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 Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)

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Anthony Rigor Aguilar

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PostSubject: Assignemnt 6   Wed Aug 19, 2009 9:54 am



2. Switches:
Switch operates at the MAC sublayer of the OSI Data Link Layer. It is a device that consists of many high-speed ports that forward MAC frames between LAN segments or individual devices connected to each port. Many types of switches exist, each supporting different speeds and LAN types, such as Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, and ATM. Some Ethernet switching devices only one MAC address per port, while others support 1500 or more. Some switches can dynamically learn new port addresses, and allow or disallow new port addresses to enhance security and prevent unauthorized access.

It is like a bridge, a switch evaluates the destination address in a MAC frame, checks its internal switch table to find the port attached to the destination network segment, and then forwards the frame to the correct port. Switches are therefore considered OSI layer two devices because they operate on frames at the Data Link Layer.

A switch only forwards information as necessary (unlike a hub, which forwards information to all its ports). Once it has learned which devices can be reached through each port, a switch passes on packets only to the appropriate ports. In this way, a switch can dramatically reduce the amount of traffic and improve the performance of a network. A switch is typically used to connect hubs together, or to provide dedicated connections to high performance workstations.

Switches use the address information in each packet to control the flow of network traffic. By monitoring the packets it receives, a switch learns which devices are connected to its ports and then sends on the packets to the appropriate ports only.
A switch reduces the amount of unnecessary traffic because information received on a port is only forwarded to the device with the appropriate destination address, unlike a hub, which forwards to all ports.


3. Network Interface Card/LAN Card
All PCs require network interface cards (NICs) to make them ready for network use. Some are supplied with NICs already in them. When choosing a NIC (also known as an adapter card) for a PC you should consider:

• The speed of your hub, switch, or print server— Ethernet (10Mbps) or Fast Ethernet (100Mbps).
• The type of connection you need—RJ-45 for twisted pair or BNC for coaxial cable.
• The type of NIC connector available inside your PC—ISA or PCI.

Since my suggested type cabling medium is UTP we should use NIC type with RJ-45 port for fast Ethernet. But this is optional because all motherboards nowadays have on-board NIC or LAN Card package.

Security:
In networking terms security is the protection of data and system resources against unauthorized access. Programs and data can be secured by issuing identification codes and passwords to authorized users of a computer. However, systems administrators or other suitably authorized individuals will ultimately have access to these codes, so there is always the risk that this information may fall into the wrong hands.
Passwords can be checked by the operating system to prevent users from logging onto the system in the first place, or they can be checked in software. Any application program running in the computer can also be designed to prevent eavesdropping. Although precautions can be taken to detect an unauthorized user, it is extremely difficult to determine if a valid user is performing unauthorized tasks. Effective security measures are a balance of technology and personnel/process management.

Firewall security, logging and alerts: Firewalls use 'packet inspection technology' to stop unauthorized access to your LAN from the Internet and prevent hacker attacks. Hackers may try to use certain programming technologies to attack networks. Firewalls can block these attacks. All such attempts to hack into your network can be logged by the firewall and anything very serious can be flagged with an automatic e-mail alert.

Internet filtering: By using a firewall, access to particular Web sites can be controlled. Firewalls can log or block access to Web sites containing specified keywords in the URL. These keywords are typed in by the user specifically for this purpose. The filter function of a Firewall automatically controls access to thousands of Web sites matching these chosen keywords.

Anti-Virus Program: Sometimes threats from the internet causes instability to the network operating system I suggest that the university should buy and use anti-viruses for each computer units in the laboratory. Viruses are unpredicted when it attacks the network.

Additional PC Security: Aside from anti-virus program I also suggest that the administrators to always use some other utilities like deepfreeze, pc security, and Other third party utilities because some threats are not a form of virus, sometimes threats are the users of the computer laboratories, the students in the university who tries to invade the network and gaining unauthorized access and modifying the system. Additional utilities are needed to minimize the possible threats. One of the good examples here is the “VAQSYS” used currently by the university.

Maintenance:
The University must ensure that the networks are maintained by their IT personnel and or technicians and the connection is monitored from time to time.

Today's networks have a significant impact on our lives - changing the way we live, work, and play. Computer networks - and in a larger context the Internet - allow people to communicate, collaborate, and interact in ways they never did before. We use the network in a variety of ways, including web applications, IP telephony, video conferencing, interactive gaming, electronic commerce, education, and more.

What are the benefits of networking? In a network, information and resources can be shared. This brings a number of advantages: You can share expensive peripherals, such as printers. In a network, all the computers can access the same printer. You can pass data between users without using floppy disks. Transferring files over the network eliminates time wasted copying files onto a floppy disk and then onto another PC. Also, there is less restriction on the size of file that can be transferred over a network. You can centralize key computer programs, such as finance and accounting. Often users need to access the same program so they can work on it simultaneously. One example would be a ticket booking office system where it would important to prevent a ticket being sold twice. You can institute automatic file backup. A computer program can be used to back up key files automatically, saving time and ensuring that all your work is safe.

In a Wide Area Network, information and resources can be shared over a greater geographical area. This brings a number of advantages: You can send and receive e-mail from all over the world, communicating messages and announcements to many people, in many different areas, quickly and inexpensively. You can transfer files to and from colleagues in other locations, or access the company network from home. You can access the vast resources of the Internet and the World Wide Web.

Internet has great effects in every people on earth that makes the people saw the as the useful tool for basically information for news, events, browsing for people and for history and many more. Internet has changed the way we communicate with our loved ones across the country because it offers more benefit than the old communication technologies. In education Internet has become a virtual assistant for students who wants research be done easily and hassle free.

Refrences:

1. Systimax Structured Cabling System STCAB Program
2. Cisco Networking Academy-Eploration1 & Exploration2
3. 3com Networking Assistant




Last edited by Anthony Rigor Aguilar on Wed Aug 19, 2009 10:01 am; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : I forgot to write down the refrences sir...)
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Norena T. Nicdao

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 11:41 am

If I were given a chance to work as an IT (Information Technology) Consultant in the university. First, it was a big privilege or an honor for me to become a part of the IT (Information Technology) Consultant in the university because as an IT (Information Technology) student I can use my knowledge and share it in our university. This job would challenge me to explore and learn more things and experiences in the IT (Information Technology) environment. It will also help me to develop my ability int his field.

What is an IT (Information Technology) Consultant?

Information technology consulting (IT consulting, Computer consultancy, Computing consultancy, technology consulting or business and technology services) is a field that focuses on advising businesses on how best to use information technology to meet their business objectives. In addition to providing advice, IT consultancies often implement, deploy, and administer IT systems on businesses' behalf.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IT_consultant

On my own opinion an IT (Information Technology) Consultant is a person who is responsible for giving or suggesting ideas for the development of the systems and information technology.

In a university, like USeP (University of Southeastern Philippines) which has a LAN (Local Area Network) connections for the internet. The advantages of having an internet connection inside the school is to help students to explore and learn more things by surfing through the internet. It also makes the transaction easier like sending data which is accurate and fast. But, as I observed USeP (University of Southeastern Philippines) has also a problem in the internet connection, they has a low and slow internet, that's why it needs more improvement.

What is Internet?

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail, in addition to popular services such as online chat, file transfer and file sharing, online gaming, and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) person-to-person communication via voice and video.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/INTERNET

Internet, computer-based global information system. The Internet is composed of many interconnected computer networks. Each network may link tens, hundreds, or even thousands of computers, enabling them to share information and processing power. One of the best-known resources on the Internet is the World Wide Web, which uses the Internet to display text and multimedia content on Web pages, along with interactive features.

The Internet has made it possible for people all over the world to communicate with one another effectively and inexpensively. Unlike traditional broadcasting media, such as radio and television, the Internet does not have a centralized distribution system. Instead, an individual who has Internet access can communicate directly with anyone else on the Internet, post information for general consumption, retrieve information, use distant applications and services, or buy and sell products.

The Internet has brought new opportunities to government, business, and education. Governments use the Internet for internal communication, distribution of information, and automated tax processing. In addition to offering goods and services online to customers, businesses use the Internet to interact with other businesses. Many individuals use the Internet for communicating through electronic mail (e-mail), retrieving news, researching information, shopping, paying bills, banking, listening to music, watching movies, playing games, and even making telephone calls. Educational institutions use the Internet for research and to deliver online courses and course material to students.

Source:[url] http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579729/Internet.html[/url]

For me, Internet is one way of making our communication more easier. It has a big help for searching information to the other areas which we cannot reach.

Now, I have some suggestions to improve the internet connection in the university. In my observation, USeP (University of Southeastern Philippines) is dealing a problem in the internet connection, they have a low and slow connection. It takes a number of minutes to the students or users of internet inside the school before they reach the site they want to go in. As an IT (Information Technology) Consultant I would suggest to upgrade the internet connection or provide a better router which is fast and advance for the internet connection. It is better also to provide a good quality and new computer units in the school. It will minimize the problem of slow and low internet connection. I want to suggest also to have some area in the school which is WIFI Zone to have a better and easy internet access freely for the students. As I observed most of the students has their own laptops. The students can already access the internet inside the school freely.

As far as I know the university has several good programmers and database administrator which is responsible for the Information System in the school. I suggest that in their department they must have a "Discovery Team" which is responsible for the system failure of programs inside the school. They are on-call if somethings happened like interruption in the server or shutdown.

I've researched also some technology which is related to internet connection:

Internet Connection Speedometer
How fast is your internet connection?

Now you can find out how fast or slow your Internet connection is with our Internet Connection Speedometer.

You could be using your network connection at work, or at home using a dial-up modem, ISDN connection, a cable modem, or a digital subscriber line (DSL). Whatever the device or technology you're using to surf the Web, we'll tell you the speed of your Internet connection.

Source: http://us.mcafee.com/root/speedometer/default.asp

Having a good internet connection, it makes easier for the university to send data directly which is fast and accurate. So I come with some ideas to have a new and advance technology in the university.

Like in the enrollment system in USeP (University of Southeastern Philippines), it is state university which is many freshmen and new comer students want to enroll here. So, during the enrollment it needs a number of days before the enrollment process end. My suggestion is to have a new system in the registrar department which scan the application form of the students and directly present it ti the screen of the encoder. And the encoder distribute the data to the respective college department which is the student's choice by sending it through internet. If the students finished the transaction in the registrar it is easier to encode his or her subjects to be enrolled because she or he has a record which came from the registrar to his or her college department. The encoder of the college department ask only the name of the students to check his record. It is also better to have an online enrollment which the students fill-up the application form available in the website of the school. By this the students has already a record in the school. The students need to confirm his or her application form to the registrar and pass the requirements needed in order to receive his or her confirmation sheet, receipts and C.O.R which determines that she or he is already enrolled. This kind of system is minimizing the redundancy and hassle in the records of the school.


In terms of technology, I would better suggest to have a new technology in the attendance system in the school for the employees like a new Biometric Scanner.

What is Biometric Scanner?

Biometrics refers to methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In information technology, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.

Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes:

* Physiological are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, face recognition, DNA, hand and palm geometry, iris recognition, which has largely replaced retina, and odor/scent.
* Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. Examples include, but are not limited to typing rhythm, gait, and voice. Some researchers[1] have coined the term behaviometrics for this class of biometrics.

Strictly speaking, voice is also a physiological trait because every person has a different pitch, but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of the way a person speaks, commonly classified as behavioral.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biometrics

I suggest this kind of technology for such advantages like it makes the attendance of the employee accurate and fast because it needs the finger print of the employee in order to have his or her attendance. Not like in the log book it is hassle and not too accurate because some employees who is absent because of some reasons he or she call her or his co-employee to write his or her name to the log book in order to have an attendance on that day or as an excuse for being late. Unlike in the Biometric Scanner you cannot cheat or use other people to have your attendance because your presence is fully needed to use this new attendance technology.

Another suggestion is a Unified Identification (ID) System within the campus. This kind of system is combining all the Identification (ID) card inside the campus in every department like the library, virtual laboratory and a passes in order to enter the school campus. We know that Identification (ID) card is one of the important gadget of a student to the school. This new Identification (ID) card has a bar code which is validated every semester by a computerize system. By this, the school administrator lessen the burden of those students who are not validating his or her Identification (ID) card every semester. Currently, the university is validating the Identification (ID) card every semester by putting a sticker at the back of the Identification (ID) card. We can easily cheat with this kind of system because its easy to produce a copy of the validated sticker. But in a new Identification (ID) card I suggested, the student cannot easily cheat or copy the bar code because it is monitored by the school. Before entering the campus you must scan the bar code at the back of the new Identification (ID) card into the bar code scanner.

What is a Bar Code Scanner?

A bar code reader (or bar code scanner) is an electronic device for reading printed bar codes. Like a flatbed scanner, it consists of a light source, a lens and a light sensor translating optical impulses into electrical ones. Additionally, nearly all bar code readers contain decoder circuitry analyzing the bar code's image data provided by the sensor and sending the bar code's content to the scanner's output port.

Types of technology

The reader types can be distinguished as follows:

* Pen type readers

Pen type readers consist of a light source and a photodiode that are placed next to each other in the tip of a pen or wand.[1] To read a bar code, the tip of the pen moves across the bars in a steady motion. The photodiode measures the intensity of the light reflected back from the light source and generates a waveform that is used to measure the widths of the bars and spaces in the bar code. Dark bars in the bar code absorb light and white spaces reflect light so that the voltage waveform generated by the photo diode is a representation of the bar and space pattern in the bar code. This waveform is decoded by the scanner in a manner similar to the way Morse code dots and dashes are decoded.

* Laser scanners

Laser scanners work the same way as pen type readers except that they use a laser beam as the light source and typically employ either a reciprocating mirror or a rotating prism to scan the laser beam back and forth across the bar code. As with the pen type reader, a photodiode is used to measure the intensity of the light reflected back from the bar code. In both pen readers and laser scanners, the light emitted by the reader is tuned to a specific frequency and the photodiode is designed to detect only this modulated light of the same frequency.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bar_code_scanner

It is a big help also to the security guard because this system lessen their work in checking the students if her or his Identification (ID) card is valid. They only watch and making sure that the students and other school property inside the campus are secured.
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Franz Cie B. Suico

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 11:57 am

If you were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved? (3000words)

If the University of Southeastern Philippines president would hire me as an IT consultant, I would suggest technology, infrastructure, and innovations. But for me I will be focusing more on infrastructure.

TECHNOLOGY

First I will define each of the following. What is technology? According to Wikipedia.com, technology is a broad concept that deals with human as well as other animal species usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species ability to control and adapt to its environment. However, a strict definition is elusive; "technology" can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include "construction technology", "medical technology", or "state-of-the-art technology". Technically speaking, technology is the process by which humans modify nature to meet their needs and wants. Most people, however, think of technology in terms of its artifacts: computers and software, aircraft, pesticides, water-treatment plants, birth-control pills, and microwave ovens, to name a few. But technology is more than these tangible products. Technology includes the entire infrastructure necessary for the design, manufacture, operation, and repair of technological artifacts, from corporate headquarters and engineering schools to manufacturing plants and maintenance facilities. The knowledge and processes used to create and to operate technological artifacts -- engineering know-how, manufacturing expertise, and various technical skills -- are equally important part of technology.

Technology is essential to improve the connectivity of internet in our university. Without a proper and good technology we can’t boost the use of the internet connectivity. Without good computers even if you have a good internet connection still you can’t use it to its maximum usage. Internet connection is dependable on your computer capability. You have a good connectivity but you have a slow computer still your loading time is slow making it slow. So a good computer unit can have a give an edge on your internet connectivity.

INFRASTRUCTURE
Second what is an infrastructure? According to Wikipedia.com, infrastructure can be defined as the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, power grids, telecommunications, and so forth. In information technology and on the Internet, infrastructure is the physical hardware used to interconnect computers and users. Infrastructure includes the transmission media, including telephone lines, cable television lines, and satellites and antennas, and also the routers, aggregators, repeaters, and other devices that control transmission paths. Infrastructure also includes the software used to send, receive, and manage the signals that is transmitted. In some usages, infrastructure refers to interconnecting hardware and software and not to computers and other devices that are interconnected. However, to some information technology users, infrastructure is viewed as everything that supports the flow and processing of information.
Infrastructure companies play a significant part in evolving the Internet, both in terms of where the interconnections are placed and made accessible and in terms of how much information can be carried how quickly.
In the present world, which is dynamic and knowledge based, universities have a much wider role to play in creating, preserving, organizing, transmitting and applying knowledge. Modern educational technologies developed from information technology will certainly change in terms of access, interaction, curriculum and instruction etc. The physical locations and facilities will be less important in defining a college or a university due to the easy on-line access of the educational resources of a higher educational institution to the urban as well as rural public. This will provide opportunities to our high school graduated youths from rural areas as well as urban youths to access higher education without a need to forgo their working and earning opportunities to physically attend a college or a university. So universities need to adopt modern education technologies to provide increase access to knowledge resources.
Online technologies are going to make traditional class room teaching less important in many subjects except where it is absolutely necessary. Therefore interaction between teachers and students will have to play a vital role in imparting higher quality education. This means that more frequent and effective internal mechanism of interaction between university faculty and students need to be developed. This, in turn, causes an external relationship between universities and non-university communities. Such external relationship will necessitate universities to respond quickly to the changes in the outside world. Therefore a mechanism to increase both the internal and external interaction efficiencies has to be developed.

The curriculum and instruction are going to be changed greatly. Because the new technologies make the learning and teaching easier, the contents of some courses will be expanded, a considerable number of new courses will be generated, interdisciplinary courses and studies will be more possible. Students and faculties will contribute together to the development of curriculum.
Modern higher education technologies will also change present instructional methods to a more effective one. The faculties will have to adopt an instructional method best suited to the class of students whom they target or to develop new methods best suited for them based on their feedback. Video conferencing techniques, simulators and on-line access too many practical training kits will revolutionize instructional methods.

So in order to have good internet connectivity, we should have if not the best at least a good and efficient network infrastructure. In order to attain good infrastructure there should be a proper planning to it, analyze the plan with all the necessary data collection in order to attain the best infrastructure that we need to have better internet connectivity. From hardware, software, server, topology, and let’s include the people managing. All these points are essential in a creating a very good infrastructure.

INNOVATION

And lastly, what is innovation? According to Wikipedia.com, innovation refers to a new way of doing something. It may refer to incremental and emergent or radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations. A distinction is typically made between invention, an idea made manifest, and innovation, ideas applied successfully. (Mckeown 2008) In many fields, something new must be substantially different to be innovative, not an insignificant change, e.g., in the arts, economics, business and government policy. In economics the change must increase value, customer value, or producer value. The goal of innovation is positive change, to make someone or something better. Innovation leading to increased productivity is the fundamental source of increasing wealth in an economy.
Innovation is an important topic in the study of economics, business, design, technology, sociology, and engineering. Colloquially, the word "innovation" is often synonymous with the output of the process. However, economists tend to focus on the process itself, from the origination of an idea to its transformation into something useful, to its implementation; and on the system within which the process of innovation unfolds. Since innovation is also considered a major driver of the economy, especially when it leads to increasing productivity, the factors that lead to innovation are also considered to be critical to policy makers. In particular, followers of innovation economics stress using public policy to spur innovation and growth.
Those who are directly responsible for application of the innovation are often called pioneers in their field, whether they are individuals or organizations.

