFTA.
I also suggest that the university will use high end computer devices to perform the task faster. Upgrade the speed of the internet, or change the internet connection to a better one.
The Internet is a worldwide network comprising government, academic, commercial, military and corporate networks. The Internet was originally used by the US military, before becoming widely used for academic and commercial research. Users accessing the Internet can read and download data from almost anywhere in the world. You can communicate across the Internet using Internet e-mail.

In order to connect to the Internet, use e-mail and access the World Wide Web you must obtain and set up a modem. This allows the PC to access the Internet over a telephone line, or obtain a LAN Modem to provide WAN access to several people simultaneously on your LAN. This will allow several PCs to share a single connection to the Internet. Obtain an Internet account from an Internet Service Provider or ISP. An ISP is a company that can provide access to the Internet and give you an Internet e-mail address. You then access the Internet by using your modem to dial into the ISP server. Obtain and install a web browser. This allows you to view web pages as well as send and receive e-mail.

For High speed internet connection the university must subscribe a net connection in form of broadband, DSL type of connection with the highest speed feature. Broadband is the transmission capacity with sufficient bandwidth to permit combined provision of voice, data and video. According to ITU report, it refers to DSL and cable modem services with band width greater than 128kbps in at least one direction. In determining the speed connection we should determine the bandwidth of internet type subscribe by the university. Bandwidth is the range of frequencies available to be occupied by signals. In analogue systems it is measured in terms of Hertz (Hz) and in digital systems in bit/s per second (bit/s), the higher the bandwidth, the greater the amount of information that can be transmitted in a given time. High bandwidth channels are referred to as broadband which typically means 1.5/2.0 Mbit/s or higher. So if the connections int the laboratories increases more bandwidth is needed.
The first versions of Ethernet used coaxial cable to connect computers in a bus topology. Each computer was directly connected to the backbone. These early versions of Ethernet were known as Thicknet, (10BASE5) and Thinnet (10BASE2).

10BASE5, or Thicknet, used a thick coaxial that allowed for cabling distances of up to 500 meters before the signal required a repeater. 10BASE2, or Thinnet, used a thin coaxial cable that was smaller in diameter and more flexible than Thicknet and allowed for cabling distances of 185 meters.

The ability to migrate the original implementation of Ethernet to current and future Ethernet implementations is based on the practically unchanged structure of the Layer 2 frame. Physical media, media access, and media control have all evolved and continue to do so. But the Ethernet frame header and trailer have essentially remained constant.

The early implementations of Ethernet were deployed in a low-bandwidth LAN environment where access to the shared media was managed by CSMA, and later CSMA/CD. In additional to being a logical bus topology at the Data Link layer, Ethernet also used a physical bus topology. This topology became more problematic as LANs grew larger and LAN services made increasing demands on the infrastructure.

The original thick coaxial and thin coaxial physical media were replaced by early categories of UTP cables. Compared to the coaxial cables, the UTP cables were easier to work with, lightweight, and less expensive.

The physical topology was also changed to a star topology using hubs. Hubs concentrate connections. In other words, they take a group of nodes and allow the network to see them as a single unit. When a frame arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all the segments on the LAN receive the frame. Using the hub in this bus topology increased network reliability by allowing any single cable to fail without disrupting the entire network. However, repeating the frame to all other ports did not solve the issue of collisions. Later in this chapter, you will see how issues with collisions in Ethernet networks are managed with the introduction of switches into the network.

By the way, Ethernet was invented by Xerox Corporation and developed jointly by Xerox, Intel, and Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and is a widely used LAN technology.

To innovate the LAN Technology is also a great help for the University.


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Ma.AnnKristineTomada



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PostSubject: ASSignment 6   Tue Oct 13, 2009 12:16 pm

If you were hired by the university as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved?

One of the problems the students of this university is the slow and crawling internet connection. It takes a long time for us student to surf in internet for our projects, assignments, researches and references for our reports. The students are really affected with this, searching is time consuming. If you are to think students are paying php 200+ for internet fee during enrollment but they never make use of this internet access account because of slow connection that they end up wasting time. Instead, they choose to go outside the campus and search for and internet café that are affordable.

If the university hired me as an IT consultant, to address this problem with the internet connectivity I would suggest that the university should thoroughly plan whatever solution that the university is planning to the improvement of the internet connection of the computer present to the university. This would benefit to all student who do their school works.

The first thing that the university takes on consideration is the monetary fund. We definitely need for budget to address this dilemma.

With this, for the university won’t bother on putting large amount of money to be spent for the budget. I would suggest this steps I have searched that would improve the connection of internet in our laboratories.

Below are some simple troubleshooting and steps to boost the internet connection.

1. How to Speed Up an Internet Connection

Some of the following suggestions can be tried on the spot; others are more complex. a
Step 1
Configure your browser so it won't display graphics, animations, sound, video or other multimedia content .
Step 2
Use your cache effectively. "Cache" refers to storage space where your recently visited Web sites are saved. You may need to resize your cache allotment, or you may need to purge your cache periodically. Look through your browser's menus for items named Cache, Temporary Internet files and so on.
Step 3
Upgrade your modem. 56.6 kb/s modems are the fastest telephone modems available.
Step 4
Consult with your service provider to ensure that your modem is configured correctly.
Step 5
Replace your telephone modem with a fast-access connection such as wave, ISDN, DSL, satellite, a cable modem and so on.

2. How to Fix a Slow Internet Connection

A slow Internet connection can be extremely frustrating especially to us student when we are working online. If happens, the university would contact a computer technician, but they will most likely charge the university a large amount of money to just look the computers. To avoid repair costs, there are some simple tricks that can be imparted to the students and can try on their own to fix a slow Internet connection.
Step 1
Run a virus scan on your computer. If your virus and spyware protection are up-to-date, the scan will detect any offenders and remove them from your computer.
Step 2
Unplug your modem and wait a minute. Many times resetting a modem will fix the slow Internet connection.
Step 3
Perform a system restore on your computer. This allows you to undo any harmful changes that you have made to your computer that could be causing the slower Internet.
Step 4
Free up space on your hard drive. Routinely removing temporary Internet files and programs that you no longer use will help keep your computer running efficiently.
Step 5
Test your connection. Many Internet providers will allow you to use their site to check to make sure that there is not a problem with your connection.

Tips & Warnings

• You can also try a new Internet browser to improve your Internet's speed. Many people have found that switching to Mozilla Firefox from Internet Explorer has helped.
• Contact a computer technician if none of these steps have fixed the problem

3. How to Make Your Internet Connection Faster

Try these following steps help in order to speed it up Internet connectivity.
Step 1
Some websites like to install cookies or save their webpages to your computer for later access. Sometimes, these cookies or saved pages can actually slow down your internet. To clean these off your computer, click on the tools tab and find "internet options." Delete all offline content, and you should hopefully see a marked increase in speed.
Step 2
The next step is to remove spyware and adware that could be slowing down your computer. Find any free spyware program online and install it. Run it once, but make sure that you update the definitions every time you use it. Otherwise, it becomes out of date and doesn't recognize new spyware.
Step 3
If your internet is still really slow, you could try disabiling graphics on your browser and just view the text of webpages. Websites won't look the same, but all the data will still be displayed. Load times will be greatly reduced, but so will visual quality.

4. To Maximize the Speed of Internet Connection
How you can maximize the speed of your internet connection speed without using any wen accelerators:

Steps:
• Do some basic maintenance on your PC. Run Disk Defrag, a scan disk, a virus scan, a malware scan, and clear your recycle bin. An unusually slow Internet connection experience is often the only sign that your computer is infected with viruses or other malware.
• Delete old files and temporary files.
• Never allow the free space on your C: drive to be less than 10% of the total size or twice the installed RAM.
• Sometimes restarting your home network if you have one will drastically increase the speed of your connection.
• Optimize your cache or temporary Internet files. These files improve your Internet connection performance by not downloading the same file over and over. When a web site puts their logo graphic on every page your computer only downloads it when it changes. If you delete the temporary files it must be downloaded again. if you disable the cache, it must be downloaded every time you view a page that uses it.
• Never bypass your router. Most routers include a firewall that is very difficult for hackers to defeat. If you don't need to use Wireless then hook your computer directly to your router.
• Check on your phone and camera, if it's 900Mhz then it's fine. If it says 2.4Ghz or 5.8Ghz then it could be the cause of your slow connection speed while they're in use.
• Upgrade your computer. If your computer is slow, it doesn't matter how fast your Internet connection is, the whole thing will just seem slow.
• Replace your old cable modem. As it gets older, signal to noise ratios will go down, and the number of resend requests for the same packet will go up.
• Often your connection speed is slow because other programs are using it. So check the unwanted programs in Process Tab in Task Manager.

With the suggestions and tips if all users of the internet laboratory would know this basic knowledge on trouble shooting in internet connection problems they would apply it and able to fix it on their own.

Next topic i would discuss is about the causes of internet connection to disconnect. With this issue we are able to address this problem.

What Causes High Speed Internet Connections to Disconnect?

Nothing can be more frustrating than having problems connecting to the Internet with your high speed connection. We will find that there are common issues that can affect your connectivity, and most are usually resolved with some basic troubleshooting. If we continue to suffer disconnection issues frequently, contact our high speed Internet service providers to determine how to fix the problem.



IP Address Issues

If your IP address is not configured correctly to work with your high speed ISP, you can have problems getting on the Internet. In Windows, you can type "ipconfig /all" into the command prompt in order to view the IP address assigned to your computer. This number should match the one provided by your Internet service provider. If it does not, this could be the reason you are experiencing the connection problems.

Internet Connection Disabled


Another common cause of disconnection when using a high speed Internet service is the connection has been disabled on your PC. To determine if this is the issue, open "Network Connections" from the "Control Panel" on your Windows OS. You can view your different Internet connections on this page. If your broadband connection displays a status of "Disabled," right click on the icon. Select "Enable" from the menu to restore the connection.

Ethernet Cable and Card Problems

If you receive an error message that states "Network Cable Unplugged," this indicates that the PC cannot detect the connection to your broadband router. Try a different Ethernet cable to see if your current one is faulty. Resetting the modem can also sometimes help resolve this issue. A malfunctioning Ethernet card can also cause high speed Internet connection issues.

Router Issues

A problem with your broadband router can also cause you to disconnect from the Internet. Any type of red indicator light appearing on the router lets you know that the connection has been interrupted. Check all of the cables leading into the router, as well as reset the device to determine the problem.

Considerations
Although we may experience high speed Internet connection issues, dial up connections are more likely to disconnect frequently from the web. Dial up modems take longer to access a connection, and can often experience problems if they are unable to detect a dial tone.
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Ma.AnnKristineTomada



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PostSubject: ASSignment 6   Tue Oct 13, 2009 12:24 pm

If you were hired by the university as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved?

One of the problems the students of this university is the slow and crawling internet connection. It takes a long time for us student to surf in internet for our projects, assignments, researches and references for our reports. The students are really affected with this, searching is time consuming. If you are to think students are paying php 200+ for internet fee during enrollment but they never make use of this internet access account because of slow connection that they end up wasting time. Instead, they choose to go outside the campus and search for and internet café that are affordable.

If the university hired me as an IT consultant, to address this problem with the internet connectivity I would suggest that the university should thoroughly plan whatever solution that the university is planning to the improvement of the internet connection of the computer present to the university. This would benefit to all student who do their school works.

The first thing that the university takes on consideration is the monetary fund. We definitely need for budget to address this dilemma.

With this, for the university won’t bother on putting large amount of money to be spent for the budget. I would suggest this steps I have searched that would improve the connection of internet in our laboratories.

Below are some simple troubleshooting and steps to boost the internet connection.

1. How to Speed Up an Internet Connection

Some of the following suggestions can be tried on the spot; others are more complex. a
Step 1
Configure your browser so it won't display graphics, animations, sound, video or other multimedia content .
Step 2
Use your cache effectively. "Cache" refers to storage space where your recently visited Web sites are saved. You may need to resize your cache allotment, or you may need to purge your cache periodically. Look through your browser's menus for items named Cache, Temporary Internet files and so on.
Step 3
Upgrade your modem. 56.6 kb/s modems are the fastest telephone modems available.
Step 4
Consult with your service provider to ensure that your modem is configured correctly.
Step 5
Replace your telephone modem with a fast-access connection such as wave, ISDN, DSL, satellite, a cable modem and so on.

2. How to Fix a Slow Internet Connection

A slow Internet connection can be extremely frustrating especially to us student when we are working online. If happens, the university would contact a computer technician, but they will most likely charge the university a large amount of money to just look the computers. To avoid repair costs, there are some simple tricks that can be imparted to the students and can try on their own to fix a slow Internet connection.
Step 1
Run a virus scan on your computer. If your virus and spyware protection are up-to-date, the scan will detect any offenders and remove them from your computer.
Step 2
Unplug your modem and wait a minute. Many times resetting a modem will fix the slow Internet connection.
Step 3
Perform a system restore on your computer. This allows you to undo any harmful changes that you have made to your computer that could be causing the slower Internet.
Step 4
Free up space on your hard drive. Routinely removing temporary Internet files and programs that you no longer use will help keep your computer running efficiently.
Step 5
Test your connection. Many Internet providers will allow you to use their site to check to make sure that there is not a problem with your connection.

Tips & Warnings

• You can also try a new Internet browser to improve your Internet's speed. Many people have found that switching to Mozilla Firefox from Internet Explorer has helped.
• Contact a computer technician if none of these steps have fixed the problem

3. How to Make Your Internet Connection Faster

Try these following steps help in order to speed it up Internet connectivity.
Step 1
Some websites like to install cookies or save their webpages to your computer for later access. Sometimes, these cookies or saved pages can actually slow down your internet. To clean these off your computer, click on the tools tab and find "internet options." Delete all offline content, and you should hopefully see a marked increase in speed.
Step 2
The next step is to remove spyware and adware that could be slowing down your computer. Find any free spyware program online and install it. Run it once, but make sure that you update the definitions every time you use it. Otherwise, it becomes out of date and doesn't recognize new spyware.
Step 3
If your internet is still really slow, you could try disabiling graphics on your browser and just view the text of webpages. Websites won't look the same, but all the data will still be displayed. Load times will be greatly reduced, but so will visual quality.