What is innovation in an organization? A convenient definition of innovation from an organizational perspective is given by Luecke and Katz (2003), who wrote:
"Innovation . . . is generally understood as the successful introduction of a new thing or method . . . Innovation is the embodiment, combination, or synthesis of knowledge in original, relevant, valued new products, processes, or services.
Innovation typically involves creativity, but is not identical to it: innovation involves acting on the creative ideas to make some specific and tangible difference in the domain in which the innovation occurs. For example, Amabile et al. (1996) propose:
"All innovation begins with creative ideas . . . We define innovation as the successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization. In this view, creativity by individuals and teams is a starting point for innovation; the first is necessary but not sufficient condition for the second".
For innovation to occur, something more than the generation of a creative idea or insight is required: the insight must be put into action to make a genuine difference, resulting for example in new or altered business processes within the organization, or changes in the products and services provided. A further characterization of innovation is as an organizational or management process. For example, Davila et al. (2006), write:
"Innovation, like many business functions, is a management process that requires specific tools, rules, and discipline."
From this point of view the emphasis is moved from the introduction of specific novel and useful ideas to the general organizational processes and procedures for generating, considering, and acting on such insights leading to significant organizational improvements in terms of improved or new business products, services, or internal processes.
Through these varieties of viewpoints, creativity is typically seen as the basis for innovation, and innovation as the successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization (c.f. Amabile et al. 1996 p.1155). From this point of view, creativity may be displayed by individuals, but innovation occurs in the organizational context only.
It should be noted, however, that the term 'innovation' is used by many authors rather interchangeably with the term 'creativity' when discussing individual and organizational creative activity. As Davila et al. (2006) comment,
"Often, in common parlance, the words creativity and innovation are used interchangeably. They shouldn't be, because while creativity implies coming up with ideas, it's the "bringing ideas to life" . . . that makes innovation the distinct undertaking it is."
The distinctions between creativity and innovation discussed above are by no means fixed or universal in the innovation literature. They are however observed by a considerable number of scholars in innovation studies.

So y I also recommend innovations? For me it is really important to include innovations, looking for new ways to solve current problems and issues, finding new ways/new techniques for better internet connectivity. As technology is on arising, we should also be innovative in order to be progressive. Having a good technology, plus a stable infrastructure with innovative mind can lead to a very good change for the better. So as an IT consultant these are my suggestions for better internet connectivity.

ill give you one example of an innovation. just click the link below.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LYiHNV8R1jc

References:
mlsu.org/cc/itinf.htm
nae.edu/nae/techlithome.nsf/weblinks/KGRG-55A3ER
searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid80_gci212346,00.html
wikipedia.org

visit my blog http://franzcie.blogspot.com
afro


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Jezreel Jyl P. Hilado

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 1:46 pm

Shocked No cyclops bounce Neutral Rolling Eyes
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Gleizelle Jen Dieparine

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 1:50 pm

If you were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved? (3000words)


Razz In this assignment ,we are asked that if ever we become a IT consultant that employed by the university’s president ,what would suggestion we could give in order for the internet connectivity be improved.

Razz Assuming that I’ll be an IT consultant of our university .I should analyze the state of our university the capacity , situation to adopt IT/IS changes. There should be person that could handle for the implementation. There should be a budget before committing into changes in improving our the university

Razz Before I could answer that question we should define first the factors for analyzing to attain ideas improving internet connectivity in our university.





IT consultant

An IT consultant works in partnership with clients, advising them how to use
information technology in order to meet their business objectives or overcome
problems. Consultants work to improve the structure and efficiency and of an
organsiation's IT systems.


IT consultants
may be involved in a variety of activities, including marketing, project
management, client relationship management and systems development.


They may also
be responsible for user training and feedback. In many companies, these tasks
will be carried out by an IT project team. IT consultants are increasingly
involved in sales and business development, as well as technical duties.

Task typically involve:


  • meeting with clients to
    determine requirements;
  • working with clients to
    define the scope of a project;
  • planning timescales and the
    resources needed;
  • clarifying a client's system
    specifications, understanding their work practices and the nature of their
    business;
  • travelling to customer sites;
  • liaising with staff at all
    levels of a client organisation;
  • defining software, hardware
    and network requirements;
  • analysing IT requirements
    within companies and giving independent and objective advice on the use of
    IT;
  • developing agreed solutions
    and implementing new systems;
  • presenting solutions in
    written or oral reports;
  • helping clients with
    change-management activities;
  • project managing the design
    and implementation of preferred solutions;
  • purchasing systems where
    appropriate;
  • designing, testing,
    installing and monitoring new systems;
  • preparing documentation and
    presenting progress reports to customers;
  • organising training for users
    and other consultants;
  • being involved in sales and
    support and, where appropriate, maintaining contact with client
    organisations;
  • identifying potential clients
    and building and maintaining contacts.





Innovation
The term innovation refers to a new way of doing something. It may refer to incremental, radical, and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations. A distinction is typically made between invention, an idea made manifest, and innovation, ideas applied successfully. (Mckeown 2008) In many fields, something new must be substantially different to be innovative, not an insignificant change, e.g., in the arts, economics, business and government policy. In economics the change must increase value, customer value, or producer value. The goal of innovation is positive change, to make someone or something better. Innovation leading to increased productivity is the fundamental source of increasing wealth in an economy.
Innovation is an important topic in the study of economics, business, design, technology, sociology, and engineering. Colloquially, the word "innovation" is often synonymous with the output of the process. However, economists tend to focus on the process itself, from the origination of an idea to its transformation into something useful, to its implementation; and on the system within which the process of innovation unfolds. Since innovation is also considered a major driver of the economy, especially when it leads to increasing productivity, the factors that lead to innovation are also considered to be critical to policy makers. In particular, followers of innovation economics stress using public policy to spur innovation and growth.
Those who are directly responsible for application of the innovation are often called pioneers in their field, whether they are individuals or organisations.

Infrastructure
can be defined as the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. [2] The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, power grids, telecommunications, and so forth. Viewed functionally, infrastructure facilitates the production of goods and services; for example, roads enable the transport of raw materials to a factory, and also for the distribution of finished products to markets. In some contexts, the term may also include basic social services such as schools and hospitals [3]. In military parlance, the term refers to the buildings and permanent installations necessary for the support, redeployment, and operation of military forces
In this article, infrastructure will be used in the sense of technical structures or physical networks that support society, unless specified otherwise.

Technology
Technology is a broad concept that deals with an animal species' usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects an animal species' ability to control and adapt to its environment. Technology is a term with origins in the Greek "technologia", "τεχνολογία" — "techne", "τέχνη" ("craft") and "logia", "λογία" ("saying").[1] However, a strict definition is elusive; "technology" can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include "construction technology", "medical technology", or "state-of-the-art technology".
The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.






These are some suggestions:





Connectiviy


Hardware/Software


Accessible
Electricity



Electricity


Policies











Connectiviy


There should be an enough
internet connectivity (WiFi) to our university , not only in engineering
building but also in other colleges . In order for the other student that could
access the net at a comfortable time they want. It is good for the student ,
since internet connection help everyone
to gain much knowledge specially using computers, accessing sites, For us to be improved and for us not be left
behing.


For better and comfortable
to all student having there laptops ,the university should give a room or a place that student can
easy spend time with there laptops.





Hardware/Software


Putting and changing hardware should be the
prior of the university. We all know that we have many computers but then few
of them are usable . It is good job by the university that they change the
monitor in an LCD monitor in a lab1 of our college (Institute of Computing).
It should be followed by changing hardware in our libraries, nodal and other
computer laboratories. It would help for the
lessen electricity consumption and fast internet connection.


Network services


Enhancement
of network services . having computer
laboratories in each colleges that accessible by the student So that they could not find hard time
spending on our library just for waiting for an hour before accessing the net . It would help to accommodate all
student for us not to spend much money in the internet café in doing projects.
University should provide those things because much student enrolled here
doesn’t have much money spending time on internet cafes.


Electricity





All
student should have the right to used
electricity .These could help student to used laptops and other important
matter that is involved electricity and learnings.


Policies


There should be a policies for student to follow and for the
implementation could not be destroyed easily. Student should used it well in
order it would last for many years.





Others


It would be good that our
Obrero Campus Student (CouncilOCSC) has a network connection to every Local Council(LC)to every
colleges. For monitoring the cash flows, budgets , works and implementation of
the LC . It should be accessible also for the student to know some
implementation and other things that student should know.




visit my blog: http://gleizelle@blogger.com





References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innovation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrastructure
http://www.prospects.ac.uk/p/types_of_job/it_consultant_job_description.jsp
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 1:51 pm

Razz HOW TO IMPROVE INTERNET CONNECTIVITY?

Connectivity refers to the data or Internet connection whether it is dial-up, dedicated lines, satellite, wireless or other means.

Infrastructure and Networks refer to the computers, peripherals, cameras, hubs, routers, wiring within facilities and network architecture, whether a LAN, WAN or National Grid.


What a Face Growth




Although the basic applications and guidelines that make the Internet possible had existed for almost two decades, the network did not gain a public face until the 1990s. On 6 August 1991, CERN, a pan European organisation for particle research, publicized the new World Wide Web project. The Web was invented by English scientist Tim Berners-Lee in 1989.

An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW, patterned after HyperCard and built using the X Window System. It was eventually replaced in popularity by the Mosaic web browser. In 1993, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois released version 1.0 of Mosaic, and by late 1994 there was growing public interest in the previously academic, technical Internet. By 1996 usage of the word Internet had become commonplace, and consequently, so had its use as a synecdoche in reference to the World Wide Web.

Meanwhile, over the course of the decade, the Internet successfully accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer networks (although some networks, such as FidoNet, have remained separate). During the 1990s, it was estimated that the Internet grew by 100 percent per year, with a brief period of explosive growth in 1996 and 1997.

This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the non-proprietary open nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network. Using various statistics, Advanced Micro Devices estimated the population of Internet users to be 1.5 billion as of January 2009.

What a Face Technology

The complex communications infrastructure of the Internet consists of its hardware components and a system of software layers that control various aspects of the architecture. While the hardware can often be used to support other software systems, it is the design and the rigorous standardization process of the software architecture that characterizes the Internet and provides the foundation for its scalability and success.

The responsibility for the architectural design of the Internet software systems has been delegated to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).The IETF conducts standard-setting work groups, open to any individual, about the various aspects of Internet architecture. Resulting discussions and final standards are published in a series of publications each of which is called a Request for Comment (RFC), freely available on the IETF web site. The principal methods of networking that enable the Internet are contained in specially designated RFCs that constitute the Internet Standards.

These standards describe a framework known as the Internet Protocol Suite. This is a model architecture that divides methods into a layered system of protocols (RFC 1122, RFC 1123). The layers correspond to the environment or scope in which their services operate. At the top is the Application Layer, the space for the application-specific networking methods used in software applications, e.g., a web browser program, and just below it is the Transport Layer which connects applications on different hosts via the network (e.g., client-server model) with appropriate data exchange methods. Underlying these layers are the actual networking technologies, consisting of two layers.

The Internet Layer enables computers to identify and locate each other via Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, and allows them to connect to one-another via intermediate (transit) networks. Lastly, at the bottom of the architecture, is a software layer that provides connectivity between hosts on the same local network link (therefor called Link Layer), such as a local area network (LAN) or a dial-up connection. The model, also known as TCP/IP, is designed to be independent of the underlying hardware which the model therefore does not concern itself with in any detail. Other models have been developed, such as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, but they are not compatible in the details of description, nor implementation, but many similarities exist and the TCP/IP protocols are usually included in the discussion of OSI networking.


The most prominent component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol (IP) which provides addressing systems (IP addresses) for computers on the Internet. IP enables internetworking and essentially establishes the Internet itself. IP Version 4 (IPv4) is the initial version used on the first generation of the today's Internet and is still in dominant use. It was designed to address up to ~4.3 billion (109) Internet hosts. However, the explosive growth of the Internet has led to IPv4 address exhaustion which is estimated to enter its final stage in approximately 2011.

A new protocol version, IPv6, was developed which provides vastly larger addressing capabilities and more efficient routing of Internet traffic. IPv6 is currently in commercial deployment phase around the world and Internet address registries (RIRs) have begun to urge all resource managers to plan rapid adoption and conversion.

IPv6 is not interoperable with IPv4. It essentially establishes a "parallel" version of the Internet not directly accessible with IPv4 software. This means software upgrades or translator facilities are necessary for every networking device that needs to communicate on the IPv6 Internet. Most modern computer operating systems are already converted to operate with both versions of the Internet Protocol. Network infrastructures, however, are still lagging in this development.

Aside from the complex physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts (e.g., peering agreements), and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Indeed, the Internet is defined by its interconnections and routing policies.

What a Face Structure

The Internet and its structure have been studied extensively. For example, it has been determined that both the Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links of the World Wide Web are examples of scale-free networks. Similar to the way the commercial Internet providers connect via Internet exchange points, research networks tend to interconnect into large subnetworks such as GEANT, GLORIAD, Internet2 (successor of the Abilene Network), and the UK's national research and education network JANET.

These in turn are built around smaller networks (see also the list of academic computer network organizations). According to a June 2007 article in Discover magazine, the combined weight of all the electrons moved within the Internet in a day is 0.2 millionths of an ounce. Others have estimated this at nearer 2 ounces (50 grams). Computer network diagrams often represent the Internet using a cloud symbol from which network communications pass in and out.

Many computer scientists describe the Internet as a "prime example of a large-scale, highly engineered, yet highly complex system".The Internet is extremely heterogeneous; for instance, data transfer rates and physical characteristics of connections vary widely. The Internet exhibits "emergent phenomena" that depend on its large-scale organization. For example, data transfer rates exhibit temporal self-similarity.

Further adding to the complexity of the Internet is the ability of more than one computer to use the Internet through only one node, thus creating the possibility for a very deep and hierarchical sub-network that can theoretically be extended infinitely (disregarding the programmatic limitations of the IPv4 protocol). Principles of this architecture date back to the 1960s and it might not be a solution best suited to modern needs. Thus, the possibility of developing alternative structures is currently being looked into.

What a Face Connectivity

Common methods of home access include dial-up, landline broadband (over coaxial cable, fiber optic or copper wires), Wi-Fi, satellite and 3G technology cell phones. Public places to use the Internet include libraries and Internet cafes, where computers with Internet connections are available. There are also Internet access points in many public places such as airport halls and coffee shops, in some cases just for brief use while standing. Various terms are used, such as "public Internet kiosk", "public access terminal", and "Web payphone".

Many hotels now also have public terminals, though these are usually fee-based. These terminals are widely accessed for various usage like ticket booking, bank deposit, online payment etc. Wi-Fi provides wireless access to computer networks, and therefore can do so to the Internet itself. Hotspots providing such access include Wi-Fi cafes, where would-be users need to bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA. These services may be free to all, free to customers only, or fee-based.

A hotspot need not be limited to a confined location. A whole campus or park, or even an entire city can be enabled. Grassroots efforts have led to wireless community networks. Commercial Wi-Fi services covering large city areas are in place in London, Vienna, Toronto, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Chicago and Pittsburgh. The Internet can then be accessed from such places as a park bench.[19] Apart from Wi-Fi, there have been experiments with proprietary mobile wireless networks like Ricochet, various high-speed data services over cellular phone networks, and fixed wireless services.

High-end mobile phones such as smartphones generally come with Internet access through the phone network. Web browsers such as Opera are available on these advanced handsets, which can also run a wide variety of other Internet software. More mobile phones have Internet access than PCs, though this is not as widely used. An Internet access provider and protocol matrix differentiates the methods used to get online.




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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 1:58 pm

Wink Being
an Information Technology related one, why mus I think and complicate
my self on choosing what to be used in implementing and supporting the
school being the sooner president?? I rather go to Information
Technology Infrastructure.


The Information Technology Infrastructure also known as Infrastructure Management Service (IMS) is a set of concepts and policies for managing information technology (IT) infrastructure, development and operations. ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) gives a detailed description of a number of important IT practices with comprehensive checklists, tasks and procedures that any IT organization can tailor to its needs. ITIL is published in a series of books, each of which covers an IT management topic. The names ITIL and IT Infrastructure Library are registered trademarks of the United Kingdom's Office of Government Commerce (OGC).

Overview of the ITIL v3 library
Five key volumes comprise the ITIL v3, published in May 2007:
1. Service Strategy
2. Service Design
3. Service Transition
4. Service Operation
5. Continual Service Improvement



Service Strategy
As the center and origin point of the ITIL Service Lifecycle, the Service Strategy volume provides guidance on clarification and prioritization of service provider investments in services. More generally, Service Strategy focuses on helping IT organizations improve and develop over the long term. In both cases, Service Strategy relies largely upon a market-driven approach. Key topics covered include service value definition, business case development, service assets, market analysis, and service provider types. Processes covered include service portfolio management, demand management, and IT financial management.

Service Design
The ITIL Service Design volume provides good practice guidance on the design of IT services, processes, and other aspects of the service management effort. Significantly, design within ITIL is understood to encompass all elements relevant to technology service delivery, rather than focusing solely on design of the technology itself. As such, Service Design addresses how a planned service solution interacts with the larger business and technical environments, service management systems required to support the service, processes which interacts with the service, technology, and architecture required to support the service, and the supply chain required to support the planned service. Within ITIL, design work for an IT service is aggregated into a single Service Design Package (SDP). Service Design Packages, along with other information about services, are managed within the service catalog. Processes covered in this volume include service level management, availability management, capacity management, IT service continuity management, information security management, supplier management, and service catalog management.

Service Transition
Service transition relates to the delivery of services required by the business into live/operational use, and often encompasses the "project" side of IT rather than "BAU" (Business As Usual). This area also covers topics such as managing changes to the "BAU" environment. Topics include Service Asset and Configuration Management, Transition Planning and Support, Release and deployment management, Change Management, Knowledge Management, as well as the key roles of staff engaging in Service Transition.

Service Operation
Best practice for achieving the delivery of agreed levels of services both to end-users and the customers (where "customers" refer to those individuals who pay for the service and negotiate the SLAs). Service Operations is the part of the lifecycle where the services and value is actually directly delivered. Also the monitoring of problems and balance between service reliability and cost etc are considered. Topics include balancing conflicting goals (e.g. reliability vs. cost etc), Event management, incident management, problem management, request fulfillment, access management, and service desk. The functions include technical management, application management, operations management and Service Desk as well as, responsibilities for staff engaging in Service Operation.

Continual Service Improvement
(CSI)


Aligning and realigning ITservices to changing business needs (because standstill implies decline).
The goal of Continual Service Improvement is to align and realign IT Services to changing business needs by identifying and implementing improvements to the IT services that support the Business Processes. The perspective of CSI on improvement is the business perspective of service quality, even though CSI aims to improve process effectiveness, efficiency and cost effectiveness of the IT processes through the whole lifecycle. To manage improvement, CSI should clearly define what should be controlled and measured.

CSI needs to be treated just like any other service practice. There needs to be upfront planning, training and awareness, ongoing scheduling, roles created, ownership assigned, and activities identified to be successful. CSI must be planned and scheduled as process with defined activities, inputs, outputs, roles and reporting.

The IT Service Management sets
1. Service Delivery
2. Service Support

Other operational guidance
3. ICT Infrastructure Management
4. Security Management
5. The Business Perspective
6. Application Management
7. Software Asset Management

To assist with the implementation of ITIL practices a further book was published providing guidance on implementation (mainly of Service Management):
8. Planning to Implement Service Management

And this has more recently been supplemented with guidelines for smaller IT units, not included in the original eight publications:
9. ITIL Small-Scale Implementation


Service Support
The Service Support ITIL discipline is focused on the User of the ICT services and is primarily concerned with ensuring that they have access to the appropriate services to support the business functions.

To a business, customers and users are the entry point to the process model. They get involved in service support by:

* Asking for changes
* Needing communication, updates
* Having difficulties, queries.
* Real process delivery

The service desk is the single contact point for customers problems. If there is a direct solution, it tries to resolve the problem. If not, it creates an incident. Incidents initiate a chain of processes: Incident Management, Problem Management, Change Management, Release Management and Configuration Management (see following sections for details). This chain of processes is tracked using the Configuration Management Database (CMDB), which records each process, and creates output documents for traceability (Quality Management).

Service Desk / Service Request Management
Tasks include handling incidents and requests, and providing an interface for other ITSM processes.

* Single Point of Contact (SPOC) and not
necessarily the First Point of Contact (FPOC)
* There is a single point of entry and exit
*Easier for Customers
* Data Integrity
* Communication channel is streamlined
The primary functions of the Service Desk are:
* Incident Control: life cycle management of all Service Requests
* Communication: keeping the customer informed of progress and advising on workarounds

The Service Desk function is known under various names .
* Call Center: main emphasis on professionally handling large call volumes of telephone-based transactions
* Help Desk: manage, co-ordinate and esolve incidents as quickly as possible
* Service Desk: not only handles incidents, problems and questions but also provides an interface for other activities such as change requests, maintenance contracts, software licenses, service level management, configuration management, availability management, Financial Management and IT Services Continuity Management

The three types of structure that can be considered are:
* Local Service Desk: to meet local business needs - is practical only until multiple locations requiring support services are involved
* Central Service Desk: for organizations having multiple locations - reduces operational costs and improves usage of available resources

* Virtual Service Desk: for organizations having multi-country locations - can be situated and accessed from anywhere in the world due to advances in network performance and telecommunications, reducing operational costs and improving usage of available resources

Incident Management
The goal of Incident Management is to restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimize the adverse effect on business operations, thus ensuring that the best possible levels of service quality and availability are maintained. 'Normal service operation' is defined here as service operation within Service Level Agreement (SLA) limits.

Problem Management
The goal of 'Problem Management'is to resolve the root cause of incidents and thus to minimize the adverse impact of incidents and problems on business that are caused by errors within the IT infrastructure, and to prevent recurrence of incidents related to these errors. A `problem' is an unknown underlying cause of one or more incidents, and a `known error' is a problem that is successfully diagnosed and for which either a work-around or a permanent resolution has been identified. The CCTA defines problems and known errors as follows:

A problem is a condition often identified as a result of multiple Incidents that exhibit common symptoms. Problems can also be identified from a single significant Incident, indicative of a single
error, for which the cause is unknown, but for which the impact is significant.

A known error is a condition identified by successful diagnosis of the root cause of a problem, and the subsequent development of a Work-around.

Problem management is different from incident management. The principal purpose of problem management is to find and resolve the root cause of a problem and prevention of incidents; the purpose of incident management is to return the service to normal level as soon as possible, with smallest possible business impact.

The problem management process is intended to reduce the number and severity of incidents and problems on the business, and report it in documentation to be available for the first-line and second line of the help desk. The proactive process identifies and resolves problems before incidents occur. These activities are:

* Trend analysis;
* Targeting support action;
* Providing information to the organization.


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 5:35 pm

Given the chance to be hired as an IT consultant of the University of Southeastern Philippines, I would gladly do all my best to cater all the needs that the institution require.

So the issue here is about the improvement of the internet connectivity in the University. There are a lot of things that should be considered and must be look over to in order to satisfy what the University wanted to improve to.

The first thing that I could do is asked them about the problems they are encountering. Then analyze the problem well and present different factors that well though – out to.

The following are the things I would likely want to suggests:

Upgrading of Computers/ Hardware – before being hired as an IT consultant, I’ve been a student of the University for four years. And let’s face it, the computer units are not that upgraded in order to cater the needs of the students. The University should also pay attention to their computer laboratories. Obviously, there is a lot of hardware problems. They should allocate budget first for new computers before thinking of the problem about the internet connectivity. Even if the connection of the internet has speed up, but still the computer cannot keep up with it due to faulty and old devices, the internet connection will still be suffering for being so slow. The advancement of the computer units may be one reason to help the internet connectivity be stable. They should boost the computer speed or at least try to purchase a high-speed computers in order not to suffer with slow internet connection. Since the University have been cutting of the cost giving limited budget all over the institution, I would still suggest that if they could have at least a portion of the computer units to be improved. And also upgrade the problematic hardware so that the computers can be used comfortably by the student. With this, I can say that the improvement of the internet connectivity will not be impossible.

Software – A suggestion is already made about the hardware matter in the University, so let’s take a look about the software. The University should use software that would not allocate so much in the computer’s memory. They should select the application that will be use, applications that are light and could not affect the processing of data. There are a lot of software that could be used to speed up the loading and somehow make the internet connection faster.

Wireless Fidelity – A wireless data Internet technology that lets people connect to the Internet at high speeds through their personal or hand-held devices without needing to use cables. It has always been an issue to the University about the secured wireless fidelity connection. And to think that all the students are paying for it and have the privileged of using it, so the questions is why should prohibit the students in accessing the wireless fidelity connection. I could suggest that having the wireless fidelity to be public is one great moved for the internet connection to be faster. Wireless Fidelity has a lot of advantages. Wireless networks are easy to set up and inexpensive. They're also unobtrusive. Also If they decided to open the wireless fidelity to the public, why not just open a new internet connection provided for wireless fidelity. As I have read, if the internet connection of wireless fidelity and wired connection is shared, wireless fidelity will be useless, for there will be a tendency that the wireless fidelity connection will be as slow as dial-up connection or even worse. Wireless Fidelity has a lot of advantages. Wireless networks are easy to set up and inexpensive. They're also unobtrusive.

Network type to be use - The selection of a network type is one of the first major decisions to be made in setting up a network. Once constructed, a network type can be very difficult and expensive to change later, so it is a decision that should be made correctly the first time. Consideration must be paid to the needs of your organization right now, as well as the future of the network. Knowing more about the basic communications methods utilized by a network gives you a greater understanding the hardware involved and the problems that it may be subject to. Network communications problems can be very difficult to troubleshoot—even more so when you are unaware of what is actually going on inside the network medium. Since each type of wiring has a different bandwidth, cost, and interference limitations. the cable selected will connect to a NIC (Network Interface Card) in a computer or device that will allow it to access the network. The cables used to create a network varies, and it is important to consider all options in determining which type of cabling is best for any networking situation. As far as I know, the University have been using UTP cables and fiber-optic cables. This fact confuses me, because if they wanted the internet connection to be more faster, why not shift to a better option. Even though by far the most popular LAN cabling is Twisted Pair. Especially the University are under budget constraints and want a simple installation. But still the LAN requires a high level of security or data integrity or need to transmit data over long distances at high speeds, twisted pair should not be used. Like use totally the fiber – optic cable. Although expensive, fiber optic cabling is the choice for very high speed, high-capacity data transmission. In this type of cabling, optical fibers are used to carry digital data signals in the form of modulated light pulses. Since no electrical signals are being transmitted, a fiber-optic network is very secure. With this, another problem could be solve. I assumed that the University have great Engineering and Network Administrator people that could be tapped about this matter.

Network Topology – Topology is the design for the physical layout of a network. A Technology Coordinator needs to understand topology in order to create the school (and district’s) network components based on budget. Since we are talking about the medium to be used for the network connection, let me also examine the network topology the University currently using. Assuming, network topology is one factor of having a slow connection, I must suggest that they should use Star Topology. Especially that the whole University is a Local Area Network or LAN. Star Topology should be use because in a Star topology, all devices are connected to a central hub. The hub moves signals from any node and passes it along to all the other nodes in the network. Hubs do not filter or route data. They simply join nodes together. Star is the most common today since enables the network to remain stable, even when one cabling connection fails. If the hub fails however, the network will lose connection. It is easy to install and wire. Star Topology has no disruptions to the network then connecting or removing devices. And it is easy to detect faults and to remove parts.

Bandwidth – Bandwidth includes the range within a band of frequencies or wavelengths as well as the amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time. Like the highway system, bandwidth is designed to carry network traffic. The wider the highway, the more traffic that can be carried. Just like the highway system, however, bandwidth is only a potential. Since bandwidth is a measure of potential speed as well as potential data that can be carried, there can be bottlenecks in networks that increase the overall time traffic takes to get from one place to another. As an IT consultant, I would wanted to know first what must the reason why the University is encountering slow internet connection. And I’ve discovered that one reason is about the filtered distribution among the networks connection in the University. One thing that could solve this is to increase the bandwidth. I also knew that the University have already increased the bandwidth, still there’s no effect. Even if the University keep on increasing the bandwidth, if it is not properly allocated, nothing will happen. The University should allocate bandwidth properly depending on the usage. Probably, with this, the tasks require the most bandwidth can be suitably attended to. While the information and tasks that not necessarily need high bandwidth can also be attended to at the same time.

DNS Setting - Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participants. Most importantly, it translates domain names meaningful to humans into the numerical (binary) identifiers associated with networking equipment for the purpose of locating and addressing these devices worldwide. An often used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the "phone book" for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses. For example, www.example.com translates to 208.77.188.166. Also the DNS has a software updates: many anti-virus and commercial software now use the DNS system to store version numbers of the latest software updates so client computers do not need to connect to the update servers every time. For these type of applications, the cache time of the DNS records are usually shorter. So if the DNS Setting is managed well, these would also a little help for a faster internet connection.

Computer Virus – is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without the permission or knowledge of the owner. The term "virus" is also commonly but erroneously used to refer to other types of malware, adware, and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability. A true virus can only spread from one computer to another (in some form of executable code) when its host is taken to the target computer; for instance because a user sent it over a network or the Internet, or carried it on a removable medium such as a floppy disk, CD, DVD, or USB drive. Viruses can increase their chances of spreading to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer. Most personal computers are now connected to the Internet and to local area networks, facilitating the spread of malicious code. Today's viruses may also take advantage of network services such as the World Wide Web, e-mail, Instant Messaging, and file sharing systems to spread. Thus, computer viruses can physically affect the performance of the computer and its processes and also the internet connectivity within a network. Resulting it to a slower connection and even worse. So as a solution, the University should install appropriate anti-virus software in all its computer units. Even for an expert, removing a computer virus can be a difficult task without the help of computer virus removal tools. Some computer viruses and other unwanted software, such as spyware, even reinstall themselves after the viruses have been detected and removed. Fortunately, by updating the computer and by using anti-virus tools, you can help permanently remove unwanted software. To help avoid viruses, it's essential that you keep your computer current with the latest updates and anti-virus tools, stay informed about recent threats, and that you follow a few basic rules when you surf the Internet, download files, and open attachments. Having an adequate protection for the computer is the most important thing.

People ware – we are done with the proper things and the factors that the University should consider in order to address all the problems they are encountering with regards to slow internet connectivity. So the last would be for the people who were involved with the said problem. The people are main key in order for all the good plans of improving the University’s performance in terms of internet connectivity. They should all be properly oriented about the properly usage of the internet or the computer, be it as faculty, student or staff. Even if we can already solve the problems regarding the slow internet connectivity, if the people would be the cause of delay, then all the efforts will be literally useless.


Once and for all, this is a University. We all belong to a one institution. So we should all cooperate and do all our responsibility to address all the problems that the University have been going through.


References:
http://www.yourdictionary.com/finance/wireless-fidelity
http://ide.ed.psu.edu/itsc/portfolio/itscKristinH/aect/areas/1media/1_16.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org
http://fcit.usf.edu/Network/chap5/chap5.htm






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PostSubject: if hired as an IT consultant...suggest ways to improve university internet connectivity [PART 1]   Wed Aug 19, 2009 5:39 pm

Well, well, well… Here we go again. As much as I want take this easy and straight, I have to make this long enough (just enough to satisfy the needed number of words) and so I guess, I’m sorry to say this but I must streeeetch this quite loooong… hahaha.

Consider this question for our topic now – if you were hired by the university president as an IT consultant (wow, big deal!), what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved?? Uh-huh… So this is quite a serious matter to talk about. Being hired as a consultant is really a bit serious but there is more for the institution that I belong to.

So let me first talk about some things which are essential for this issue.

Internet and technology – what are they and what can they do?

Briefly, let us take some backward steps to some definitions of the terminologies. Internet, as what most computer savvy people would say, is a global network of networks. With its universal technology platform, any computer can communicate with any other computer. And through its World Wide Web applications and websites, the internet has gained popularity over millions of thousands people from all parts of the globe. As they say, “Internet is where you can find anything under the sun!”

Communication nowadays has been transformed into another form and ways – I have noticed it. And I suppose all grounds were broken from one foundation – the discovery of the chip that developed into the age of computers and eventually into applications of the technology that we are using today including the Internet connectivity.

So much about that I guess I am blabbing all my way out here about how the world transformed from the history when technology is in its lower level. Hahaha. Actually I was just imagining the time of my life when I was first introduced to the Internet. I did not know the ability of Internet connectivity at that time. But truly, I just can simply recall how technology is changing the way we acquire and share information in the present. In the past, we make great efforts to find every book in the library we could just to find a single topic. Now, we just face the computer, have a few clicks, and get connected to the online resource provider where we could get any information anytime, anywhere.

What can you do on the internet? One can communicate and collaborate through online connection to people and other areas – locally and across seas and mountains. I could still remember my professor who once told us about Thomas Freedman’s statement that “the world is flat.” By just moving a computer’s mouse and a few clicks, one can travel the globe in an hour! Internet lets us access information even from another computer miles away by networking. We can participate in discussions here and there through connecting to conferences and forums and blogs and still more groups online. Moreover, one can find entertainment brought by gaming, chatting, surfing, social networking and the like; exchange business transactions and moving through electronic commerce by enabling the digital market. File-sharing, downloading, instant messaging, and electronic mailing (e-mail) are also done through internet. That is the power brought by the technology we have in the world today.

Internet access in a computer is provided by what we call Internet Service Providers or ISP. ISPs offer internet access to customers usually on a monthly fee. The customers uses the ISP’s network to access the Internet. Actually, there are several kinds of internet connection depending on the type of access. The three (3) broad categories described by MS Encarta are: dedicated, dial-up, and wireless. With dedicated access, a subscriber’s computer remains directly connected to the Internet at all times through a permanent, physical connection. Most large businesses have high-capacity dedicated connections; small businesses or individuals that desire dedicated access choose technologies such as digital subscriber line (DSL) or cable modems, which both use existing wiring to lower cost. A DSL sends data across the same wires that telephone service uses, and cable modems use the same wiring that cable television uses. In each case, the electronic devices that are used to send data over the wires employ separate frequencies or channels that do not interfere with other signals on the wires. Thus, a DSL Internet connection can send data over a pair of wires at the same time the wires are being used for a telephone call, and cable modems can send data over a cable at the same time the cable is being used to receive television signals.

Another, less-popular option is satellite Internet access, in which a computer grabs an Internet signal from orbiting satellites via an outdoor satellite dish. The user usually pays a fixed monthly fee for a dedicated connection. In exchange, the company providing the connection agrees to relay data between the user’s computer and the Internet. I think this is what we commonly call as “wireless fidelity” of WiFi.

Dial-up is the least expensive access technology, but it is also the least convenient. To use dial-up access, a subscriber must have a telephone modem, a device that connects a computer to the telephone system and is capable of converting data into sounds and sounds back into data. The user’s ISP provides software that controls the modem. To access the Internet, the user opens the software application, which causes the dial-up modem to place a telephone call to the ISP. A modem at the ISP answers the call, and the two modems use audible tones to send data in both directions. When one of the modems is given data to send, the modem converts the data from the digital values used by computers—numbers stored as a sequence of 1s and 0s—into tones. The receiving side converts the tones back into digital values. Unlike dedicated access technologies, a dial-up modem does not use separate frequencies, so the telephone line cannot be used for regular telephone calls at the same time a dial-up modem is sending data.
(Microsoft ®️ Encarta ®️ 2007. ©️ 1993-2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)

Benefits to Organizations and Universities

As soon as we are connected to the global link, we are part of the Internet. We can access and share information hence organizations can rely on it to be linked with their resources of data, business partners, and others to communicate. Those who are in the business sector know very well the advantages of network linkages (which are very useful for promotion of their businesses). Those who are in the service division and government gain benefits in the communication and collaboration to other agencies. And those in learning institutions (e.g. schools, universities, and colleges) need it in the classrooms, in the office, in the laboratory, and even in home and outside the campus.

Basically, the university members (faculty, students, and staff) and the university itself rely on the Internet to carry out the vital functions necessary to support the university’s teachings, research and outreach missions. In educational purposes alone, the Internet has a big role in helping the students and teachers alike to acquire, share, and gather facts and all kinds of information. As we have observed now, our libraries, resource centers, research areas, study halls and other places where we visit to see some archived information have Internet connections. Still others which have no direct Internet connectivity though, have networked link from one computer to the other.