4. To Maximize the Speed of Internet Connection
How you can maximize the speed of your internet connection speed without using any wen accelerators:

Steps:
• Do some basic maintenance on your PC. Run Disk Defrag, a scan disk, a virus scan, a malware scan, and clear your recycle bin. An unusually slow Internet connection experience is often the only sign that your computer is infected with viruses or other malware.
• Delete old files and temporary files.
• Never allow the free space on your C: drive to be less than 10% of the total size or twice the installed RAM.
• Sometimes restarting your home network if you have one will drastically increase the speed of your connection.
• Optimize your cache or temporary Internet files. These files improve your Internet connection performance by not downloading the same file over and over. When a web site puts their logo graphic on every page your computer only downloads it when it changes. If you delete the temporary files it must be downloaded again. if you disable the cache, it must be downloaded every time you view a page that uses it.
• Never bypass your router. Most routers include a firewall that is very difficult for hackers to defeat. If you don't need to use Wireless then hook your computer directly to your router.
• Check on your phone and camera, if it's 900Mhz then it's fine. If it says 2.4Ghz or 5.8Ghz then it could be the cause of your slow connection speed while they're in use.
• Upgrade your computer. If your computer is slow, it doesn't matter how fast your Internet connection is, the whole thing will just seem slow.
• Replace your old cable modem. As it gets older, signal to noise ratios will go down, and the number of resend requests for the same packet will go up.
• Often your connection speed is slow because other programs are using it. So check the unwanted programs in Process Tab in Task Manager.

With the suggestions and tips if all users of the internet laboratory would know this basic knowledge on trouble shooting in internet connection problems they would apply it and able to fix it on their own.

Next topic i would discuss is about the causes of internet connection to disconnect. With this issue we are able to address this problem.

What Causes High Speed Internet Connections to Disconnect?

Nothing can be more frustrating than having problems connecting to the Internet with your high speed connection. We will find that there are common issues that can affect your connectivity, and most are usually resolved with some basic troubleshooting. If we continue to suffer disconnection issues frequently, contact our high speed Internet service providers to determine how to fix the problem.



IP Address Issues

If your IP address is not configured correctly to work with your high speed ISP, you can have problems getting on the Internet. In Windows, you can type "ipconfig /all" into the command prompt in order to view the IP address assigned to your computer. This number should match the one provided by your Internet service provider. If it does not, this could be the reason you are experiencing the connection problems.

Internet Connection Disabled


Another common cause of disconnection when using a high speed Internet service is the connection has been disabled on your PC. To determine if this is the issue, open "Network Connections" from the "Control Panel" on your Windows OS. You can view your different Internet connections on this page. If your broadband connection displays a status of "Disabled," right click on the icon. Select "Enable" from the menu to restore the connection.

Ethernet Cable and Card Problems

If you receive an error message that states "Network Cable Unplugged," this indicates that the PC cannot detect the connection to your broadband router. Try a different Ethernet cable to see if your current one is faulty. Resetting the modem can also sometimes help resolve this issue. A malfunctioning Ethernet card can also cause high speed Internet connection issues.

Router Issues

A problem with your broadband router can also cause you to disconnect from the Internet. Any type of red indicator light appearing on the router lets you know that the connection has been interrupted. Check all of the cables leading into the router, as well as reset the device to determine the problem.

Considerations
Although you may experience high speed Internet connection issues, dial up connections are more likely to disconnect frequently from the web. Dial up modems take longer to access a connection, and can often experience problems if they are unable to detect a dial tone.[left]
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Ma.AnnKristineTomada



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PostSubject: Continuation ----Assignment 6-------   Tue Oct 13, 2009 12:39 pm

What Causes Slow Internet Service?

Regardless of the type of service that is used to connect with the Internet, there are several factors that can bring even the most robust connection to a crawl. Here are some examples of elements that can produce slow Internet service, as well as some solutions for these factors.

A. Computer Viruses

Perhaps the most common situations that can result in slow Internet service is the present of a virus on your hard drive of computer here in our university. Computer viruses can be transmitted in a variety of ways, most commonly through an attachment to an email. The computer virus will integrate into key programs on the hard drive and silently use up a great deal of resources. By diverting some of the resources to running the virus, an Internet service slow down is inevitable.

Fortunately, installing virus protection and removal software will help to remove viruses from the hard drive, as well as prevent new ones from infecting the system. As part of the task of preventing slow Internet service from occurring, it is important to make sure the antivirus software is updated regularly.

Along with viruses, there is a wide range of programs created to grab control of software on the hard drive and use it without the knowledge of the system owner. Programs of this type are often referred to as Trojans, since they can creep in before they are ever detected. Along with worm viruses, Trojans use up resources and create an Internet slow down that will be noticeable. The typical Trojan is acquired by opening email attachments, allowing the program to grab the address book and begin to send out more infected attachments to every email address on the hard drive. Antivirus software updates usually identify new Trojans and viruses, and can remove them from the system, provided that the Trojan is not configured to shut down the system if removal is attempted.

B.Spyware and Adware

Spyware and Adware are relatively innocuous programs that silently download when web sites are visited and are used to track the Internet activity of the user. The collected data is normally used in developing marketing campaigns and creating email texts. Unfortunately, spyware and adware also use up resources that can slow the system down a great deal. Removing the programs will reverse the incidence of slow Internet service, and make it easier to enjoy a more robust speed.

C. Internet Service Provider


Not all reasons for slow Internet service are due to clandestine programs and viruses infecting the hard drive. In some cases, the ISP is the origin of the Internet slow down. Routers and servers used to provide the service may be overloaded or experience a technical issue that temporarily slows down the speeds provided by the Internet Service Provider. This is true for high-speed solutions as well as for dialup service providers.

D. Local phone connection

At other times, the origin of the slow Internet service may be the local phone connection. Depending on the number of connections that the local phone company multiplexes on the wires that make up the system, there may simply not be many resources available to establish the connection. This is often the case in rural areas, where there are limited options when it comes to Internet connectivity.

E. Level of Traffic Volume to the Site

One final reason for a slow loading of a web site will have nothing to do with the speed of the connection or the programs running on the hard drive. If the current level of traffic volume to the site is very high, and the server hosting the site cannot handle the traffic, the perception is often that of slow Internet service. However, this is not really a case of a slow Internet connection, but an overwhelmed server. Generally, if the user will simply back off and visit the site at a later time, the site will load much faster on the follow up attempt.


Boosting the speed of University Internet Connection

The internet connection speed is something which is dependent on many factors other than your PC. However, We can always try to optimize the parameters in our hand to get the most of our Net Connection.

We have posted new information and resources about making your internet connection faster

Lets first start with the operating system. Before you continue, make sure that your PC is clean.

Firstly, I recommend a good browser like Firefox.

Firefox

The following is the features of firefox. It would my basis why I recommend this browser.

----Security & Privacy -----


Instant Web Site ID

Want to be extra sure about a site’s legitimacy before you make a purchase? Click on a site favicon for an instant identity overview. Another click digs deeper: how many times have you visited? Are your passwords saved? Check up on suspicious sites, avoid Web forgeries and make sure a site is what it claims to be.

Private Browsing


Sometimes it’s nice to go undercover. When this feature is enabled, you won’t leave a single browsing fingerprint behind for others to discover. You can slip in and out of private browsing mode quickly, so it’s easy to return to what you were doing before as if nothing ever happened (you can also browse privately all the time).

Forget This Site


Having second thoughts about having visited a certain Web site? With this feature, you can remove every trace of that site from your browser—no questions asked!

Anti-Malware


Firefox protects you from viruses, worms, trojan horses and spyware. If you accidentally access an attack site, it will warn you away from the site and tell you why it isn’t safe to use. Firefox checks every part of a Web page before loading it to make sure nothing harmful is sneaking in the back door.

Parental Controls

Enforce parental control settings you’ve entered on Vista—stop unwanted downloads and more.

Clear Recent History

Clear all your private data or just your activity over the past few hours with a few quick clicks. You have full control over what to delete, and then your info is gone for good—on your own computer or the one at your local library. It’s that easy.

Anti-Virus Software

Firefox integrates elegantly with your antivirus software. When you download a file, your computer’s antivirus program automatically checks it to protect you against viruses and other malware, which could otherwise attack your computer.

Pop-Up Blocker

Banish pop-ups (and pop-under windows) from your surfing experience once and for all. Or, find a happy medium—choose to view blocked pop-ups or create an “allow” list of sites whose pop-ups you’re okay with seeing.

Automated Update

Our open-source security strategy lets us find—and fix—security issues in record time, making Firefox the safest way to surf. Install upgrades when you receive automatic notification or wait until you’re ready.

Customized Security Settings

Control the level of scrutiny you’d like Firefox to give a site and enter exceptions—sites that don’t need the third degree. Customize settings for passwords, cookies, loading images and installing add-ons for a fully empowered Web experience.

Add-ons

Firefox looks for a secure connection before installing or updating add-ons, 3rd party software, and Personas.

Password Manager

We’ve seamlessly integrated this feature into your surfing experience. Choose to “remember” site passwords without intrusive pop-ups. Now you’ll see the “remember password” notification integrated into your view at the top of the site page.

Anti-Phishing

Shop and do business safely on the Internet. Firefox gets a fresh update of web forgery sites 48 times in a day, so if you try to visit a fraudulent site that’s pretending to be a site you trust (like your bank), a browser message—big as life—will stop you.

------Performance------

Smaller Memory Footprint

Short and sweet, Firefox uses less of your computer’s memory while it’s running.

Memory Management

With a new management function in place, Firefox keeps memory usage under control. The XPCOM cycle collector continuously cleans up unused memory. Plus, hundreds of memory leaks have been remedied.

Faster Page Load

A redesigned page rendering and layout engine means you see Web pages faster—and in the way they were meant to be seen.

Color Profile Support


The colors in your online photo albums will be sharper and more brilliant than ever, thanks to improvements to our graphics engine

Super Speed

Lot of other resources for improving our University internet connection speed
(before we apply it to our computer system, first me must check it performance)






Fasten your seatbelt: Firefox 3.5 includes the TraceMonkey JavaScript engine, which gives the browser dramatically better performance than ever before. Firefox has always been fast, but this is the fastest Firefox ever (more than twice as fast as Firefox 3, and ten times as fast as Firefox 2), meaning Web applications like email, photo sites, online word processors and more will feel snappier and more responsive.

Another decent resource on Internet Accelerators,

Meticulously developed by a professional programming team, these solutions proved to be the only optimization programs available that successfully accelerated and stabilized the Windows XP and Vista operating systems. The links below go to free scans which will show you (truthfully) if your PC can benefit from the acceleration routines or registry cleaning.


SpeedUpMyPC 2010 : Accelerates your PC & Internet Speed

SpeedUpMyPC works with Windows VISTA, XP, and all Internet connections including Broadband, DSL, and ANY Dial-Up connection. Accelerates and boosts your Internet, program startups, shutdowns, and overall processing speed to the fastest levels possible through advanced programming routines. You will experience extreme speed increases to everything you do on your PC - this can save you hours of frustration every single day. While the speed increases will vary for each individual PC, you will certainly notice the quick and crisp web page delivery and program startups.


RegistryBooster 2010 : FREE Registry Scan - Cleans, Repairs, and Defrags your Registry

RegistryBooster will perform a complete repair of your PC system in minutes. Cleans and defrags your Windows Registry to stabilize performance. Puts and end to the errors that over time will create slow and sluggish computer performance. Better than a Windows re-install to repair your PC - without the loss of all of your installed software, games, data, pics, website bookmarks, start page, email settings, login passwords, and customized settings.

  • NetSuperSonic is a software application designed to optimize your internet connection in relation to your Windows Operating System. This program, by tweaking the Windows 95/98/Me/NT or 2000 Registry, can greatly enhance your bandwidth.


  • Okoker Internet Accelerator is a internet toolkit, which accelerates your connection speed.You can easily optimize your windows settings and can get a very fast internet or TCP/IP connection.


  • Network Mechanic optimizes your Internet connection up to 300%, providing faster download speeds and fewer delays while browsing. It acts as an accelerator for your network connection. It works with MSN, AOL, and all private ISP hosts.


These program uses a new way to make the internet faster it's made a protocol to make the internet faster and it not just make surfing the internet faster but also other programs like torrent and file sharing programs too.


references:

http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/firefox/features/#performance
http://www.windowsreference.com/firefox/tweak-to-speed-up-firefox-for-faster-internet-browsing-1/
http://www.trap17.com/index.php/Internet-Faster-500-Times-33_t39199.html
http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/firefox/features/#performancehttp://www.daniweb.com/forums/forum64.html?gclid=CK3__tKwuZ0CFR4UagodMyD4jQ
http://www.softplatz.net/software/optimize-your-internet-connection/


Last edited by Ma.AnnKristineTomada on Tue Oct 13, 2009 3:40 pm; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : ---adds new info---)
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JerusalemAlvaira



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PostSubject: Improving the internet connectivity of USEP   Wed Oct 14, 2009 6:48 am

To begin with, let me first define the word "Internet". Internet is an infrastructure that provides connectivity for computers worldwide which refers to both hardware and software components. It is a network of networks and is composed of the different types of connections both local and global. It uses different types of internetworking medium like fiber optic cables, UTP cables, wireless connections and other types of media and uses the standardized Internet Protocol Suite. In this age of information technology, the internet has become one of the most reliable sources of information. The Internet has the capability of simultaneous delivery of large amount of information worldwide. Through the use of the internet, the end users will be able to access information from the books located in different libraries all over the world, pay bills, receive salaries, watch videos and know the current events in a particular country.

If the president of the University of Southeastern Philippines would hire me as an IT consultant and would ask for my suggestions on how to improve the university's internet connectivity I would consider the following factors:

Hardware

Type of connection

Spy ware, trojans and viruses

Steps or techniques in improving the internet connection

One way to improve the University of Southeastern Philippines' internet connectivity is to upgrade each computer unit or workstation's random access memory up to 1GB or higher with an Intel Pentium D processor. In this way, you will be able to speed up the workstation. When it comes to the memory of the server, it would be best if you upgrade it up to 2GB depending on the number of workstations that the university is using. Moreover, the server's hard drive should be at least 60GB or higher considering the amount of space that the database will occupy. It would be better if the university will use at least two servers simultaneously first is to reduce the damages and data losses during system crashes. Secondly, it can be used for daily back up purposes. For cables, I would like to recommend the use of category 5 shielded twisted pair cables or if possible, use fiber optic cables. Fiber optic cables are human hair - like thin glass fibers that uses light as signals. This type of cable is capable of transmitting large amount of information from the server to the end user and vice versa in long distances at a higher rate of bandwidth. Moreover, fiber optic cables are more immune to any interference like crosstalk and electromagnetic interference and are wire tapping resistant.

After having the workstations, the server and the cables upgraded, the next thing to consider in order in improving the university’s internet connectivity is the type of internet connection that will be used, the cost and the speed of the internet connection. There are of ISP or internet service providers that offer various types of internet connections, examples are dial - up, DSL and wireless connections with different speeds. I would suggest that the university will use DSL or digital subscriber line. DSL or digital subscriber line internet connection is more expensive compared to dial – up internet connections. However, if we are going to take a closer look at the capabilities of digital subscriber line internet connection, it will show that the price is very reasonable. Compared to dial –up internet connections, digital subscriber line is less susceptible to signal losses and interference.