I, for instance, am a living (and breathing!) example of how Internet technology can be a big help to students. Ever since I knew Internet (my idea about it is that, it is something where I could research for my assignments. That is why most of my allowance would go to the internet cafés because I prefer to use computers than spend time browsing the pages of old and torn books in the library.), my study and research habits changed. Because of the wide (and still going wider!) availability and accessibility of the Internet to all users, students would prefer going to the internet shops after class (or even between classes!) to surf for some answers in the net. Of course, where I could find any resource else where I can have numerous results to my questions that fast? From simple archives of little answers by people to online posted questions to research papers, eBooks, forum discussions, online tutors and chatters willing to give opinions, I will not be surprised that someday, books in the libraries will no longer be used (or worse, exist!) instead all its contents will be posted in the net and accessed by students and teachers alike.

In my university, students log on to the internet to find information and entertainment. Still others while browsing for educational sites would open another window or tab to log in to their favorite networking site and chat with some friends. We do assignments online too, as we are also sharing course notes and lecture slides to our electronic groups and mails. Apart from that students are also requested to make, design, or maintain web sites blogs. And relating to our course, we do programs in the computers and sometimes connect to programming sites to find sample codes. In short, we do a LOT of things on the Internet.

Status of the University

As we all know, university employees, (whether faculty, staff or students) can make significant contributions to university business and its mission inside and outside normal hours and from in or off-campus locations. These tasks are dependent on reliable and high-speed Internet access.

But like any other institutions that have network links, issues about Internet connectivity and speed will never be left unnoticed. Users who spend more time using the Internet at school laboratories would definitely be the ones who could observe the variance in speed and ease of use of university computers and its programs / applications including the Internet. Having knowledge about the hardware and software (and people ware, too!) components of information systems, I guess, is a big help to understand it. And being able to understand the cycle of an information system could perhaps one major factor to help eliminate glitches by improving it.

Technically speaking, we do not have high-speed Internet connectivity in our university. Just a few years back, we wait for minutes just for a site to load. Thereby, decreasing our time and productivity to do some assignments and research. We pay enough for our laboratory fee (or Internet usage), yet we can not use it efficiently. (How sad.) True enough the primary problems that arise relating to internet connectivity are speed, or bandwidth, and telecommunications infrastructure needs.

As I have observed when we are using the computer laboratory at the Nodal Center (IC Lab 2), congestion occurs especially if most users access the internet. Internet traffic is increasing and thus speed is at stake. In the present the network administrators have found ways to improve it so now users can access the internet more quickly than before because the pages take lesser time to load. The problem that still needs to consider now is the traffic congestion that occurs when most computer units used are accessing through the internet at the same time. During selective times of the day, I notice that when most students are surfing all at once, the internet pages are also taking more time to load. And as the number of users is increasing so as the increasing traffic especially if the pages opened contain greater amounts of data (e.g. video, audio, photos, etc.).

I guess the administration shall find more ways to further improve the internet connectivity in the university. Not only will it help ease the use of the internet for educational purposes but it will also save much costs (maintenance..).

[continuation at succeeding thread...]


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PostSubject: if hired as an IT consultant...suggest ways to improve university internet connectivity [PART 2]   Wed Aug 19, 2009 5:44 pm

Some suggestions to improve the internet connectivity

I do not actually have much knowledge about the technicalities of the internet connection status in the university. But I have confidence that the system and network administrators working for it (proud to mention our co-college faculties and maintenance operators!) know the better ways to further develop the internet connectivity in the campus. That is, if the university would also be willing to cooperate and support what is best for it. Since the critical mass of IT resources is necessary to support the integration of information technology in the programs of study, the university shall uncover necessary resources to maximize the potential of IT so to transform higher education. Let me try some tips I have surfed through the net:

Planning. Any and all kinds of things would not work out successfully without having a ground plan from which all factors affecting the function of a certain object are being discussed carefully. This is actually where an organization begins towards project implementations. In the university case, I am sure that the ‘big people’ are on organizing ideas for a good scheme regarding the case. For this matter, the administration should know the strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities and analyze them to come up with a set of strategies. Needs and problems should be targeted and assessing the current status shall be assessed to achieve the vision of the university. I also suggest simulation to have actual testing, and students and faculties who are the most common users could participate into it. This shall also include determining the availability of internet service, the kind(s) of technology to be applied, the type(s) of infrastructure to put together, the manner of innovations to be used, and several steps and processes to be done.

In terms of bandwidth (the amount of data that a computer network can transfer in a certain amount of time, and is measured in kbps or mbps), I guess the university should tap an ISP which can provide a tolerable amount of bandwidth for the campus. (We should also check if the ISP is really committed in providing the exact amount of speed.) Of course we have come up with an assessment of the needs of the campus and pointed out the essential factors such as what type of usage do most internet users on the campus are doing. Are they surfing in the net for file-sharing only? Are they using much bandwidth for networking from one college or office to another? Does the research works of students and faculties focus more on plain texts and documents, or do we also have processes that involves greater amount of data such as audio-video streaming? By how much and how often? During what times of day do these tasks take place the most? Evaluating these with the help of operators and maintenance operators (since they know much about tracing the logs) could pinpoint the heaviest and ‘in-demand’ computer tasks that happens in the laboratories and offices and during which periods of the day will the network administrators shall control the amount of bandwidth supplied in the computer laboratories accessing the internet. Having oriented with the types of connection, we could also decide whether the ideal internet connection for the campus is DSL or Broadband, or shall we consider WiFi in some areas only or all throughout the campus. This is also to help maximize the use of internet and cut cost, that is, we all know the university is on tight budget. Since the access of net in various offices can be controlled, then we could apply some tweaks in the network connection so to optimize the network speed. There are some software programs available online that could boost internet connection speed.

I also liked the idea presented by some computer science experts at the University of Illinois about their so-called PERM (Practical End-host collaborative Residential Multihoming) which is a software framework allowing neighbors to pool their internet access and improve both performance and resilience. Although this idea is made for residential areas, I hope we could develop not necessarily the same framework but the same concept. For more about it, pls click this link http://news.illinois.edu/NEWS/06/0427internet.html
I could also imagine of applying the same thought to connecting the offices inside the campus or even other campuses or branches of the university.


Well, solving the inadequate supply of bandwidth is not enough if appropriate systems are not put in place to deal with issues of bandwidth optimization and management. Let us also take a look with the hardware and software infrastructure of the university. Are our computer systems in the campus robust enough to hold and process large amounts of data necessary for use? Because sometimes we have tendencies of getting the best and the fastest connection we could get while ignoring some matters regarding the right specifications of the computer units we have.

Do we have fault-tolerant computer systems which contain hardware, software, and power supply components to provide continuous service? Do we have high-availability computing or tools and technologies enabling system to recover quickly from crash? Why did I include disaster recovery plans of computer systems where in fact our main focus is internet connectivity? I think so because these system crash and failures that may happen could further affect the internet usage in the university, not only in terms of usage but also of financial matters. So in events of computer outage, we can run the university business. We have to improve our intranet structure in the campus, make it more reliable and robust, and support adequate services manned by faculties who can work at home checking the internet connection of the university from time to time so to keep an eye on it.

Firewalls could also help prevent unauthorized users from accessing the network. Having an Intrusion Detection System would aid in monitoring vulnerable points in network to detect and deter unauthorized users. I admit that there are various WiFi connections available in the campus offices. Some are security-enabled and few are open for access. Still we can find other private connections from other organizations outside the university. I must admit that restricting the use of these connections is good in the sense that whoever tries to connect to it will be asked for a password to be able to use it so to control internet traffic. There were times when we experience being connected but somehow after a few minutes somebody blocks the unit we are using so we could no longer share the same wireless connection. I guess this is being detected and done so to manage the amount of bandwidth. But what made us feel not good is that, there were also times when all of the available WiFi connections are not accessible by students who are using laptops hoping to catch some ‘leaks’ in the campus because all are secured. Our school being a center of education should also grant opportunities for students to use these kinds of technology. And if the university is just trying to control the internet traffic in the connection of the campus, I guess they do not have to prevent the students’ access because it is also our right to connect to the internet. I know other schools have campus-wide internet connection for every student, faculty, and staff to use. I guess we should start doing the same too.

I have also searched and found some tips in increasing broadband internet speed. Among these are: network latency can be reduced by increasing the request buffer size, altering the network task scheduler, and increasing the network transfer rate.

In general, the results of these tips would be best gained if there are also balanced planning, funding, and support not only by the people who man the systems but the university as a whole. Applying these concepts of better technology, infrastructure, and innovations does not necessarily mean we have to spend our budget for the newer resources. We just have to weigh and evaluate our needs and think some options that would match to our priorities.


I would like to acknowledge the following references (in links) which helped me formulate the idea for this topic: study study
Microsoft Encarta 2007
Microsoft Encarta Dictionaries
Wikipedia
Chapter 1-Managing the Digital Firm; and Chapter 14-Information Systems Security and Control of Management Information Systems by Laudon & Laudon

Software allows neighbors to improve Internet access at no extra cost
Quick guide to Internet connectivity issues in African universities
Best Ways to Improve Internet Speed
Network Speed Tweaks - Connection Speed
How to Improve Your Broadband Connection over a LAN line
VicMan Software Best improve internet connection software
Making Connections
Planning for Internet Connectivity: A Resource for Communities
Information Technology Policy and Services
Advantages Of Broadband Connection Washington
Transforming Higher Education Using Information Technology: First Steps
Global University System with Globally Collaborative Innovation Network


You can drop comments and messages to my blog http://charmainespeaksup.blogspot.com/2009/08/suggestions-to-improve-internet.html
lol! lol!


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PostSubject: MIS_ASSIGNMENT6   Wed Aug 19, 2009 11:06 pm

Assignment 6

Well, to be hired of the university president as An IT consultant is a great opportunity and pretending to be in that position, I would prefer to suggest the infrastructure and innovation for the Internet connection enhancement and expansion.
Why?
Simply, because the wide operations in the fields of infrastructure and innovation are a great combination and offers well-situated functions in the Internet connection.

As we going to determine, infrastructure is.....

Is mixture of computer hardwares supplied by different vendor including mainframes, PC's, and servers which are networked to each other.

The infrastructure also gives more processing power to the desktop through client/server computing and mobile personal informations devices that provide remote access to the desktop from outside the organization.
The new IT infrastructures is highly networked and promotes the flow of information across the enterprise. It also incorporates public infrastructures, such as telephone systems, the Internet, and public network services.
The Internet plays an important and critical role in the new infrastructure, serving as the principal communication channel with customers, employee's, vendors, distributors and students.

In today’s business environment successful information technology (IT) applications are expected to grow and adapt to
new market conditions. IT vendor tout their new products as having such characteristics as open source code and multiple platform adaptability. But as with previous business processes and systems the successful IT application is in need of the basic
attribute of flexibility. Utilizing three suggested dimensions of flexibility and the strategic flexibility framework this paper
examines the foundation and the concept of IT flexibility and the resemblances found when compared to the concept of
manufacturing flexibility and competitive advantage.

Internet Infrastructure
•Divided into physical na logical
part
•Physical = ISP backbone, ISP
POP, Local loop
•Logical = BGP, IP, DNS







Innovation

Refers to a new way of doing something. It may refer to incremental, radical, and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations. A distinction is typically made between invention, an idea made manifest, and innovation, ideas applied successfully. In many fields, something new must be substantially different to be innovative, not an insignificant change, in the arts, economics, business and government policy. In economics the change must increase value, customer value, or producer value. The goal of innovation is positive change, to make someone or something better. Innovation leading to increased productivity is the fundamental source of increasing wealth in an economy.

Innovation is an important topic in the study of , business, design, economics, sociology, and engineering. Colloquially, the word "innovation" is often synonymous with the output of the process. However, economists tend to focus on the process itself, from the origination of an idea to its transformation into something useful, to its implementation; and on the system within which the process of innovation unfolds. Since innovation is also considered a major driver of the economy, especially when it leads to increasing productivity, the factors that lead to innovation are also considered to be critical to policy makers. In particular, followers of innovation economics stress using public policy to spur innovation and growth.

Those who are directly responsible for application of the innovation are often called pioneers in their field, whether they are individuals or organizations.
Innovation in organizations
A convenient definition of innovation from an organizational perspective is given by Luecke and Katz (2003), who wrote:

"Innovation . . . is generally understood as the successful introduction of a new thing or method . . . Innovation is the embodiment, combination, or synthesis of knowledge in original, relevant, valued new products, processes, or services.

Innovation typically involves creativity, but is not identical to it: innovation involves acting on the creative ideas to make some specific and tangible difference in the domain in which the innovation occurs. For example, propose:

"All innovation begins with creative ideas . . . We define innovation as the successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization. In this view, creativity by individuals and teams is a starting point for innovation; the first is necessary but not sufficient condition for the second".


For innovation to occur, something more than the generation of a creative idea or insight is required: the insight must be put into action to make a genuine difference, resulting for example in new or altered business processes within the organization, or changes in the products and services provided.

A further characterization of innovation is as an organizational or management process. For example, write:
"Innovation, like many business functions, is a management process that requires specific tools, rules, and discipline."

From this point of view the emphasis is moved from the introduction of specific novel and useful ideas to the general organizational processes and procedures for generating, considering, and acting on such insights leading to significant organizational improvements in terms of improved or new business products, services, or internal processes.

Through these varieties of viewpoints, creativity is typically seen as the basis for innovation, and innovation as the successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization . From this point of view, creativity may be displayed by individuals, but innovation occurs in the organizational context only.

It should be noted, however, that the term 'innovation' is used by many authors rather interchangeably with the term 'creativity' when discussing individual and organizational creative activity.

"Often, in common parlance, the words creativity and innovation are used interchangeably. They shouldn't be, because while creativity implies coming up with ideas, it's the "bringing ideas to life" . . . that makes innovation the distinct undertaking it is."

The distinctions between creativity and innovation discussed above are by no means fixed or universal in the innovation literature. They are however observed by a considerable number of scholars in innovation studies.
Economic conceptions of innovation

The introduction of a new good — that is one with which consumers are not yet familiar — or of a new quality of a good.

1.The introduction of a new method of production, which need by no means be founded upon a discovery scientifically new, and can also exist in a new way of handling a commodity commercially.

2.The opening of a new market, that is a market into which the particular branch of manufacture of the country in question has not previously entered, whether or not this market has existed before.

3.The conquest of a new source of supply of raw materials or half-manufactured goods, again irrespective of whether this source already exists or whether it has first to be created.
4.The carrying out of the new organization of any industry, like the creation of a monopoly position (for example through trustification) or the breaking up of a monopoly position

Goals of innovation


Programs of organizational innovation are typically tightly linked to organizational goals and objectives, to the business plan, and to market competitive positioning.

For example, one driver for innovation programs in corporations is to achieve growth objectives. note,
"Companies cannot grow through cost reduction and re engineering alone . . . Innovation is the key element in providing aggressive top-line growth, and for increasing bottom-line results"

In general, business organizations spend a significant amount of their turnover on innovation making changes to their established products, processes and services. The amount of investment can vary from as low as a half a percent of turnover for organizations with a low rate of change to anything over twenty percent of turnover for organizations with a high rate of change.

The average investment across all types of organizations is four percent. For an organization with a turnover of say one billion currency units, this represents an investment of forty million units. This budget will typically be spread across various functions including marketing, product design, information systems, manufacturing systems and quality assurance.

The investment may vary by industry and by market positioning.

One survey across a large number of manufacturing and services organizations found, ranked in decreasing order of popularity, that systematic programs of organizational innovation are most frequently driven by:
1.Improved quality
2.Creation of new markets
3.Extension of the product range
4.Reduced labor costs
5.Improved production processes
6.Reduced materials
7.Reduced environmental damage
8.Replacement of products/services
9.Reduced energy consumption
10.Conformance to regulations

These goals vary between improvements to products, processes and services and dispel a popular myth that innovation deals mainly with new product development. Most of the goals could apply to any organization be it a manufacturing facility, marketing firm, hospital or local government.

Internet as a means to maximize and accelerate transfer of new technology
I shall conclude this brief presentation by few words concerning the exploitation of new technology in the so-called "connected" economy. I shall refer to two aspects related to the innovation process.

For many inventors, the marketing stage often starts with a prototype to prove that the product works satisfactorily, and what's more, works safely. The greater a model's perfection, the greater the chances of selling a license to a manufacturer. But a professional prototype, as close to the final product as possible, can rapidly become extremely expensive. One fantastic and inexpensive alternative to a physical prototype is a computerized model. Basically, it amounts to modeling the invention from all angles on a computer, with self-running commentary, demonstrations and animation of all the invention's functions. The diskette or ZIP disk can be duplicated in as many copies as necessary, and sent via regular mail.

The second aspect concerning the role of Internet in the innovation process which I would like to share with you is the following.

On line marketplaces for technology were created very few years ago. The idea is to link through Internet the creativity of inventors with entrepreneurs, investors and marketers who have the financial and human resources to further develop innovation for market introduction. This new kind of business model has become a dynamic and rapid growing industry where one can already see mergers, acquisitions, but also crashes and exits.

Some virtual markets of technology work for profit, others not. Some are very small with a handful of offers, others large or very large; some specialize in certain fields of technology, others are open to all. The quantity and quality of the information posted on the computer screen, as well as the conditions to access them, varies from one website to another.


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PostSubject: Assignment 6   Wed Aug 19, 2009 11:59 pm

As an IT Consultant??

If I were hired by the university president as an IT consultant? Wow Intereseting,. Haha Well this is fun, have to run my imagination again,. LOL But 3000 words?? hUhu

Let us first define few terminologies to better understand things here,. Hehe

An IT consultant works in partnership with clients, advising them how to use information technology in order to meet their business objectives or overcome problems. Consultants work to improve the
structure and efficiency and of an organization’s IT systems.
IT consultants may be involved in a variety of activities, including marketing, project management, client relationship management and systems development.
They may also be responsible for user training and feedback. In many companies, these tasks will be carried out by an IT project team. IT consultants are increasingly involved in sales and business development, as well as technical duties.

Typical work activities
Task typically involve:
•meeting with clients to determine requirements;
•working with clients to define the scope of a project;
•planning timescales and the resources needed;
•clarifying a client's system specifications, understanding their work practices and the nature of their business;
•traveling to customer sites;
•liaising with staff at all levels of a client organization;
•defining software, hardware and network requirements;
•analyzing IT requirements within companies and giving independent and objective advice on the use of IT;
•developing agreed solutions and implementing new systems;
•presenting solutions in written or oral reports;
•helping clients with change-management activities;
•project managing the design and implementation of preferred solutions;
•purchasing systems where appropriate;
•designing, testing, installing and monitoring new systems;
•preparing documentation and presenting progress reports to customers;
•organizing training for users and other consultants;
•being involved in sales and support and, where appropriate, maintaining contact with client organisations;
•identifying potential clients and building and maintaining contacts.
http://www.prospects.ac.uk/p/types_of_job/it_consultant_job_description.jsp

"Information technology consulting (IT consulting, Computer consultancy, Computing consultancy, technology consulting or business and technology services) is a field that focuses on advising businesses on how best to use information technology to meet their business objectives. In addition to providing advice, IT consultancies often implement, deploy, and administer IT systems on businesses' behalf."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_technology_consulting

"The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail, in addition to popular services such as online chat, file transfer and file sharing, online gaming, and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) person-to-person communication via voice and video."
http://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet

Now improving the internet connectivity would be a great step for change on the university. Internet is very essential for everyone today especially for students. The popularity and accessibility of the Internet has been the driving force behind many improvements and new technologies. Even technologies that were around for a long time before the Net went mainstream have benefited from its explosion in popularity. Access to the internet brings out lots of information that are of great help for students in the university. In the university with a not-so-fast internet connection improving the internet connection is badly needed. Especially for an IT student like me, there is need to access to the internet at all time. It is good if we can just access it on the school to save time and money but I think it would not be possible for now.