Moreover, the DSL or digital subscriber line internet connection allows the user to use the internet and the phone line simultaneously unlike in dial – up internet connections that makes the user disconnect the phone line and connect it to the computer in order to use the internet or vice versa. Dial – up internet connections are somewhat slower compared to digital subscriber line or DSL internet connections. With digital subscriber line internet connections, the connection can reach up to 20 MBPS unlike the dial – up connections that only handles 56 KBPS and below.

I would also like to recommend the use of two connections from different ISP or internet service providers like globe telecom and smart. In this way, data losses and internet disconnection can be reduced. Also, this will allow the university to have a spare connection when one internet service provider crashes down. In this way, the University of Southeastern Philippines’ operations will not be hampered because of unwanted disconnections.

The problem with using too much bandwidth is that it makes the internet connection speed slower. One example of an application that increases the use of bandwidth is video streaming. The university must implement site restrictions that the students can access like video streaming sites to decrease the use of too much bandwidth. Doing this will help increase the size of bandwidth.

The next thing to consider in improving the internet connection of the University of Southeastern Philippines is the transmission of computer viruses, spy wares, mal wares and trojans. Such unwanted programs can become a factor that may slow down your computer or your internet connection. The workstations can be infected with such unwanted programs not only because of USB flash drive or other removable media such as Compact Discs or Digital Video Discs that are infected with viruses, spy wares, mal wares and Trojans. Moreover, the workstations can also be contaminated with viruses, spy wares, mal wares and trojans that are coming from the internet via the electronic mails or sites that are infected with viruses.

To address this problem, it would be best to protect each workstation and keep it more immune to viruses, spy wares, mal wares and trojans by installing virus and security protection softwares available in the market. Not all types of infections can be cured or detected by some certain antivirus software, though. But it somehow, installing one will be able to save the university and the students from headaches due to data losses or damages done by these unwanted softwares. There are antivirus softwares that can be used simultaneously so, would recommend the use of two antivirus softwares like using Twister antivirus and Avira at the same time. Other than that, I would also like to suggest the use of two anti - mal wares or anti – spy wares programs. In this way, protection of each workstations can be ensured. Giving full protection to the workstations will help the university save money from computer repairs or replacements due to the damages that viruses, spy wares, mal wares and trojans do.

According to the article “Why is my Internet connection so slow?” from www.windows.com, “computer viruses can also cause poor Internet performance. When a virus infects a computer, it installs computer code which will attempt to propagate itself, usually by sending copies of itself through e mail. Some viruses can multiply at the rate of hundreds of e mail messages per minute, which leaves little computing power and Internet connection bandwidth for anything else.”

The last thing to consider in improving the University of Southeastern Philippines’’ internet connectivity is to clean up the local hard drives. In doing this, history, recent and temporary files can be deleted. These kinds of files increase the use space in the workstation’s hard drive and slowing the computer and your internet connectivity. Furthermore, it is important to conduct a regular registry clean up on your hard drive because unused and damaged registries can slow down the computer. There are a lot of registry cleaners available in the market right now. I would like to recommend that the management will use tune up utility softwares that has the capability of cleaning and correcting the registry; deleting unnecessary restore points and unused temporary internet files, history lists and cookies.


References:

http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-vista/Why-is-my-Internet-connection-so-slow

For comments:


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mae m. mara



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Oct 14, 2009 5:46 pm

If you were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved? (3000words)
Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs

If I will be given a chance to be hired by the university president as an IT consultant, first I will accept it because it’s an opportunity. We all know that our generation now is very high-tech as well as we prefer to use a computer than to use a type writer because computer is one of the example of a thing that can make our work faster. But there is a question, what if the internet connection of your computer is so very slow how can you make some things faster? Of course it can make your work in trouble because if you want to make it faster you can’t.

For me I’ll suggest that students in a school that have a laptop I will allow them to use or to connect it with the computer because our school didn’t allow us to connect our own laptop to their computers. As an IT consultant well I will make sure that the computer unit we have must always updated and I will suggest to put more computers inside the computer lab so that those student who don’t have their own laptop they can be given a chance to use with it.

Here are some steps to improve the internet connectivity of the university:
1. Develop a Request for Change (RFC): This may originate from problem management where an issue, or a series of related issues, is identified and a mitigating change is necessary to prevent (or minimize) future effects. The RFC may also originate as a result of a business decision that will require some modification (add, delete, change) to the supporting technology. An RFC may also be necessary due to outside influences (i.e. governmental regulations or changes made by business partners).
2.Obtain Business Change Acceptance: The decision to make a change is typically a business decision where costs vs. benefits are weighed. Even in situations where the change is strictly infrastructure oriented (component or system failure) the decision to spend money resides with the business, not with the IT department. There are occasions when procedures are developed in advance to preauthorize changes such as emergency system maintenance, but regardless of the timing of the authorization, the decision still rests with the business management.
3.Initiate the Development Project: Development of the change (including testing) is an IT-guided function. In the event of an emergency change (server is down) those functions are typically predetermined. When a new system is to be developed, there is a collaborative effort between the business users and the IT team. The systems are designed by IT, the design is approved by the business partners (users), developed by IT, tested by a combination of IT and the users, and the final product is approved by both. Careful attention must be given to ancillary effects the new change may have on existing systems.
4.Pass the Change Management Gate: The Change Advisory Board (CAB) reviews all changes before they can be put into production. Normally, the CAB will consist of a group of people with different perspectives, backgrounds and areas of expertise. Their function is to review the change from a process and governance standpoint to assure that all foreseeable risks have been identified and mitigated, and that compensatory techniques are in place for any elements of exposure (things that could go wrong). The development team and the change sponsor will present the change to the CAB. Evaluation of risk will be the focus. Implementation strategies, communication to affected stakeholders, backout plans and post-implementation monitoring are elements on which the CAB is required to focus. The CAB is not responsible for determining if the change is appropriate – that decision has already been made. The CAB is also not responsible for determining if the change is cost effective. Again, that is strictly a business decision.
5.Implement the Change: If the CAB does not approve the change, the reasons are listed (this is always because certain risks have not been mitigated or communications have not been planned) and the development team will be given time to fix those issues and reschedule a meeting before the CAB. If the change is approved, the implementation is scheduled. It is not normally the case that the CAB is represented at implementation although it is possible that some members of the CAB have expertise that is necessary during the implementation, but they will not be present as official CAB representatives, but rather as subject matter experts (SME). How the change is implemented, the checklist and steps, are predefined and were presented to and approved by the CAB. The entire process must be thoroughly documented and the approved process must be precisely followed.
6.Report the Results: Either the change was implemented successfully with no issues, the change was implemented with issues that were corrected during implementation, the change was implemented with issues that were deemed acceptable, issues arose that were unacceptable and the change was rolled back, or in the worst case the change was implemented with unacceptable issues and could not be rolled back. Whatever the result, that is documented and returned to the CAB. The CAB is then responsible for distributing that information to the stakeholders and for storing and maintaining those results in the Change Management system (that may either be an automated database or a paper filing system, but the documents must be maintained for audit purposes).
7.Link Problem Management to Changes: Issues that arise should be compared to the CAB documentation of changes so any unanticipated adverse effects of a change can be isolated. It is often the case that undesirable effects of a change are not noticed immediately, but are identified by the emergence of problems in ancillary systems. For example, the addition of several fields to a database might not have a direct negative effect on the users but could impact network performance that would be apparent to other users who are not directly involved with the modified system.
8.Periodically Audit the CMP: At least once each year an audit of the CMP should be conducted to assure that all change documentation is maintained and available. Every change approval document should be examined to assure that the proper signatures are in place and that the results of the implementation are properly documented.
Below are the tips:
Procedures should be subject to Change Management. If there is a change in system backup scheduling, that must go through Change Management. Analyze every change of any kind (system or procedure) to determine if there is any possible risk.
Standard periodic maintenance should be preapproved. If it is a normal process to reboot a server on Sunday morning at 2:00 AM, it is not necessary to submit an RFC each time, but that process must be approved in advance.
Ad-hoc maintenance must adhere to the CMP. Include such things as testing the fire suppression systems, cleaning sub-flooring in the data center, HVAC inspection and testing and even pest control maintenance. Some companies go so far as to require an RFC if a light bulb is changed in the data center (the ladder fell and damaged the network).
Here are the warnings:
Politics can often get in the way of the CAB. "This change is required" may be true, but it could also be a personal agenda from one of the executives. The CAB must have ultimate authority to make decisions on implementation.
Rotate CAB members frequently. Always having the same members can lead to favoritism, and it can lead to burnout. You want your CAB to be fresh, pay attention, and not be subject to outside political influences.
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jealou azucena