If I were hired as an IT consultant of the university I would suggest the following to make internet connection better and possible for everyone.

On technology,.
Talking about the best technology for the improvement of internet connectivity in the university.
What are the most important technologies to determine the Internet’s future?
“Number one is broadband access to the home. Among my coworkers, virtually everybody has a cable modem if they’re in an area that’s served by cable modems. If they’re not, then they have ISDN or DSL. One of the heads of the Yankee Group who spoke in front of AT&T about a year ago said, “Once you have a cable modem, you’d sooner give up your firstborn child than lose it.” I use that quote because it’s exactly what happened to me: I moved from an area where I had a cable modem to an area where one wasn’t available, and I’ve been suffering for the last 10 months. I’m not giving up any of my children, thank you, but really does revolutionize how you use the computer and the Internet from home. High-speed access also means both new applications and an ever-increasing load on networks and servers.”
By: Fred Douglis
http://dsonline.computer.org/portal/cms_docs_dsonline/dsonline/topics/os/Internet.pdf

Here are some types of internet connection that could be of use within the university for better internet accessibility..

Types of Internet Connections

As technology grows, so does our need for bigger, better and faster. Over the years, the way content is presented via the Web has changed drastically. Ten years ago being able to center bold, colored text was something to admire, while today Flash, animations, online gaming, database-driven Web sites, e-commerce and virtual offices — to name but a few — are becoming standards. The need for speed has changed the options available to consumers and businesses alike in terms of how and how fast we can connect to the Internet.
While technology changes at a rapid pace, so do Internet connections. The connection speeds listed below represent a snapshot of general average to maximum speeds at the time of publication. This is no doubt will change over time and Internet connection speeds also vary between Internet Service Providers (ISP).

Analog (up to 56k)
Also called dial-up access, it is both economical and slow. Using a modem connected to your PC, users connect to the Internet when the computer dials a phone number (which is provided by your ISP) and connects to the network. Dial-up is an analog connection because data is sent over an analog, public telephone network. The modem converts received analog data to digital and vise versa. Because dial-up access uses normal telephone lines the quality of the connection is not always good and data rates are limited.
• Typical Dial-up connection speeds range from 2400 bps to 56 Kbps.

ISDN
Integrated services digital network (ISDN) is an international communications standard for sending voice, video, and data over digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires.
• Typical ISDN speeds range from 64 Kbps to 128 Kbps.

B-ISDN
Broadband ISDN is similar in function to ISDN but it transfers data over fiber optic telephone lines, not normal telephone wires. SONET is the physical transport backbone of B-ISDN. Broadband ISDN has not been widely implemented.

DSL
DSL is also called an always on connection because it uses existing 2-wire copper telephone line connected to the premise and will not tie up your phone as a dial-up connection does. There is no need to dial-in to your ISP as DSL is always on. The two main categories of DSL for home subscribers are called ADSL and SDSL.

ADSL
ADSL is the most commonly deployed types of DSL in North America. Short for asymmetric digital subscriber line ADSL supports data rates of from 1.5 to 9 Mbps when receiving data (known as the downstream rate) and from 16 to 640 Kbps when sending data (known as the upstream rate). ADSL requires a special ADSL modem.

SDSL
SDSL is still more common in Europe. Short for symmetric digital subscriber line, a technology that allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines (POTS). SDSL supports data rates up to 3 Mbps. SDSL works by sending digital pulses in the high-frequency area of telephone wires and can not operate simultaneously with voice connections over the same wires. SDSL requires a special SDSL modem. SDSL is called symmetric because it supports the same data rates for upstream and downstream traffic.

VDSL
Very High DSL (VDSL) is a DSL technology that offers fast data rates over relatively short distances — the shorter the distance, the faster the connection rate.
• All types of DSL technologies are collectively referred to as xDSL.
• xDSL connection speeds range from 128 Kbps to 8 Mbps.

Cable
Through the use of a cable modem you can have a broadband Internet connection that is designed to operate over cable TV lines. Cable Internet works by using TV channel space for data transmission, with certain channels used for downstream transmission, and other channels for upstream transmission. Because the coaxial cable used by cable TV provides much greater bandwidth than telephone lines, a cable modem can be used to achieve extremely fast access.
• Cable speeds range from 512 Kbps to 20 Mbps.

Wireless Internet Connections
Wireless Internet, or wireless broadband is one of the newest Internet connection types. Instead of using telephone or cable networks for your Internet connection, you use radio frequency bands. Wireless Internet provides an always-on connection which can be accessed from anywhere — as long as you geographically within a network coverage area. Wireless access is still considered to be relatively new, and it may be difficult to find a wireless service provider in some areas. It is typically more expensive and mainly available in metropolitan areas.
• See the Wireless Networking Standards page of Webopedia for data rates, Modulation schemes, Security, and More info on Wireless networking.
http://www.webopedia.com/quick_ref/internet_connection_types.asp


From the statement of Fred Douglis I would suggest for the university to have broadband connection.

What are the standard broadband technologies?

“The standard broadband technologies in most areas are DSL and cable modems. Newer technologies in use include VDSL and pushing optical fiber connections closer to the subscriber in both telephone and cable plants. Fiber-optic communication, while only recently being used in fiber to the premises and fiber to the curb schemes, has played a crucial role in enabling Broadband Internet access by making transmission of information over larger distances much more cost-effective than copper wire technology. In a few areas not served by cable or ADSL, community organizations have begun to install Wi-Fi networks, and in some cities and towns local governments are installing municipal Wi-Fi networks. As of 2006, broadband mobile Internet access has become available at the consumer level in some countries, using the HSDPA and EV-DO technologies. The newest technology being deployed for mobile and stationary broadband access is WiMAX.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadband_Internet_access#Technology

The university should have the best broadband connection on their laboratories so that student may use them as a tool for getting information through the internet. Another technology the university should have is the Wireless Fidelity network or Wi-Fi. At present the university does have Wi-Fi connections but just limited on some chosen spots in the university not benefiting those who need it. It would be better that university have a Wi-Fi connection so everyone could benefit of course still taking mind of the cost.

On infrastructure,.
As what I’ve understand internet infrastructure are all the hardware and services required to make internet browsing possible. Of course good internet connection should come with good internet infrastructure. As time pass, technology also evolves and so better internet infrastructure could also evolve. The university should give priority of having good quality and affordable hardware components for the laboratories in the school.

On innovations,.
The Internet has nurtured fantastic innovations that contributed to the welfare of the global society. Furthermore, Internet innovations are driven by the global user community and many of the innovations were not envisioned by the original Internet designers. Innovations are enabled by the abundant and affordable computing resources provided by Moore’s Law, and universal connectivity provided by the Internet. As time runs the internet as well as technology also continues to undergo innovations. Such innovations are fast changing and we should also cope up with it.

It is not easy to develop something for an organization and this should be done well. With above mentioned technologies, infrastructure and innovations that may be applicable to the universities also proper maintenance should also be done. For the computer units in laboratories there should be proper security measures so units won’t be easily infected with viruses.



Blog link for this post:
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Stihl Lhyn Samonte

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PostSubject: MIS Assignment 6   Thu Aug 20, 2009 10:55 am

IT consultant

An IT consultant works in partnership with clients, advising them how to use information technology in order to meet their business objectives or overcome problems. Consultants work to improve the structure and efficiency and of an organsiation's IT systems.
IT consultants may be involved in a variety of activities, including marketing, project management, client relationship management and systems development.
They may also be responsible for user training and feedback. In many companies, these tasks will be carried out by an IT project team. IT consultants are increasingly involved in sales and business development, as well as technical duties.

Is a field that focuses on advising businesses on how best to use information technology to meet their business objectives. In addition to providing advice, IT consultancies often implement, deploy, and administer IT systems on businesses' behalf.

If I would be hired by the university president as an IT consultant, I would suggest…

Technology

Technology, broadly, is a tool or set of tools aimed at making some aspect of life better, easier, or more efficient. On the web, that could mean scripting languages that make it easier for developers to create applications, or it could mean applications that make it easier for us to accomplish a task.

I would suggest better equipments that are provide a skill to assessment, training and tutoring services. In this way, all students, teachers and Staff could benefits. Using that high technology, we could be ensured a better future in terms of academic situation, we could think easily in terms of program with reliable and easy to understand.

• Infrastructure

The basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function.

The development and maintenance of essential public infrastructure is an important ingredient for sustained economic growth and poverty reduction.
Poor infrastructure is perhaps the most binding constraint to growth throughout the Asia-Pacific region.
• Improving essential infrastructure services such as energy
• Assisting the creation of enabling environments for both private and public financing and management of infrastructure
• Supporting human resources development, institutional strengthening and capacity building in the infrastructure sector.


• Innovations
A new way of doing something. It may refer to incremental and emergent or radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations. A distinction is typically made between invention, an idea made manifest, and innovation, ideas applied successfully.

• Steps and Processes
Decision making can be hard. Almost any decision involves some conflicts or dissatisfaction. The difficult part is to pick one solution where the positive outcome can outweigh possible losses. Avoiding decisions often seems easier. Yet, making your own decisions and accepting the consequences is the only way to stay in control of your time, your success, and your life.

A significant part of decision making skills is in knowing and practicing good decision making techniques. One of the most practical decision making techniques can be summarized in those simple decision making steps:
Identify the purpose of your decision. What is exactly the problem to be solved? Why it should be solved?

1. Gather information. What factors does the problem involve?
2. Identify the principles to judge the alternatives. What standards and judgement criteria should the solution meet?
3. Brainstorm and list different possible choices. Generate ideas for possible solutions. See more on extending your options for your decisions on my brainstorming tips page.
4. Evaluate each choice in terms of its consequences. Use your standards and judgement criteria to determine the cons and pros of each alternative.
5. Determine the best alternative. This is much easier after you go through the above preparation steps.
6. Put the decision into action. Transform your decision into specific plan of action steps. Execute your plan.
7. Evaluate the outcome of your decision and action steps. What lessons can be learnt? This is an important step for further development of your decision making skills and judgement.


bounce Thank You ! ! ! Razz


Sources:
http://www.readwriteweb.com/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_technology_consulting
http://www.time-management-guide.com/decision-making-skills.html
http://www.ausaid.gov.au/keyaid/infra.cfm


mY bLog:http://stihlyn.blogspot.com/http://stihlyn.blogspot.com/
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neil rey c. niere

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PostSubject: Assignment 6   Thu Aug 20, 2009 4:54 pm

If you were hired by the university president as
an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure,
innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet
connectivity be improved? (3000words)

(1st post):

Introduction:

In the IT consultation world, there are many business skills you need beyond computer skills to succeed. Before you start your own IT consultation firm, you need to become aware of the following required business skills: marketing skills; networking skills; financial skills; written communication skills; and presentation skills. While you don't need to have all these skills initially, you need to be prepared to learn them for the future to make your IT consultation firm work.

Marketing

During the first year, your business will revolve around marketing and sales. You can hire a marketing consultant at the beginning if this is not one of your strong suits and then learn as the IT consultation business develops.

Networking

In the IT consultation business you have to cultivate relationships with other consultants and people that can hire you, but you need to be willing to have a balance. If you push your business too hard, you might breed negativity.
Financial Management Skills
You might be wise to hire an accountant if you are not good with money. You should evaluate your abilities with finances very honestly using a system that will best gauge your money management skills.

Written Skills

You will need to submit written materials often in the IT consultation business. These materials will include proposals, progress reports and contracts, and being good at writing will allow you to work very productively. If you have intimate knowledge of the art of writing, you will be able to turn out proposals and reports quickly and efficiently.

The Art of Presentation

Public speaking will become a large part of your IT consultation business, as clients often need a group presentation before they will accept a project proposal. If you are not good at speaking, enroll in a public speaking class to improve your communication skills and help your future business.
You need to examine all your skills before you start your IT consultation firm and hire consultants or employees that can make up for the weak areas. If you are prepared to learn about skills you might currently lack, you have a better chance at succeeding in the future.

Work of an IT Consultant:

IT consultants may be involved in a variety of activities, including marketing, project management, client relationship management and systems development. An IT consultant works in partnership with clients, advising them how to use information technology in order to meet their business objectives or overcome problems. Consultants work to improve the structure and efficiency and of an organization’s IT systems.
They may also be responsible for user training and feedback. In many companies, these tasks will be carried out by an IT project team. IT consultants are increasingly involved in sales and business development, as well as technical duties.

Task typically involves:
• meeting with clients to determine requirements;
• working with clients to define the scope of a project;
• planning timescales and the resources needed;
• clarifying a client's system specifications, understanding their work practices and the nature of their business;
• travelling to customer sites;
• liaising with staff at all levels of a client organisation;
• defining software, hardware and network requirements;
• analysing IT requirements within companies and giving independent and objective advice on the use of IT;
• developing agreed solutions and implementing new systems;
• presenting solutions in written or oral reports;
• helping clients with change-management activities;
• project managing the design and implementation of preferred solutions;
• purchasing systems where appropriate;
• designing, testing, installing and monitoring new systems;
• preparing documentation and presenting progress reports to customers;
• organising training for users and other consultants;
• being involved in sales and support and, where appropriate, maintaining contact with client organisations;
• identifying potential clients and building and maintaining contacts.

Internet technology has become a dominant factor in business, academia, and everyday life. E-commerce and e-services are fueling a market sea change, with practically any business anyplace nurturing its equivalent on the Internet. The change began with advertisements and news, followed by entertainment (with music and movies) and traditional businesses, such as retail sales, financing, brokerage, and auctions. Now, entirely new businesses and services are created on and for the Internet. As a consequence, Internet service providers and application service providers have created a
revolutionary new model for driving new applications, hardware, and software development.


IT has come to represent virtually anything connected with computers, and nearly everything is connected to computers. If I am hired as an IT consultant by the University President, I would put forward the Infrastructure.


Why Infrastructure?

• Improve the performance, scalability, interoperability of Internet security services.
• Expedite the development and adoption of protection mechanisms for core Internet naming and routing infrastructure services.
• Research and develop techniques to exploit emerging programmable data planes to improve the survivability of Internet infrastructures.

Infrastructure is the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization. Can be defined as the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, power grids, telecommunications, and so forth. Viewed functionally, infrastructure facilitates the production of goods and services; for example, roads enable the transport of raw materials to a factory, and also for the distribution of finished products to markets. In some contexts, the term may also include basic social services such as schools and hospitals.

Administration

The overall responsibility for managing Internet Protocol address or domain names at upper levels is vested in the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), which delegates the actual administration of most functions to other bodies.
At global regional levels, the principal bodies providing allocation and registration services that support the operation of the Internet globally are:
• RIPE NCC (Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre)
• ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers)
• APNIC (Asia Pacific Network Information Centre)
• LACNIC (Latin American and Caribbean IP address Regional Registry)
• AfriNIC (African Regional Registry for Internet Number Resources)

Internet Operations

Internet operations are coordinated worldwide through the Internet Engineering Planning Group (IEPG), an Internet operational group intended to assist Internet Service Providers to interoperate within the Global Internet. At global regional levels, bodies active in coordinating operations include the:
• American Registry for Internet Numbers
Manages the Internet numbering resources for North America, a portion of the Caribbean, and sub-equatorial Africa.
• Asia Pacific Networking Group (APOPs)
Promotes the Internet and the coordination of network inter-connectivity in the Asia Pacific Region.
Internet Security
Internet network security is significantly facilitated by a number of Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) in eight countries and within a number of service provider operations and private networks. They were formed to continually monitor the network for security incidents, serve as a repository for information about such incidents, and develop responsive advisories. The CERTs are coordinated by the Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams.
Internationalisation
• Alis Technologies
Founded in 1981, Alis Technologies Inc. develops standards for Multilingual Information Management Solutions (MIMS )with the IETF (Internet Engeneering Task Force), the Unicode Consortium, W3C and LISA.
• Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) Committee
Working group to study making domain names available in character sets other than ASCII.
• MINC (Multilingual Internet Names Consortium)
A non-profit, non-governmental, international organization. It focuses on the promotion of multilingualisation of Internet names, including Internet domain names and keywords, internationalization of Internet names standards and protocols, technical coordination and liaison with other international bodies.
• CNNIC (China Network Information Center)
(site is in Chinese)
• KRNIC (Korea Network Information Center)
Established the system for managing Internet address resources in Korea.
• TWNIC (Taiwan Network Infomation Center)
The unique neutral and non-profit organization that takes charge of the domain name registration and IP address allocation in Taiwan.
• The Unicode Consortium
Responsible for defining the behavior and relationships between Unicode characters, and providing technical information to implementers. The Consortium cooperates with ISO in refining the specification and expanding the character set.
Internet Connectivity
• Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)
Database about international networking developments and Internet connectivity providers, with major emphasis on countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and Oceania. Information is available on country-by-country basis and includes connectivity providers, networking infrastructure, and other country-specific information.
• Connectivity Table from University of Wisconsin's FTP server.
Lists entities with and without international network connectivity. Shows countries (with ISO two letter country code (ISO 3166)) which have:
o international IP Internet links
o domestic UUCP sites which are connected to the Global Multiprotocol Open Internet, and
o domestic FIDONET sites which are connected to the Global Multiprotocol Open Internet.
o Connectivity Maps
• Internet Hosts Map
Shows the millions of Internet hosts worldwide as of January 1999.



http://ezinearticles.com/?IT-Consultation:--Do-You-Have-the-Required-Business-Skills?&id=290641

http://www.prospects.ac.uk/p/types_of_job/it_consultant_job_description.jsp

http://www.howstuffworks.com/internet-infrastructure.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_design#Characteristics_of_Service_Design








see 4th page for the continuation!... afro I love you cat


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Shiela Marie P. Nara

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Thu Aug 20, 2009 5:47 pm

Improving Internet Connectivity




This is the situation. Assuming I am an IT consultant and then hired by the university president, I was suppose to suggest some ways to improve the internet connectivity of the university.

For me, there are so many ways to resolve the issue in terms of technology, infrastructures, innovations, steps, processes, amongst others. But before you think of the solutions, you have to consider the university’s budget first.