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PostSubject: Assignment #6   Thu Oct 15, 2009 12:24 pm

- - - - -
If you were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved?

If I were hired by the university president as an IT consultant I would suggest that in order to improve the internet connectivity we must identify the factors involved in the problem. If you look at the university here are the problems you can see:

Lack of computers
Hardware
Computer viruses
Bandwidth allocation


As for me it is really difficult to give answer to this question because I’m not really good at this field however I will give my best opinion to help the university.

First things first…
If the president wants change in our present internet connectivity the university must allocate budget to resolve this problem.

It is undeniable that the university lacks computer units therefore I suggest that the university upgrade and add more units for the student to use. It is lucky that recently our department purchase new units and LCD monitors. These way students feel motivated to learn and they get the value of what they pay in the university.
Besides even if the internet connection is fast and still the computers are not change and they remain in their current condition we could not feel and appreciate the service provided.

The university’s computer hardware is also outdated and has a very slow processor. If we could not change the whole computer units at least the university should upgrade it. For example it would really help the internet connectivity if we improve the RAM of the university’s computers.

Another big problem in the university is the computer viruses. Viruses are main contributor in slowing down the process of connection. Therefore I would recommend that the university tighten their security in terms of computer virus. We should install effective and updated anti virus software in every computers.

Bandwidth allocation is also a problem in school. We already know that the university increased the bandwidth again but the internet connection is still turtle-paced. Even if we keep increasing the bandwidth, nothing will happen if it is not properly allocated. We should implement proper bandwidth allocation one solution to this is applying the correct network topology. From what I have read implementing an extended star network topology that has a ring topology in its lowest level is good for the university.

This is how will the topology work…
Within one major cluster, the bandwidth should also be divided into smaller clusters that are connected to each other using a ring topology. Let’s take for example the IC laboratory (NODAL), each computer should be included in a smaller group (cluster) that is connected to each other via a ring topology. Each cluster is connected to a central node that will give it the number of bandwidth it needs. The bandwidth allocated for a certain cluster should be distributed to the different smaller clusters within the department. By doing so every smaller cluster within the laboratory would only have a maximum bandwidth to use up and would not take up the bandwidth allotted for the other clusters. A ring topology is used at the lowest level because of the ring topology’s unique characteristic: the token. Within the ring only the one holding the token can use the services of the net within a maximum given time. No one computer would be able to monopolize the usage of the bandwidth because it is already controlled by the topology.

In addition we could also improve internet connectivity through boosting the computer. We could also use caching proxy server, it can reply to service requests without contacting the specified server, by retrieving content saved from a previous request, made by the same client or even other clients. This is called caching. Caching proxies keep local copies of frequently requested resources, allowing large organizations to significantly reduce their upstream bandwidth usage and cost, while significantly increasing performance. Another option is to use proxy server, a proxy server is a kind of buffer between your computer and the Internet resources you are accessing. They accumulate and save files that are most often requested by thousands of Internet users in a special database, called “cache”. Therefore, proxy servers are able to increase the speed of your connection to the Internet. The cache of a proxy server may already contain information you need by the time of your request, making it possible for the proxy to deliver it immediately. The overall increase in performance may be very high. Also, proxy servers can help in cases when some owners of the Internet resources impose some restrictions on users from certain countries or geographical regions. In addition to that, among proxy servers there are so called anonymous proxy servers that hide your IP address thereby saving you from vulnerabilities concerned with it.

Of course the students should be oriented on the proper usage of the computers and the internet connectivity.

I hope that with these suggestions I could help the university improve its internet connectivity. I really look forward to be able to use this improved internet connection.^^



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Edsa Fe Esio



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Oct 16, 2009 9:58 am

If you were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved?
Laughing Laughing Laughing
Internet connection….

Internet connection nowadays is somehow important. Internet had become essential part of any organization, may it be educational institution or business organization. It has been part of our everyday life. Especially in schools, where internet helped in a great way in easing the problems of homeworks, researches and so on. Having a stable internet connection is essential for it to cater to the needs of the user. Through, internet connection information may gather easily and disseminate easily as well. Internet is a global computer network that links computer networks all over the world by satellite and telephone, connecting users with service networks such as e-mail and the World Wide Web. It is a medium where exchanging of information is possible, can use to explore new things, search different ideas, discover things easily, see different concepts, open up issues, and even allow you to experience travel in different places in just one click.
It is also use for communication and even entertainment. There are a lot of things to do over the internet, even businesses, organizations and schools uses internet and get benefits from it to continue the work and allows advance opportunity.


As a consultant…

As a consultant, there are things need to consider in giving suggestion and recommendation. Considering on the current situation in the university’s internet connection an intricate issue to be discuss.

I would suggest first thing is to educate the users. Make it simple and go into small detail because we all know that we are in a state university and budget in limited.

To conducting a seminars would be helpful. Most of the students don't know the effects in the connection upon downloading in the Internet. It can reduce the connection speed especially when most of the user is downloading at the same time. Through seminars the student will be educated on this matter. We are already certain about the increased of bandwidth in our school, but it is just a short term solution if the students won’t follow the rules and continue to download everything from the Internet. Another one is by not making use of Internet in school as a source of entertainment. As a student it is inappropriate to the school if you are making any jobs not related to your course. You can make use of the Internet outside of the school if your purpose is to download files from the Internet. Limit the student of video streaming which I believe is already implemented in the school. In addition to these rules could be implemented to further boost the internet connection is at most 2 internet browsers with only 1 tab each should be open at a time. If a student want to video stream or to download something then only 1 browser window should be open at his station. These rules should be implemented with strict compliance to make effective.

By proper orientation of the users, faculty or student, about the proper usage of the Internet or the computer will help to lessen the cause of the problem and if the users are the ones causing the delay, then our efforts would be useless. Proper usage mean so much because no matter how fast or advance the technology your using, it will be useless if the users doesn't use their initiative. Computers are only tools, and we are the users of these tools.

Realistically speaking, imposing such rules and regulations somehow restrict the students to explore more and learn new ideas in the internet. It maybe a good way to increase the speed of the internet connection but at the same time it would put into the line the role of the school in cultivating the student.