But before we discuss about some solutions on the issue, let me introduce my job first, IT consultant.

What is IT consultant?

As the name suggests, Information Technology consultants work to improve the structure and efficiency of an organization’s IT systems. IT consultant works in partnership with clients, advising them how to use information technology in order to meet their objectives or overcome their problems.



And now, we have to discuss the internet connectivity and its improvement in the university. As what I’ve said our focus will be on the speed of the internet.


But what is Internet?

Internet is a shortened term for Internetwork. Internetwork is simply defined as network of networks based on many underlying hardware technologies, but unified by an internetworking standard, the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). It is resulting from the connection of two or more computer networks via gateways using a common routing technology. Gateways are the original term for routers but were deprecated in this context because it brings confusion with the functionally different devices using at the same time.
The interconnection of networks with bridges (link layer devices) is sometimes incorrectly termed “internetworking”, but the resulting system is simply a larger, single subnetwork and no internetworking protocol (IP) is required to traverse it. However, a single computer network may be converted into an internetwork by dividing the network into segments and then adding routers between the segments.


At last, we are done with the definition of terms and now, we can start enumerating the helpful ways to improve the internet connection.


flower TECHNOLOGY

Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems.
Speed is the most important thing in Internet. Most speeds are advertised in their bit speed, i.e. 1 mbps/256kbps, all with small bs. What’s the significance of this thought? It differentiates the capital B and the lower case b. B means byte while b is foe bits, the difference is that 1 byte equals 8 bits.
There are common methods of internet access which includes dial-up, landline (over coaxial cables, fiber optics or copper wires), T-lines, Wi-Fi, satellitre and cell phones.



Dial-up connections are the most common type of the internet connection available from ISPsn and the slowest and yet the least expensive.

56K Modem

This is the original method most of us used to connect to the internet. It's limited to below 56kbps because of what the line can handle.

ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network

This was the faster option available to many dialup users, with a guaranteed connection of 64 or 128, depending on the number of channels used.

DSL - Digital Subscriber Line

DSL or xDSL is a family of technologies that provides digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. DSL originally stood for digital subscriber loop, but as of 2009 the term digital subscriber line has been widely adopted as a more marketing-friendly term for ADSL, the most popular version of consumer-ready DSL. DSL can be used at the same time and on the same telephone line with regular telephone, as it uses high frequency bands, while regular telephone uses low frequency.

This category of technologies is currently the fastest available right now. DSL is the superset of many technologies, where data is transmitted down your normal copper line as digital signals, because voice uses a different frequency, you can do both at once, splitters at either end split the voice and the data into separate streams.
DSL technologies have a limit on the distance between the premises and your local telephone exchange, which is usually between 3KM and 5KM depending on the speed of the service you are applying for. The download speed of consumer DSL services typically ranges from 256 kilobits per second (kbit/s) to 24,000 kbit/s, depending on DSL technology, line conditions and service-level implementation. Typically, upload speed is lower than download speed for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and equal to download speed for the rarer Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL).

ADSL - Asymetric Digital Subscriber Line

Often simply referred to as DSL in America, this method has a different upload and download speed, the download speed is usually much faster than upload, and is therefore ideal for the home user. It usually starts at about 256kbps rising all the way upto 8mbps in some areas, which in theory is the maximum.


ADSL2+
Probably able to carry upto 25mbps downstream, this is a new technology being trialled in some areas.

SDSL - Symetric Digital Subscriber Line

This method has the same upload and downloads speed, and so therefore the maximum download must be lower.
Cable

This system uses a mixture of fibre optics, and coaxial cable to your home, not your existing phone line, therefore the technology must be available in your area.

Cable Internet is the principal competitor of the DSL which offers a range of prices and speeds overlapping that of DSL, but tends to concentrate more on the high end of the market.

Wireless

This system uses radio technology, and a receiver based on your premises, depending on the technology, the receiver may be attached to your roof or inside the home.

To sum it up, among the above-mentioned types of common used connections, I highly recommend the use of DSL.


flowerINFRASTRUCTURES

Infrastructure can be defined as the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.

The Internet has placed heavy demands on infrastructure with its requirement for high-quality, high-speed connections.

DSL connection is almost of no use if the university’s hardware can only comply with the minimum speed requirement. I mean, what is the use of fast internet connection if our computers and other devices have no capacity to manage large data in a second?

I also suggest in improving the computer units of the university. Units which are able to manage large amount of data I short span of time.

For the internet backbone, I suggest that the university only use the existing media in terms of what they only needed. Be it a copper wire or fiber optics. In consideration to the cost, fiber optics is known to be at least the most efficient in fast traversal of the data but it’s also expensive. Fiber optics is ideal for networks with a long distance. In the case of the university, the distances of the computer units are not too long to require fiber optics. Thus, I suggest the use of copper wires, it is just moderately expensive and yet effective.


flowerINNOVATIONS

The term innovation refers to a new way of doing something. It may refer to incremental and emergent or radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations.

The first tip is to get rid of your modem and move to ADSL. Yes, broadband is available at low cost in most areas.

Use a high speed port. This'll only apply to readers with really old computers. The serial port may use an old, slow chip called a UART. The answer is to fit a high speed serial port with a 16550 UART chip or to fit an internal modem which includes one of these beasties.

Organizations and institutions like the university would also have to have the acceptance to change. If in the current situation, they are not using the DSL connection or the copper wire media, then it’s the time they have to weigh the costs and advantages of the said technology and infrastructure with the existing ones.
This will guarantee a strong campus network infrastructure that will improve the University’s services, operations, managerial decision-making and strategic development.


flowerPROCESSES

Process or method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. It often can be visualized with a flowchart as a sequence of activities.

Here are some of the processes or steps which will help in improving the speed of the internet.


1.) Use Anti-Spyware:

There are numerous programs that can be obtained over the Internet that are harmful to your computer. These are not viruses or worms. Instead, they are known as "Spyware."

Spyware is not easy to define, because there are so many variations of it. In the most typical case, Spyware usually arrives on your computer because you agreed to permit it. Perhaps you signed up for a free tool bar, or downloaded free software, or you are using some web-based server such as a file-sharing site.

Some Spyware merely records information about what web sites you have visited, and transmits that information back to Spy. This slows down your computer because it takes time to send back this information. Some Spyware will actually hijack your computer. Many of the sophisticated Spammers (people who send junk mail) will hijack your computer and send off a few hundred junk emails without you ever knowing about it.
Spyware Blaster at: http://www.javacoolsoftware.com/spywareblaster.html

Spyware Guard at:http://www.wilderssecurity.net/spywareguard.html
Spybot Search and Destroy at:http://spybot.eon.net.au/

2.) Use Firewall and kill Pop Ups

Another factor that slows down surfing, and is downright annoying anyway, is pop-up advertising. Pop-ups cost you bandwidth, which results in a loss of speed. Part of that suite of programs I mentioned earlier includes a pop-up killer.

Finally, there are problems that occur because others are attempting to gain information and/or control of your computer. They may do this by "pinging" your computer. A "Ping" is a request made by another computer for the identification number of your computer. Again, this information can be used to hijack your machine. Installing software known as a “Firewall” can prevent this.

Zone Alarm at: http://www.zonelabs.com/store/content/company/zap_za_grid.jsp
Popup Killer:EndPops.com at: http://endpopups.com

3.) Use Anti-Virus:

Another class of programs that we don't need are virus/worms. If you install the program I suggest for Anti-Virus, be sure to uninstall any other virus program you have running on your computer. It is not unusual for virus programs to disagree on which one is in control of your computer.

AVG Anti-Virus by Grisoft at: http://www.grisoft.com/us/us_index.php
Atomic Clock Sync at: http://www.worldtimeserver.com/

4.) Tweak your settings

Your PC has some settings that may improve modem throughput. All data sent over the internet goes in data packets.

5.) Use FTP download wherever possible.

If you want to download files, you can often choose between FTP or HTML download. FTP, (File Transfer Protocol,) is much faster for file transfers so you should choose that when you can.

6.) Use a download tool.
There's nothing more frustrating than losing a connection near the end of a one hour download.

7.) Use a faster browser.

Once you've connected to AOL, you can start any browser and run it in a second window. Opera is one of the fastest so why not download a free copy and give it a test run?

8.) Manage your cache.

Every time you use the internet, images and other files are downloaded onto your hard disk.

9.) Define a blank homepage.

Each time you start a browser outside your AOL window, the browser will go to the defined homepage.

10.) Don't display images.

Text only windows are much faster to download. You can easily restore images when required. Here's how to set whether to display images: From Internet Options (see above) select the Advanced tab. Scroll down until you see the multimedia section, then select or deselect "Show pictures." Select Apply then OK to save your change.

Finally, I strongly recommend that you keep informed these programs and their databases on a regular basis. If you don't, you won't be fully protected. My rule of thumb is twice a week.

If you are running any version of windows, you would also be well advised to download and install all available patches, fixes and updates from the Microsoft Windows Update web site at: http://v4.windowsupdate.microsoft.com/en/default.asp

That’s all. I hope I have successfully done my part as IT consultant.The above-mentioned tips and ways are only my suggestions to the university president if ever. In the end, it’s up to the president to weigh his decisions with the aide of my advice.


flowerMY BLOG:

http://shielamariepnara.blogspot.com/2009/09/mis-6-net.html

flowerREFERENCES:

http://www.epinions.com/content_3428491396
http://www.practicalpc.co.uk/computing/comms/speedup.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.helpbytes.co.uk/connections.php
http://www.epinions.com/content_3428491396
http://www.prospects.ac.uk/p/types_of_job/it_consultant_job_description.jsp
















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Ariel Serenado

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Aug 21, 2009 2:05 am

I have posted my answer for this assignment 6 threads below this thread. For i forgot that i have reserved this thread for myself two days before. and I apologize for that..

THank You!!


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brian c. namuag

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PostSubject: Assignment # 6   Fri Aug 21, 2009 2:50 am


A cohesive and robust IT infrastructure is of paramount importance for the development of any company. A successful IT department must be able to meet increasing business driven demands, whilst preparing for changing business dynamics in the future.

If I were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, I would you suggest to use or develop such Infrastructures in University. This is to improve not only the system of the University but as well as transactions, internet access and even operations made by the staff.

We define information technology (IT) to include not only computer technology (hardware and software) for processing and storing information, but also communications technology for transmitting information. Advances in computer and communications technologies have enabled firms to pursue IT investments. This will help them to gain maximum advantage from their knowledge assets-to leverage the knowledge of individual employees to the benefit of other employees and the organization as a whole. Businesses have strived to achieve a competitive advantage in the past by competing in one of two ways: 1. By Cost- by being a low-cost producer of a good and service 2. By Differentiation of a product or service- by competing on customer perceptions of product quality and customer support services.

You know, there is not all that much I would actually change about this university. Sure we could use some better facilities and the more diversity the better, but those changes have to take place over time, sometimes a long time. For now I am content with the prospect of throwing out ideas used by other universities to either increase student recruitment or enhance the image surrounding our college, that has without doubt been tarnished in past years.
Infrastructure can be defined as the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, power grids, telecommunications, and so forth. An underlying base or foundation especially for an organization or system.
The basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society, such as transportation and communications systems, water and power lines, and public institutions including schools, post offices, and prisons. It s the set of interconnected structural elements that provide the framework for supporting the entire structure.

In other applications, the term infrastructure may refer to information technology, informal and formal channels of communication, software development tools, political and social networks, or beliefs held by members of particular groups. Still underlying these more conceptual uses is the idea that infrastructure provides organizing structure and support for the system or organization it serves, whether it is a city, a nation, a corporation, or a collection of people with common interests.

In the present world, which is dynamic and knowledge based, universities have a much wider role to play in creating, preserving, organizing, transmitting and applying knowledge. Modern educational technologies developed from information technology will certainly change in terms of access, interaction, curriculum and instruction etc. The physical locations and facilities will be less important in defining a college or a university due to the easy on-line access of the educational resources of a higher educational institution to the urban as well as rural public. This will provide opportunities to our high school graduated youths from rural areas as well as urban youths to access higher education without a need to forgo their working and earning opportunities to physically attend a college or a university. So universities need to adopt modern education technologies to provide increase access to knowledge resources.

Online technologies are going to make traditional class room teaching less important in many subjects except where it is absolutely necessary. Therefore interaction between teachers and students will have to play a vital role in imparting higher quality education. This means that more frequent and effective internal mechanism of interaction between university faculty and students need to be developed. This, in turn, causes an external relationship between universities and non-university communities. Such external relationship will necessitate universities to respond quickly to the changes in the outside world. Therefore a mechanism to increase both the internal and external interaction efficiencies has to be developed.

The curriculum and instruction are going to be changed greatly. Because the new technologies make the learning and teaching easier, the contents of some courses will be expanded, a considerable number of new courses will be generated, interdisciplinary courses and studies will be more possible. Students and faculties will contribute together to the development of curriculum.


Modern higher education technologies will also change present instructional methods to a more effective one. The faculties will have to adopt an instructional method best suited to the class of students whom they target or to develop new methods best suited for them based on their feedback. Video conferencing techniques, simulators and on-line access to many practical training kits will revolutionize instructional methods. Information Technology infrastructure in the campus provide quality higher education to students and to provide proper academic and research environment to support University’s endeavor for excellence.

More importantly, these technologies will provide the education and knowledge for these people to become prosperous nations that can fend for themselves and provide for their people. Transfers of technology from the developed world to the developing world will improve the standard of living, increase efficiency in production and become a base for economic growth, without this transfer these countries will fall further into poverty and economic ruin, with little hope for survival. For most people of the developed world, the developing world is not something they concern themselves with; they do not see it everyday and therefore it does not exist. This could not be farther from the truth. The developing world is in need of help but the developed world constantly turns a blind eye. Our current love affair with technology may provide the answer for underdeveloped nations problems. The standard of living is so low in these countries that our everyday conveniences are a struggle for the entire population to obtain. If the developed nations could meet these base needs, these countries may be able to overcome their current problems. The first issue that must be dealt with is the unsatisfactory health care and medical technology.



Most IT organizations still install and maintain computers the same way the automotive industry built cars in the early 1900's: An individual craftsman manually manipulates a machine into being, and manually maintains it afterward. This is expensive. The automotive industry discovered first mass production, then mass customization using standard tooling.

The standards and practices described here are the standarized tooling needed for mass customization within IT. This tooling enables:

• Scalable, flexible, and rapid deployments and changes
• Cost effective, timely return on IT investment
• Low labor headcount
• Secure, trustworthy computing environments
• Reliable enterprise infrastructures

This are the 5 services which Information Technology Infrastructures can give to the University:
1. Service Strategy

As the center and origin point of the ITIL Service Lifecycle, the Service Strategy volume provides guidance on clarification and prioritization of service provider investments in services. More generally, Service Strategy focuses on helping IT organizations improve and develop over the long term. In both cases, Service Strategy relies largely upon a market-driven approach. Key topics covered include service value definition, business case development, service assets, market analysis, and service provider types. Processes covered include service portfolio management, demand management, and IT financial management.

2. Service Design

The ITIL Service Design volume provides good practice guidance on the design of IT services, processes, and other aspects of the service management effort. Significantly, design within ITIL is understood to encompass all elements relevant to technology service delivery, rather than focusing solely on design of the technology itself. As such, Service Design addresses how a planned service solution interacts with the larger business and technical environments, service management systems required to support the service, processes which interacts with the service, technology, and architecture required to support the service, and the supply chain required to support the planned service. Within ITIL, design work for an IT service is aggregated into a single Service Design Package (SDP). Service Design Packages, along with other information about services, are managed within the service catalog. Processes covered in this volume include service level management, availability management, capacity management, IT service continuity management, information security management, supplier management, and service catalog management.

3. Service Transition
Service transition relates to the delivery of services required by the business into live/operational use, and often encompasses the "project" side of IT rather than "BAU" (Business As Usual). This area also covers topics such as managing changes to the "BAU" environment. Topics include Service Asset and Configuration Management, Transition Planning and Support, Release and deployment management, Change Management, Knowledge Management, as well as the key roles of staff engaging in Service Transition.

4. Service Operation

Best practice for achieving the delivery of agreed levels of services both to end-users and the customers (where "customers" refer to those individuals who pay for the service and negotiate the SLAs). Service Operations is the part of the lifecycle where the services and value is actually directly delivered. Also the monitoring of problems and balance between service reliability and cost etc are considered. Topics include balancing conflicting goals (e.g. reliability vs cost etc), Event management, incident management, problem management, request fulfillment, access management, and service desk. The functions include technical management, application management, operations management and Service Desk as well as, responsibilities for staff engaging in Service Operation.

5. Continual Service Improvement (CSI)

Aligning and realigning IT services to changing business needs (because standstill implies decline).
The goal of Continual Service Improvement is to align and realign IT Services to changing business needs by identifying and implementing improvements to the IT services that support the Business Processes. The perspective of CSI on improvement is the business perspective of service quality, even though CSI aims to improve process effectiveness, efficiency and cost effectiveness of the IT processes through the whole lifecycle. To manage improvement, CSI should clearly define what should be controlled and measured.
CSI needs to be treated just like any other service practice. There needs to be upfront planning, training and awareness, ongoing scheduling, roles created, ownership assigned, and activities identified to be successful. CSI must be planned and scheduled as process with defined activities, inputs, outputs, roles and reporting.



Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_Technology_Infrastructure_Library#ICT_Infrastructure_Management
http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid80_gci212346,00.html


My Blog: http://brian-takealook.blogspot.com/
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Maria Theresa F. Rulete

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Aug 21, 2009 12:54 pm

Presidents are often faced with the challenge of deciding whether to engage an information technology (IT) consultant. In some cases, the need may be obvious, especially if technology seems to be causing serious consternation on your campus, as in the following examples:

• Faculty take every opportunity, even at cocktail parties, to complain to you about the institution’s technology and support.
• Your college or university had to shut down the new administrative information system—the one that cost $5 million—and had to use the old system as a backup during the first effort to "go live" with online registration.
• You and your board feel that this new technology is a perpetual money sink, and there is no apparent plan to moderate these cost increases.
• There is a heated campus discussion as to how IT "ought" to be organized.
• Despite a campus initiative to standardize on a hardware platform, the Art Department steadfastly refuses to give up their Macs.

Is all of this to be expected, simply inherent in the complexities of technology? Or are such scenarios indicative of an IT environment that is not functioning as well as it should be? A consultant can potentially help a campus executive to sort such things through, analyze the situation, and develop plans for action. Although in some cases it may be obvious that a consultant would be helpful, there are times when it is not so clear cut, and these may be the very times when a consultant would be most effective.

Why Bring in a Consultant?

There are several key benefits to hiring a consultant. An external consultant can:

• bring objectivity to the discussion (which often may be laden with strong opinions and campus politics),
• apply knowledge and experience gained from similar or related scenarios at other campuses, and
• help campus leaders explore the role that information technology can play in achieving institutional goals.

Internal campus politics are often daunting, especially if many people have a stake in the outcome, and IT issues often seem to act as a magnet for such emotionally charged reactions. A good consultant can bring an objective point of view that takes internal issues into account without being invested in the institution’s culture, politics, or historical context by offering an independent judgment of the personnel and practices on your campus. For any situation, it may be very difficult to sort out the issues—they are often quite complex, and the fact that they are technology-based can bring out anxiety and fear of the unknown, often exacerbating these reactions.

A good consultant will bring expertise and experience in dealing with similar situations and, in the case of a problematic environment, will be able to distinguish symptoms from root causes. Experience is critical in dealing with technology, and having the right experience at your disposal can mean the difference between stumbling in the dark and achieving your goals expeditiously. In addition to personal experience, a good consultant will bring awareness of best practices and other important research in the field on issues that may range from organizational structure, IT governance, and standards to budget planning, setting priorities, and the allocation of scarce resources. Pursuing new opportunities that no one at the institution is yet familiar with: doing strategic planning for IT; conducting a mandated program review; searching for a new campus information system—these are all projects that can be enhanced with the right outside expertise. And, finally, a consultant’s expertise will often include the ability to bring to bear a results-oriented framework and a sense of urgency through the establishment of a schedule and setting of deadlines.

Such external and independent experience can often assist greatly in making the connection between the institution’s strategic goals and the role that information technology can play in achieving those goals. This responsibility of integrating IT efforts and strategic goals ultimately lies with the president and his or her executive team (which ones hopes includes the chief information officer)—it should never be abdicated to a consultant!1—though a consultant can be a valuable resource in assisting institutional leadership teams in realizing the importance of making this connection. An outside viewpoint can also be valuable in helping senior executives define their leadership role in shaping the institution’s approach and response to technology opportunities. Incorporating information technology into one’s thinking about the institution’s strategic direction is uncharted water for many presidents, and the right consultant can help ease the way.

How Should the Decision Be Made?

The decision as to whether to engage a consultant, as well as the subsequent decision as to which consultant to bring in, should involve the executive team, especially the CIO or person responsible for IT administration on campus. It is important for the team—and the campus—to understand that calling in an outsider is not a reflection on the quality of institutional resources or leadership. Instead, this consultation should be thought of as part of an ongoing process to review and enhance the institution’s effectiveness. Since IT affects everyone, including the entire executive team in the decision making is a way of recognizing that IT transcends the traditional organizational silos.

The decision to bring in an external consultant may be met with eagerness or with anxiety on the part of the CIO. If this doesn’t come as a surprise to this individual and is part of a process that he or she has been involved in, anxiety that this is a "vote of no confidence" will be reduced. The CIO may even welcome such an external voice to reinforce and amplify what he or she has been advocating, perhaps without adequate credibility to be really "heard."

At any given institution, the CIO may be an excellent consultant for other institutions but unable to make himself or herself a credible source because of historical or political reasons. Alternatively, it may be impossible for him or her to be objective in analyzing difficult situations at home or to be an impartial facilitator in the discussion of new opportunities.

In all of these cases, it is critical to recognize that there are personnel and morale implications that the president must be aware of and sensitive to. While a president will want to point out that the CIO and the IT department will be beneficiaries of such an engagement, bringing in a consultant may be a delicate issue, and this needs to be overtly addressed if the consulting is to be effective. This is especially true in situations in which it may appear that the CIO is at the heart of all the problems. It is important to accept the fact that appearances can be misleading, and an effective consultant can help you, and the rest of the team including the CIO, discern the underlying truth, the pros and cons, and other mitigating circumstances.

How Do You Find the Right Consultant?

There is no such thing as the "right person"—someone who is the perfect, ideal consultant under all circumstances. Looking at credentials and experience is important, of course, but it is also important to remember that the "goodness of the fit" depends on the relationship you develop. Using a consultant effectively is largely a matter of trust, so it is critical that you find someone with whom you can build that trust relationship easily. In other words, the chemistry has to be right! This applies especially to the relationship between the consultant and the president but also between the consultant and the team that does the hiring. It is therefore imperative that the consultant clearly knows who has done the hiring and that the expectations for candor, for reporting, and so forth are as transparent and public as possible.

There is simply no better way to find a good consultant than through personal contacts. It is the most informative—as well as the most expedient—way to gain information and begin the trust relationship. With information technology being a key and compelling force throughout higher education, the chances of finding the right consultant by talking with your colleagues at other institutions are excellent. Even if they have not used a consultant themselves, they are usually able to tap into the right places in the higher education network, very likely yielding at least one or two names for you to consider. If you need to go beyond such contacts, University Business magazine publishes an annual directory of consultants, including those who specialize in information technology, although this is not an exhaustive list.

The type of consultant that you are looking for—one who will be dealing with high-level issues—is found in one of three venues:

1. A respected professional or team of professionals with extensive experience as a practitioner in the IT field. This is just like any other campus visiting team.
2. A small company that focuses solely on IT and/or higher education issues. This category usually is made up of professionals who may work either alone for a client or as part of a team but whose professional origins are in higher education.
3. A large, professional consulting organization that may do many other things in addition to consulting, such as auditing or outsourcing.

The per-hour or per-day costs tend to increase as the size of the organization increases, but a good rule of thumb is that you should expect to pay a consultant about what you would pay an attorney or a physician. Considering what the institution spends on technology overall, the expenditure on a consultant is, in a very real sense, an insurance policy designed to protect that investment.

The first thing to verify is that the consultant has experience in higher education; this is a must! A consultant needs to understand and have experience working in the higher education environment, as there are so many cultural contexts that make this kind of an engagement fundamentally different from IT consulting in business or industry. These cultural factors include the pervasiveness of technology throughout the organization; the link between technology’s role and the institution’s educational mission; the nature of consensus-based decision-making, along with the ubiquity of committees; and the special role of the faculty within the institution, both culturally and organizationally. A consultant needs to appreciate, and be sensitive to, this type of organization. A consultant who is not highly experienced with the academic culture is likely to become frustrated and bewildered very quickly. In addition, a consultant who brings along assumptions from the more top-down business world is likely to raise hackles unnecessarily on campus.

Once you have made the initial contact with a consultant, there are a number of questions you will want to ask, in addition to the usual inquiries about background and experience. These questions are all designed to help determine how well this person fits with your needs.

• How does your expertise match what has been described as our situation? This question looks for insight—an extremely important characteristic in an effective consultant. You should watch for signs that the person is leaping to premature conclusions or is inappropriately making your circumstances fit his or her own experience.
• What will your process look like for dealing with us? The consultant’s experience will show here, in that in addition to answering this question, the consultant has an opportunity to demonstrate his or her willingness and ability to treat your situation as unique—another very desirable characteristic a campus should be seeking.
• Will you work alone or with a team? If the latter, what is the added value? If you are dealing with a range of issues, a team approach is often better, but only if the consultant can demonstrate that the team members complement each other without too much overlap. Quite often, the initial discussion should focus on using that individual and, secondarily, on whether a team is better. Because of the comfort campuses often have with the visiting team approach, they seek this essentially as a predetermined solution.
• What deliverables can we expect? What you are really looking for here is, "Will you give us a solution or will you help us find a solution with your guidance?" The answer to this will be an important clue to the consultant’s approach. Either answer can be right for your needs, but one is more likely to feel right for your institution (and for you). You and your team need to know what your institution ideally would like to see and to convey that to the consultant. Are you looking for a list of recommendations, an analysis of the milieu, a set of specific technical responses? Defining these issues up front will lead to a more successful consultation.
• How will you know when your work is done? There are at least two things to look for in this answer: the extent to which the consultant works with well defined objectives, and how likely you and the campus will be urged into additional work as the initial assignment concludes.

In addition to the questions that you should ask the consultant, there are questions that he or she should ask you. These, too, give you a sense of the professionalism and "fit" with a given consultant.

• Are you engaging my services to help with problem solving or to ratify decisions that are already made? A consultant will want to understand this piece of the political landscape before setting out and adjust his or her approach accordingly. If there is a given agenda, the consultant needs to know that and also to explain that his or her role is not that of a "hired gun" prepared to automatically validate some predetermined outcome. Look for indications of independence and individual integrity.
• Do you have a gut feel for what the solution is at this point? The consultant should want to know your perspective and candid instincts on the situation as early as possible. Whether that turns out to be right or wrong, or somewhere in between, he or she needs to begin planning right away about how to deal with your instincts. However, the caveats about independence still apply.
• Are you particularly unhappy with any of the people involved? Consultants really hate to be known as the ones directly responsible for what appears to be a hatchet job. It is important for the consultant to know if the reason for this assignment fundamentally revolves around a difficult personnel situation. The consultant should ask where the problems manifest themselves, with whom, and who are the other officers of the institution with key perspectives that they should seek out. The consultant also needs to know the extent to which these concerns have been directly conveyed to the professionals in question, and how.
• Are there financial resources available to help address the situation, if necessary? The consultant’s recommendations may or may not have a financial impact, but in either case, he or she will want to know what the constraints may be. It is fine to explain about budget pressures your campus may be experiencing, but if you really want an answer (albeit a single consultant’s perspective) as to what needs to be done to correct the situation, imposing an arbitrary constraint on the solution will fail to provide a complete picture of what may actually be needed. However, if there is in fact a fixed budget that is all an institution can afford, a consultant can help the institution figure out its priorities so that they can reasonably stay within this number and have the assurance that the money will be spent wisely. This should be done with the understanding that a more complete solution may not be possible without additional resources.

References are critically important. Even though a consultant may have come to you through word of mouth, you should seek at least three additional references, making sure that you ask the most important question: "Would you engage this consultant again?" Find out whether the previous clients received what they thought they had contracted for, and the reactions that others on campus had to this individual or firm.

If it turns out that you have to have a formal selection process that includes issuing a Request For Proposal, you will likely need to delegate most or all of the operational aspects of the process to the CIO or some other executive, but remember that you are ultimately responsible for the direction, as has been discussed.

Several final concerns and issues should be kept in mind in selecting an appropriate consultant. If you decide to go with a large firm, be careful of the senior partner of the firm selling the job but having a junior person actually do the work. Irrespective of the category of consultants you are considering, be careful if in the initial discussions the consultant works hard to expand the scope of work. Trust your instinct and discomfort if the consultant seems to be asking a lot of questions that have obvious (to you) answers. And finally, step very carefully if the consultant or the consultant’s company provides a wide variety of services and could financially benefit from the advice he or she gives you if you decide to make use of those other services.

How Do You Guarantee a Successful Outcome?

The following list identifies some of the things that the president hiring a consultant can do to maximize the positive benefits for the consulting experience.

Set Expectations with the Consultant

As the assignment begins, the most important thing you as president can do is to assure that consistent expectations are shared with the consultant. Whether the project is large or small, whether it is multi-month or just one day, having a common understanding of the scope of the engagement, the issues the consultant is to address, the consultant’s approach, and the form of the delivery of results is fundamental. If you have particular agenda items that may not be obvious, it is imperative to make them explicit at the very beginning of the consultation.

Set Expectations with the Community

The campus community will no doubt be wondering about the consulting engagement and its potential impact. As the assignment begins, a message from the president can be very helpful in clearing up ambiguity (and in lessening the panic in particularly troubling situations). The most helpful and positive climate for the consultant to work in is one that regards this project as a baseline assessment of technology in preparation for strategic planning. Every institution can benefit from a routine check-up from time to time; this is not a witch hunt, and there is no reason for anyone to see it that way. Unfortunately, there is a tendency on many campuses to fill in whatever blanks are not filled in, so the best way to cut down on these unnecessary rumors is to be upfront in clarifying the goals and purposes of any such visit. You also may want to design into the visit some open time for members of the faculty, students, and other constituencies to meet with the consultant, so that no one can say this was all "stage managed." Such an initial message may well include some of the logistics of the assignment, a list of who will be interviewed, the overall schedule, a target date for when the final report will be available, and so on.

Assure the Needed Contact with the Consultant

Contact between you and the consultant will be necessary during and throughout the engagement. The consultant will likely find it very useful to be able to check back with you for additional feedback on certain items, so some blocked time at the end of the day, or first thing in the morning, can prove to be very useful. The two of you should have the opportunity to verify that you are on the same track during as well as before the visit. A final exit interview at the end of a campus visit is almost always helpful to everyone concerned. Again, you may want to include your executive team here, but you should make sure that they have some private one-on-one time as well so that things that are better not said in a large public group can be discovered in a timely manner, and advice can be given as to how that information is ultimately presented.

Request a Written Summary of the Consultancy

The results of the engagement should always be provided in written form. Many of the things the consultant will tell the campus may be unfamiliar or be in an unfamiliar context, so having a written report to refer to can be invaluable in helping you and the community discuss, and even eventually internalize, the assessment and recommendations. The report should be specific (and sensitive) to your institution. The written report can become an important benchmark about where you are, where you have been, and where you need to go, just like accreditation evaluations and other campus visiting team reports that can be looked back on, providing a campus a longitudinal sense of progress. Such a report should be widely shared within the campus community, especially if the consulting assignment has a strategic focus. With a public report, the more everyone knows about it, the greater the chances of getting buy-in to the things that resulted from the consultancy. Or, looking at it alternatively, if you try to keep such a report confidential, the inevitable leaks will torpedo such a clandestine approach.

Assure Alternate Means of Communication and Advice

In addition to the one-on-one meeting associated with the exit, you should assure that, within reason, there is an opportunity for follow-up, clarifications, and so forth after the actual visit. There are often (if not inevitably) items that should be in a private letter to the president from the consultant. Such a letter might include comments about personnel situations, personal attitudes that might present future problems, and so forth. Such correspondence needs to be kept confidential, but it can provide important insights into the processes and players involved and thus should be encouraged.

Conclusion

We undoubtedly have all heard the old joke that "a consultant is someone who borrows your watch to tell you what time it is, and then charges you for it." Whether this is humorous or not is irrelevant, but in fact, this cliché is at least partially true. It is seldom that a consultant tells you anything you don’t already know or that you haven’t heard from others on campus. The value of a consultant is not so much in the creation of new messages for you to hear but in the distillation and delivery of the message, putting it in terms that are meaningful and acceptable to you. It is about validation of various perspectives, about framing choices, and about getting feedback that is not flavored by politics and emotional reactions. These are difficult tasks to accomplish, especially in a credible and widely acceptable manner. A good consultant can give you perspective on your institution’s situation that can have enormous value. Ultimately, a president and a campus may choose to follow some, all, or even none of the consultant’s specific recommendations, but the value of the consulting assignment must ultimately be judged in terms of the nature and depth of campus discussions that ensue during and after the engagement. The real value is not about solutions but about creating common perspectives, criteria for ongoing evaluation, and greater intra-campus trust and dialogue about these critical IT issues.

http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/EngaginganITConsultantforYourC/157303

My Blog: http://etelur.blogspot.com/2009/10/mis-assignment-6.html




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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Fri Aug 21, 2009 1:47 pm

What is an IT Consultant?
An IT consultant works in partnership with clients, advising them how to use information technology in order to meet their business objectives or overcome problems. Consultants work to improve the structure and efficiency and of an organizations’ IT systems. They may also be responsible for user training and feedback. In many companies, these tasks will be carried out by an IT project team. IT consultants are increasingly involved in sales and business development, as well as technical duties. IT consultants may be involved in a variety of activities, including marketing, project management, client relationship management and systems development.
Typical work activities
Task typically involves:
meeting with clients to determine requirements;
working with clients to define the scope of a project;
planning timescales and the resources needed;
clarifying a client's system specifications, understanding their work practices and the nature of their business;
travelling to customer sites;
liaising with staff at all levels of a client organization;
defining software, hardware and network requirements;
analyzing IT requirements within companies and giving independent and objective advice on the use of IT;
developing agreed solutions and implementing new systems;
presenting solutions in written or oral reports;
helping clients with change-management activities;
project managing the design and implementation of preferred solutions;
purchasing systems where appropriate;
designing, testing, installing and monitoring new systems;
preparing documentation and presenting progress reports to customers;
organizing training for users and other consultants;
being involved in sales and support and, where appropriate, maintaining contact with client organizations;
Identifying potential clients and building and maintaining contacts.
Head of Global IT Infrastructure (Cisco Networking, LAN / WAN, SAN). Leading Global provider of cutting-edge Medical Solutions urgently requires an accomplished Head of Global IT Infrastructure. The role is to plan, organize and manage staff and overall Infrastructure platforms to ensure the stable operation of the organizations IT infrastructure. The job holder is accountable for ensuring that the Infrastructure Architecture meets the existing requirements of the business and develops in accordance with an agreed technology plan to meet the future requirements of the business and its application strategy IT infrastructure solutions - IT Sales Executive This is an excellent opportunity. The company is highly profitable, highly reference able and highly accredited within its field with over 300 employees and a host of awards. They are a classic solutions house with a number of areas of niche focus around certain vertical markets. The Role - IT Sales Executive: Is a quota bearing sales position selling infrastructure solutions into the general commercial market. It is well supported by a powerful internal will be expected to supplement any shortfall of activity with your own efforts. The Person/ IT Sales. Accenture’s Consulting workforce is involved in business consulting, process design work and the application of technologies to business. Working as a consultant with Accenture, you will build core business, technology and industry expertise helping to deliver world-class business and technology solutions that enable clients to become high performance businesses. We need people who are able to challenge conventional thought, offer unique perspectives and conceive more innovative solutions for our clients. In addition, consultants need to apply their skills in project and program management while exhibiting leadership in process re-engineering and implementation of process, technology, and organizational change. Technology Consulting professionals are responsible for delivering technology innovation and providing the backbone of our systems integration business. Technology Infrastructure Consultants apply specialized technical skills to design, build and implement complex and leading-edge technology infrastructure solutions to Accenture's clients across all market sectors. They are professionals who focus on the technology foundation required to enable enterprise applications such as e-mail, voice mail, messaging, security, and database software (for functionally specific applications). They have skills in hardware, common carrier bandwidth, onsite communications equipment, storage, and related software.
IT Consultants Key Responsibilities:
Driving, supervising and reviewing technology diagnosis and assessment activities
Identifying opportunities for technology-related improvement based on benchmark data and doing high-level cost benefit analysis
Developing a high level design which supports a robust technology solution, taking into account the user requirements, technical requirements, etc.
Driving technology architecture and infrastructure design activities
Reviewing and supervising design components
Developing design and transition approaches
Driving and supervising technology build, test and deployment activities
Troubleshooting, diagnosing, and supporting application development
Infrastructure Planning and Transformation
All consulting professionals receive comprehensive training covering business acumen, technical and professional skills development. You’ll also have opportunities to hone your functional skills and expertise in an area of specialization. We offer a variety of formal and informal training programs at every level to help you acquire and build specialized skills faster. Learning takes place both on the job and through formal training conducted online, in the classroom, or in collaboration with teammates. The sheer variety of work we do, and the experience it offers, provide an unbeatable platform from which to build a career.
Information technology consulting (IT consulting, Computer consultancy, Computing consultancy, technology consulting or business and technology services) is a field that focuses on advising businesses on how best to use information technology to meet their business objectives. In addition to providing advice, IT consultancies often implement, deploy, and administer IT systems on businesses' behalf.
The following is a list of the largest IT consulting firms in the world, along with their corporate headquarters location and the total number of consultants they have. Many of these serve primarily as third-party consultants. Many enterprise software companies, such as SAP and Oracle, employ their own consultants for services related to their own products. Among the corporations listed below, the number of consultants listed is less than their total number of employees. My recommendation involved taking a path that I knew without a doubt would work well for their case, but it would take quite a bit of code modification. Nevertheless, the task was easily quantified, so they should have been able to plan out the project pretty reliably. The programmers didn’t object to the amount of work involved, yet they protested, “We’ll all have to learn this new technology!” as if that were fatal. It occurred to me to ask why they hired a consultant if they didn’t want to learn anything new, but I refrained. Apparently, they expected me to fly in like Tinker Bell, sprinkle pixie dust over everything, and send them soaring on their way to Neverland without so much as a pilot’s license.
to be continued.....



http://www.hcltech.com/enterprise-transformation-services/IT-process-consulting/
http://www.prospects.ac.uk/p/types_of_job/it_consultant_job_description.jsp
http://careers3.accenture.com/Careers/SouthAfrica/Technology_Infrastructure_Consultant
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_technology_consulting
http://blogs.techrepublic.com.com/project-management/?p=440
http://www.lynco.com/process.html


visit my blog
http://rs-crezaharu.blogspot.com/


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PostSubject: Assignment 6   Fri Aug 21, 2009 10:14 pm

If the president would hire me as an IT consultant of this school I just wan to improve the technology and infrastructure that the school is using. Because it is the science or the theories of networking should be done to improve and develop a certain connection.
Technology in terms of topologies and connectivity because even though our PC’s are old but maybe it can sustain a good connection.
It maybe hard for us on where to get the funds needed for the installation and maintenance of this technology but it is much better for all of the students and working force of the university.
It may cause much but I’m very sure and confident that the money, sweat, blood, and hard work to be done is very worthy. All of the students can now browse on the internet faster, even with JURASSIC computers or shall we say old model computer units.
Infrastructure, because it can help in attaining a good connection. structures will play a good role on arranging the perfect place on where to place the said technology.