Computer viruses are also a problem. One factor that affects the performance of the computer and the Internet connectivity is the virus dilemma. This is something that is also acquired from the Internet. Adequate and appropriate anti-virus software should be installed in all computer units or there could be one unit where removable storage media must be scanned and cleaned of any infections. I noticed that most students do not scan their removable storage media and just use them without hesitation. My suggestion would be to introduce to the users some anti-virus software and encourage them in using that software for their protection. Good and up-to-date anti-virus software would also help make the processes of computer a lot faster. In relation to the virus problems, it would also be practical and wise move to apply the deepfreeze mode on all the units in the laboratory to prevent virus to spread.


Another thing is upgrading the unit in the school. It is important to use high-speed computers in order for our connection to be fast. But since the university lacks the budget to buy new units, it is even more practical to just upgrade the computers. Even by doing it partially and one at a time would be a big help than doing nothing but wait.


Similarly, by using internet connection software that speeds up the pace of the internet that is a effective, easy-to-use program and lacks the power to provide an optimal
Internet connection because of changing, unstable network conditions. But the down side of using accelerators is that the quality of the interface will be decreased. To think of it, it is not a major problem and not a bad option since the concern is to speed up internet
connection.


Caching proxy server. A proxy server can reply to service requests without contacting the specified server, by retrieving content saved from a previous request, made by the same client or even other clients. This is called caching. Caching proxies keep local copies of frequently requested resources, allowing large organizations to significantly reduce their upstream bandwidth usage and cost, while significantly increasing performance


Using Proxy Servers. A proxy server is a kind of buffer between your computer and the Internet resources you are accessing. They accumulate and save files that are most often requested by thousands of Internet users in a special database, called “cache”. Therefore, proxy servers are able to increase the speed of your connection to the Internet. The cache of a proxy server may already contain information you need by the time of your request, making it possible for the proxy to deliver it immediately. The overall increase in performance may be very high. Also, proxy servers can help in cases when some owners of the Internet resources impose some restrictions on users from certain countries or geographical regions. In addition to that,
among proxy servers there are so called anonymous proxy servers that hide your IP address thereby saving you from vulnerabilities concerned with it.



Use network repeaters or routers to regenerate incoming electrical, wireless or optical signals. With physical media like Ethernet or Wi-Fi, data transmissions can only span a
limited distance before the quality of the signal degrades. Repeaters attempt to
preserve signal integrity and extend the distance over which data can safely travel. Routers are specialized computers that send your messages and those of every
other Internet user speeding to their destinations along thousands of pathways. So if we use routers, best path will evidently accelerate internet speed. Our school is currently using routers but internet connection was still very low.


Since we are already using fiber-optic cables and UTP cables, we should maintain and maximize the use of these mediums in order for the data to travel faster.

Increasing the bandwidth is also a good solution, but nothing will happen if it is not properly allocated. Applying the idea of properly allocating bandwidth depending on the usage is an alternative solution maybe. With this, probably, the tasks that require the most bandwidth can be properly attended to and the tasks that require the least bandwidth can also be done at the same time.




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Karen Palero



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Oct 16, 2009 12:11 pm

If you were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved? (3000words)

Internet is a rich source of bundled information for students. Students can get research papers on different topics to enhance their knowledge. Communication with friends and family is easier due to instant messaging websites...creating a social network is also good because it helps people improve on their conversational skills. The Internet provides an immediacy and global awareness to students. Students and teachers are able to have interactions not only in other parts of the country, but also around the world. From this they can learn about the life and issues that impact on other people. Many teachers can get access to relevant discussions hosted by the Internet. Educators can use these discussions and the ability to share experiences with other educators for professional development and to combat the sense of professional isolation. The internet has many advantages indeed, it helps us to find information on almost any topic.it saves us a lot of valuable time.

Having an internet connection in school is really a big thing. Students have actually paid for it right? And students expects a good internet performance. But since students are not that satisfied with the internet connection of the university the result is some are forced to spend money into the internet cafe's outside. Although some students still has the patience to wait the loading of the internet and to fall in line because they seem to have no choice.

The internet connection should really be improved, let me state the current situation of our schools internet connection and equipments as well:
-Limited number of computer units
-Computers load not that fast, sometimes it freezes.
-Some of the important websites are blocked
-Computers have viruses
-Secured wireless connection, only faculties know the security key
-Students are not allowed to plug in their devices

Those abovementioned are just some of my observations on the university's status. Below are my opinions and suggestions on how to improve the university's internet connection:

Arrow Increase Bandwidth?
After reading the question my immediate answer was 'to increase the bandwidth' (bandwidth- typically means the net bit rate, channel capacity or the maximum throughput of a logical or physical communication path in a digital communication system). But as i have read and browsed over the internet I realized that increasing the bandwidth isn't really the ultimate solution. Sooner or later after the bandwidth has been spent and the internet connection is still slow, should the bandwidth be increased again? That would be very costly and impractical to suggest. I have read in an article that the network infrastructure should be determined first to ensure that the work infrastructure is viable or sustainable. If the network infrastructure is not sustainable, problems are not going to be resolved by adding more bandwidth; instead you have to think about a network redesign and reengineer process.

Arrow Survey students regarding the websites they want to access for educational purposes that cant be accessed in the virtual library.

Arrow Unsecured Access Points (Free Wi-fi Access)
In our university there is an undeniably increasing number of students who has/brings their laptops in school, regardless of their courses. It would be very helpful and students will be very happy if our university will have a budget for vacating a space in the school wherein there is an unsecured network where anybody can connect to the internet. Internet plays a big role on the lifestyle of the students not only for fun but mainly for academic purposes. Currently, there is only one Unsecured Network broadcast inside the computer laboratory 1. Wouldn't it be practical to just spend a space, let's say a students lounge where we could access the internet wirelessly? Aside from the fact that students with laptops will surely be happy with that idea, students who doesn't have or own a computer can benefit as well. Since the number of students falling in line to use the computers in our laboratory is expected to decrease, thus, it will be hassle-free for them to log-in into their accounts.

Arrow Inform the users/students about the proper use of computers or regarding the schools regulation in using the internet
Some of the students isn't really aware on the proper use of the computer or maybe they are they just have to be reminded about. So it would be good if we will be informed or reminded on the proper usage and the schools regulations on internet browsing, but how? Well, when we log-in to our computer laboratories to surf through the internet the homepage of the browsers are set to www.usep.edu.ph, why not make a webpage that contains the schools regulations and the proper use of computers and set that webpage to be the homepage of all the browsers? The webpage should look very interesting so that students will take time to read it. But how about the students using wi-fi? Hmm, i think the network administrator has a way to set the homepage of every computer/network who wants to connect to his network so even the wi-fi users will be informed or reminded about the schools regulation and the proper usage of internet and computers. Implementing this suggestion will surely be of help not only for the students but for the faculties as well. Additionally, we could promote green campus computing and other valuable things in that webpage. Example of the things that should be showed by the webpage are the facts below on why computer or internet runs slow:
  • There are numerous programs that can be obtained over the Internet that are harmful to your computer (aside form viruses). These are not viruses or worms. Instead, they are known as "Spyware." Spyware is not easy to define, because there are so many variations of it. In the most typical case, Spyware usually arrives on your computer because you agreed to permit it. Perhaps you signed up for a free tool bar, or downloaded free software, or you are using some web-based server such as a file-sharing site. Some Spyware merely records information about what web sites you have visited, and transmits that information back to Spy. This slows down your computer because it takes time to send back this information. Some Spyware will actually hijack your computer. Many of the sophisticated Spammers (people who send junk mail) will hijack your computer and send off a few hundred junk emails without you ever knowing about it.

  • Another factor that slows down surfing, and is downright annoying anyway, is pop-up advertising. Pop-ups cost you bandwidth, which results in a loss of speed. There should be a pop-up killer installed in the computers.

  • There are problems that occur because others are attempting to gain information and/or control of your computer. They may do this by "pinging" your computer. A "Ping" is a request made by another computer for the identification number of your computer. Again, this information can be used to hijack your machine. Installing software known as a “Firewall” can prevent this.

  • Viruses of course. SO install an up to date anti virus.


Setting the internet options of our browser would also be of help. Managing caches and defining blank homepages are some of the stuffs we can do to it. If images are not that important in your browsing you may also set our browser not to load the images for fast browsing.


References:
http://www.epinions.com/content_3428491396
http://www.google.com.ph/search?hl=en&q=importance+of+internet+in+education&btnG=Search&meta=
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Fritzielaine A. Barcena



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Oct 16, 2009 4:28 pm

If I were hired as an IT consultant i would like to suggest the following for a benefits of the University..

• The Information Technology Consultant works with user groups to solve business problems with available technology including hardware,
software, databases, and peripherals. Services may include studying and analyzing systems needs; systems development; systems
process analysis, design, and re-engineering; feasibility studies; developing requests for proposals; evaluating vendor products and
making recommendations on selection. Enterprise support may require knowledge of business management, systems engineering operations research, and management engineering. Duties are performed at various levels within the defined category

• Probably focus your technical skills on predictable technologies: Microsoft server and desktop OSs, Microsoft Office software, e-mail platforms, and TCP/IP. Particularly ambitious IT consultants might add VoIP, Cisco, SonicWALL, and other network technologies to their plate, too.
But you may be missing a cash cow if you overlook Intuit products. The company recently reported a 9 percent increase in quarterly revenue vs. the third quarter 2008. With third quarter 2009 revenue of $1.4 billion, someone is buying Intuit products, and many of those people could be your clients.

• A consultant is a professional that provides expert advice in a particular domain or area of expertise such as accountancy, information technology, the law, human resources, marketing, medicine, finance or more esoteric areas of knowledge, for example engineering and scientific specialties such as materials science, instrumentation, avionics, and stress analysis. See related Certified Management Consultant and MBA.
• An expert in a specialized field brought in to provide independent professional advice to an organization on some aspect of its activities. A consultant may advise on the overall management of an organization or on a specific project, such as the introduction of a new computer system. Consultants are usually retained by a client for a set period of time, during which they will investigate the matter in hand and produce a report detailing their recommendations. Consultants may be established in business independently or be employed by a large consulting firm. Specific types of consultants include management consultants and internal consultants.

I would like to suggest the following for the Infrastructure which is the computer hardware and sofware infrastructure: Computers should be running at least Pentium-2.0Ghz w/48.8K modem. Computer technician would use different "internet software" ( pick and choose what works better ). Network technician would also use different operating systems ( WinXP or WinVista or Linux ). Host computers should upgrade to faster hardware ( Pentium 4, Dual Core, Core 2 Duo, AMD Sempron, AMD Athlon ) and upgrade to faster connection ( DSL or Full T1,T2 ).

University internet server needs to have a 24 hour dedicated connection to the internet and it should be internet server == a "unix machine" + firewall + router + phone lines to ISP. Another suggestion is to switch to a "better/faster/larger" ISP ( not the slow commercial online services ).

I would suggest the innovations in cable modem/router tweaking to improve university internet connection speed. All modems make it possible for established communications channels to support a wide variety of data communication. Similar to other modems, a cable modem receives and sends data by modulating and demodulating signals. However, cable modems differ from other modems because they also function like routers. Broadband Internet data is delivered into the home or office over a coaxial cable line that also carries television signals. The information travels like a TV channel through the coaxial cable line. The cable modem separates the data from the television signals and directs the data to the PC and video to the television.

Local traffic is the biggest speed cap that plagues cable modems or a source of a slow cable internet connection. Cable modems work on a network/grid that connects to a T3 router running at 45 Megabits per second. Depending on where computers placed, they could have a busy grid, or a not-so-busy one. Then there is Internet traffic. Network administrator’s best bet if he really needs the speed is to pick a time where not as many people are on. There is a noticeable difference in traffic between 2 AM and 6 PM.

There are a number of ways to improve the performance of university cable modem/router. Unlike old fashioned dial-up modems, there isn't a whole lot he can do to increase the speed of computer cable connection. He can tweak the way the broadband Internet cable connection sends the data/packets back and forth. If he is new to this whole thing, there are a number of programs that will automatically set the best values for the connection. Some of the most popular programs are EasyMTU, I-Speed, Intelli Dial-Up, Smartalec, Smartplay.

There’s also Web browser called Voyager 5000 made by Smartalec that’s much faster than regular Internet Explorer. Updating the drivers on computer’s (Network Interface Card) can give the most noticeable speed boost above everything else. Some good places to check for drivers would be: www.drivershq.com, www.download.com, and even www.altavista.com.

Improving university cable internet speeds with connection teaming is also an option. Midpoint has a feature called connection teaming. Connection teaming combines multiple connections to the Internet for increased bandwidth. Along with connection teaming, the software splits large files being downloaded into multiple smaller parts and downloads each part at the same time along each connection. Cable modem companies sometimes allow network technician to purchase additional IP address for a monthly fee. @Home does this for $5 per IP address. @Home caps the bandwidth per account, not IP address - but at the very least, it might increase the efficiency of internet connection and allow the throughput to closer reach the capped maximum speed.
On a very basic level, host computer’s performance also affects the Internet performance as well. If university computer isn't running at its best, neither will the broadband Internet connection.
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Lynneth C. Llemit



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sat Oct 17, 2009 2:38 pm

If you were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved? (3000words)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

As the Internet grows in popularity (and usefulness?), choosing the right connection for accessing it is becoming a very important decision at many nonprofits. While modems still provide many smaller nonprofits with their crawling connection, DSL, cable, ISDN, and T1 are introducing many organizations to the joys of high-speed access.
Speed

When you read an ad that says: "Our Connection Provides You With an Amazing and Unbelievable 10 Megs Per Second Download Speed," you should be amazed, but maybe not as much as you think. Some time back, a quick marketing person decided that Internet connection speed would be better described in bits, not the bytes usually used to describe disk size and RAM space. So that "unbelievable" 10 MegaBITS per second is actually about 1.25 megaBYTES per second. This article, not to confuse things further, will continue to discuss Internet speed in bits per second. So, don't jump out of your skin the next time you read about another "unbelievable" download speed. Simply divide by 8.
Types of Access: Dial-Up vs. "Always On"

Anyone who has used a modem knows the problems associated with dial-up access. Even if you just want to check your email for one minute, you have to wait a couple minutes for your modem to dial a number and establish a connection to your ISP. It often takes less time to check your email than it does to connect the Internet! While this isn't a major problem if you rarely use the Internet, it can be a major annoyance if you use it heavily. For heavy users, a dedicated, "always on" connection such as DSL or T1 is the better alternative. Not only does such a connection provide access "on demand," it is also faster and easier to share with a large group of users.
Dial-Up Connection - 56K

Bottom line -- modem speeds have pretty much hit the speed limit with 56K modems. In fact, 56K is a little misleading. Due to FCC regulations, the maximum transmission is more around 53K. If your organization needs a faster connection, you will have to go with a digital connection (i.e. xDSL, ISDN, etc.). However, if you find the right ISP, and your nonprofit doesn't have high access demands, modems may more than fulfill your needs.
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