TECHNOLOGY:
Technology is a broad concept that deals with human as well as other animal species' usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt to its environment. Technology is a term with origins in the Greek technología (τεχνολογία) — téchnē (τέχνη), 'craft' and logía (λογία), 'saying'.[1] However, a strict definition is elusive; "technology" can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include "construction technology", "medical technology", or "state-of-the-art technology".

The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.

Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.

Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.
Science, engineering and technology

The distinction between science, engineering and technology is not always clear. Science is the reasoned investigation or study of phenomena, aimed at discovering enduring principles among elements of the phenomenal world by employing formal techniques such as the scientific method. Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability and safety.

Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical human means, often (but not always) using results and techniques from science. The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical knowledge, to achieve some practical result.

Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering — although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors, by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines, such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference.

INTERNET:
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. In addition it supports popular services such as online chat, file transfer and file sharing, gaming, commerce, social networking, publishing, video on demand, and teleconferencing and telecommunications. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) applications allow person-to-person communication via voice and video.

The origins of the Internet reach back to the 1960s when the United States funded research projects of its military agencies to build robust, fault-tolerant and distributed computer networks. This research and a period of civilian funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation spawned worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies and led to the commercialization of an international network in the mid 1990s, and resulted in the following popularization of countless applications in virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2009, an estimated quarter of Earth's population uses the services of the Internet.
Infrastructure can be defined as the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, power grids, telecommunications, and so forth. Viewed functionally, infrastructure facilitates the production of goods and services; for example, roads enable the transport of raw materials to a factory, and also for the distribution of finished products to markets. In some contexts, the term may also include basic social services such as schools and hospitals. In military parlance, the term refers to the buildings and permanent installations necessary for the support, redeployment, and operation of military forces.

References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet


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Russel John Serrano

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PostSubject: Assignment 6 ::MIS::   Sat Aug 22, 2009 10:01 pm

If you were hired by the university
president as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology,
infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet
connectivity be improved? (3000words)





An IT consultant works in
partnership with clients, advising them how to use information technology in
order to meet their business objectives or overcome problems. Consultants work
to improve the structure and efficiency and of an organization’s IT systems.


IT consultants may be involved in a
variety
of activities, including marketing, project management, client relationship
management and systems development.


They may also be responsible for
user training and feedback. In many companies, these tasks will be carried out
by an IT project team. IT consultants are increasingly involved in sales and
business development, as well as technical duties.


Typical
work activities


Task typically involves:






  • meeting with clients to determine requirements;
  • working with clients to define the scope of a project;

  • planning timescales and the resources needed;
  • clarifying a client's system specifications,
    understanding their work practices and the nature of their business;

  • traveling to customer sites;
  • liaising with staff at all levels of a client
    organization;

  • defining software, hardware and network requirements;
  • analyzing IT requirements within companies and giving
    independent and objective advice on the use of IT;

  • developing agreed solutions and implementing new
    systems;

  • presenting solutions in written or oral reports;
  • helping clients with change-management activities;
  • project managing the design and implementation of
    preferred solutions;

  • purchasing systems where appropriate;
  • designing, testing, installing and monitoring new
    systems;

  • preparing documentation and presenting progress
    reports
    to customers;

  • organizing training for users and other consultants;
  • being involved in sales and support and, where
    appropriate, maintaining contact with client organizations;

  • Identifying potential clients and building and
    maintaining contacts.










Technology

For me if I were hire as an IT
Consultant
of our University which is University of Southeastern Philippines, I would
rather to suggest that, we all know that technology continues to change rapidly
time to time and year by year, each time that there will be a new technology
invent or implement there are a lot of things change. I highly suggest to be
more updated to such new things that help us a lot in terms of our technology,
one good example of it is the Wireless Internet
Access Service Provider (WISP) we called is the technology as a WI-FI.
Moreover, it helps us also faster internet access….


Infrastructure

For an organization's information technology,
infrastructure management (IM) is the
management
of essential operation components, such as policies,
processes, equipment, data, human resources, and external contacts, for
overall
effectiveness. Infrastructure management is sometimes divided
into categories
of systems management, network management, and storage
management. Infrastructure management
products are available from a
number
of
vendors including
Hewlett-Packard, IBM, and Microsoft.







Among other
purposes, infrastructure management seeks to:


* Reduce duplication
of effort

* Ensure adherence
to standards

* Enhance the flow
of information throughout an information system

* Promote adaptability
necessary for a changeable environment

* Ensure interoperability
among organizational and external entities

* Maintain effective
change management
policies and practices


Although all business activities depend upon the
infrastructure, planning and
projects
to
ensure
its effective management are typically undervalued
to the detriment of the organization.
According to IDC, a prominent
research firm (cited in an article in (DMReview),
investments in
infrastructure management have the largest
single impact on an
organization's revenue.

It can also help the
university in:


*Installation Services
*Maintenance Services
*Desktop Support
*System Support
*Integration Services

Innovation

refers to a new way of doing something. It may refer to incremental and emergent
or radical and
revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes,
or organizations. Following
Schumpeter (1934), contributors to the
scholarly literature on innovation
typically distinguish between
invention, an idea made manifest, and
innovation, ideas applied
successfully in practice. In many fields, something
new must be
substantially different to be innovative, not
an insignificant change,
e.g., in the arts, economics, business and
government policy.


In economics the change must increase value, customer value, or
producer value.
The goal of innovation is positive change, to make
someone
or
something
better. Innovation leading to increased
productivity is the fundamental source of
increasing wealth in an
economy.



Innovation
is an important topic in the study of economics ,business , design,
technology,
sociology, and engineering.
Colloquially, the word
"innovation" is
often synonymous with the output of the process. However, economists tend to focus on the
process
itself, from the origination of an idea to its
transformation into
something useful, to its implementation; and on the system
within which
the process of innovation unfolds.
Consultant
Steps and Guide:


  • To
    provide all the materials, concepts, and exercises needed by a

    trained
    consultant to teach or consult on Strategic Planning and
    implementation
    of the Plan.
    10
    Steps:

    1. Plan-to-Plan
    2. The Future Visioning Process
    3. Key Success Measures
    4. Current State Assessment
    5. The Core Strategies and Cascade of Planning
    6. 3-Year Business Planning
    7. Annual Plans and Budgets
    8. Leading and Mastering Strategic Change
    9. The Essence of Strategic Management Implementation
    10. The Annual Strategic Review (and Update)

    </li>



  • To provide and train the consultant with key topics and fail-safe mechanisms to proceed towards mastery of Reinventing Strategic Management (Planning, Leadership, and Change) for the 21st
    century.




  • To assist the consultant and trainer in clarifying the roles and responsibilities of the CEO, executives, department heads, and employees as well as internal and external consultants in Strategic Planning
    and Change.





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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sat Aug 22, 2009 11:32 pm

If you were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved? (3000words)

Before anything else, let us define first an IT consultant. An IT consultant works in partnership with clients, advising them how to use information technology in order to meet their business objectives or overcome problems. Consultants work to improve the structure and efficiency and of an organization's IT systems.

IT consultants may be involved in a variety of activities, including marketing, project management, client relationship management and systems development.

They may also be responsible for user training and feedback. In many companies, these tasks will be carried out by an IT project team. IT consultants are increasingly involved in sales and business development, as well as technical duties.

hmmmm.... by the way i'm just new in this campus and i'm not yet familiar to the technical facilities of the university... but based on the feedback of my new classmates there is a need for improvement in the IT/IS and i really observed that they are not maximizing the available resources the university....

Increase Signal Strength and Range of the Clients
As with wireless routers, Technicians can also improve the signal strength of wireless clients. They must consider this when dealing with a single Wi-Fi device that suffers from a very short signal range compared to the rest of these devices. This technique can improve the ability of laptop computers to connect to Wi-Fi hotspots, for example.
If I were hired by the the university president as an IT consultant, there lots of factors that we should consider, especially the resources of the university and their capacity to support in their IS/IT in terms of technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, and processes financially. In improving the IS/IT we should keep in mind on what are the available resources of the university does, primarily it should be maximized.
In the aspect of technology, we all know that everyday technology evolves and it has a consistent change. In determining on what kind of technology, it should not follow on what's the latest trends but on meeting the needs of the university.



Identifying and Meeting Infrastructure Management Challenges
Managing today’s IT infrastructure requires an approach that maintains virtually continuous business operation, provides high levels of security, and reduces operating cost and complexity while increasing IT staff productivity.


Each of these challenges presents IT administrators with unique issues, many of which involve ensuring secure and immediate access to the IT infrastructure.

An effective way to achieve this access is through a console server, which connects the serial console ports of many managed devices to a single appliance. An IT administrator can access any managed device’s console from any location at any time, even when the production network is unavailable. State-of-the-art console servers offer the following features:

Scalability — The ability to manage several servers in high-density racks is beneficial.
Port density — A console server should use a minimum amount of space in a rack to manage all the equipment in that rack.
Reliability — All connectors are located on the same side of the console server; the unit must be rack-mountable; and the unit should require minimum cabling and offer a high level of integration.
Power supply — The console server’s power supply needs to be integrated into the device.
Compatibility — The console server needs to be compatible with all of the IT organization’s servers and network equipment.
Security — Comprehensive support for IT security policies, including multilevel user access control and logging capability, is critical.
Audit capability — The console server needs to log all its activities in order to maintain security and regulatory auditing compliance.
Hardware flexibility — Support for out-of-band management, the ability to connect to more than one LAN, and integration with service processors and intelligent power distribution units (IPDUs) is useful.
Software flexibility — Upgradability helps to take advantage of emerging technologies.
Cost and service — The console server vendor should be committed to a product roadmap in IT infrastructure services.


Maintaining High Availability
Widely dispersed computing resources create an environment that relies on component peak performance for a maximum amount of time. Infrastructure problems, including environmental factors, hardware and operating system errors, power failures, and natural disasters, comprise 20 percent of all unplanned data center downtime.

When the network is operating properly, local or remote access is available through the network (in-band) and standard programs such as SSH and encrypted Web browser sessions. However, if a server or a network router has failed, IT administrators need access to the failed device through an out-of-band mechanism that connects to the device’s serial port and provides low-level control such as hardware self-tests or power cycling.



The Advanced Console Server Solution
ACS advanced console servers provide IT and network operations center staff with the ability to perform secure, remote and out-of-band data center management of IT infrastructure from anywhere in the world. It also offers an Enhanced Security Framework that provides current security profi les and enough fl exibility for IT administrators to create custom security profi les that comply with existing network security policies.

Maximizing Network Availability
Perhaps the single most important objective of today’s IT staff is to ensure that data is available to suppliers and company employees without interruption. Unplanned server or network downtime undermines that objective and causes productivity losses and reduced revenue to every one of the company’s partners. To ensure that an organization’s data and its network are always available, the console server provides both in-band and out-of-
band remote access to servers and other serially connected networked devices. IT access to the console server is available from any location at any time, providing the IT administrator with low-level control of network attached hardware. This control includes hardware self-test, BIOS access, power cycling, and remote rebooting.


Protecting Network Security
The console server integrates with a company’s existing security structure and supports enterprise security policies. It
supports strong user authentication using two-factor authentication with RSA SecurID and device authentication using certifi cates and a host key. The console server is compatible with virtually all authentication servers, including RADIUS, LDAP, Active Directory, TACACS+, Kerberos, and NIS protocols. Supported authorization methods include local access control lists or server-based group authorization through Active Directory, LDAP, TACACS+, or RADIUS. The console server also supports role-based authorization, and maintains both remote and local data and event logs and audit trials. It supports data encryption and secure out-of-band dial-up access through ISDN modem.
Laughing Laughing


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Aug 23, 2009 1:37 pm

If I were asked by the University to be an IT Consultant, I would rather suggest to pursue with the Infrastructure, specifically Internet Infrastructure to enhance the internet connectivity.

One of the greatest things about the Internet is that nobody really owns it. It is a global collection of networks, both big and small. These networks connect together in many different ways to form the single entity that we know as the Internet. In fact, the very name comes from this idea of interconnected networks. With the growth of the Internet for personal use and business purposes, it would be useful to talk about what actually powers all these things. People all over the world are accessing the Internet and corporate intranets via multiple desktop PCs, laptops, handheld computers, and cell phones. Organizations are exchanging critical information via increasingly sophisticated collaborative systems, and consumers are demanding immediate access to richer and richer content, including applications, games, music, videos, and images. To serve this growing demand, enterprises, operators, publishing companies, and other organizations are relying on Internet Infrastructure such as cross-platform mobile-content delivery platforms, multiple-credential authentication solutions, and real-time publishing tools, to mitigate the complexities of delivering digital services while garnering the greatest possible returns. Internet Infrastructure enables important transactions, establishes connections, protects data, and safely distributes critical information across myriad protocols and devices.

What is Infrastructure?

Infrastructure is actually the he basic physical systems. These systems are considered essential for enabling productivity in the economy. Developing infrastructure often requires large initial investment, but the economies of scale tend to be significant.

What is Internet Infrastructure?

In information technology and on the Internet, infrastructure is the physical hardware used to interconnect computers and users. Infrastructure includes the transmission media, including telephone lines, cable television lines, and satellites and antennas, and also the routers, aggregators, repeaters, and other devices that control transmission paths. Infrastructure also includes the software used to send, receive, and manage the signals that are transmitted.
In some usages, infrastructure refers to interconnecting hardware and software and not to computers and other devices that are interconnected. However, to some information technology users, infrastructure is viewed as everything that supports the flow and processing of information.
Infrastructure companies play a significant part in evolving the Internet, both in terms of where the interconnections are placed and made accessible and in terms of how much information can be carried how quickly.

Internet Infrastructure consisting of a ‘Top 5′ areas :
• Data Centers
• Network Connectivity
• Computer Equipment
• Storage Services
• Server Applications

Data Centre
A Data Centre is basically a specialist building that has the ability to power (and cool) massive amounts of computer equipment. Typically a Data Centre would also have a very large amount of network bandwidth to accommodate data transfer in and out of it. Data Centers are built as highly redundant and resilient facilities. The Data Centre is the home for Internet Infrastructure. It is the central point of aggregation and distribution of data and network services. The unit of measurement for a Data Centre is space and power. How much space will the equipment require and how much power will it draw (which is effectively double that, as cooling a server takes about as much power as just having the device operating).

Network

Possibly to most important foundation block of Internet Infrastructure is the Network. Without a network connection no data can pass between Data Centers, over the Internet, and ultimately onto your Desktop, Laptop or Mobile Handset. For the purpose of this post, let’s talk about the network infrastructure in a Data Centre, where data passed in to computer equipment, is processed and/or stored, and passed back out of the DC.
Next you would expect redundant switch gear in the Data Centre in separate racks so again if the switch gear failed, the other set of it would simply take over and no service interruption would be experienced.

The unit of measurement for network connectivity is megabits per second and available megabits on the carrier connection. The ability to meet peak demand is important though, so Data Centres will have a lot more connectivity available than is required for daily operations.
Computer Equipment Now that the two basics of Internet Infrastructure are in place - the ability to power your equipment, and the ability to connect it to the Internet, the next thing is the computer hardware that uses this to process and store the applications and data.
Servers. A Server is a more complex and high-end version of a desktop PC. Servers are housed in Racks in a DC which are typically 42u in height. (1U is 1-unit and a low-end server takes up just 1 of these units, other servers scale within these racks to multiple ‘U’). Racks are normally powered by 2 PDU (Power Distribution Units) which connect to (if available) multiple power supply units in the server.

A low-end installation may be only a single server, which is the simplest form of Internet Infrastructure. The server would be connected to the DC Power, the Network, an OS and other required applications installed on it. Then it is ready to ‘power and push’ data on the Internet. More complex deployments would include pools of servers, with different applications on each one, or clusters of pools for multiple clusters with dedicated application requirements.
The unit of measure for Servers is Processor Power and RAM. Although there is a lot more to selecting a server such as expandability, reliability, network ports, BUS speed, Cache size and speed. Personally I would like the unit of measure in Servers to change, I think for buyers and users it should be rated in ‘MIPS’ - which is ‘Millions of Instructions Per Second’ which is effectively all that matters, and how today’s Mainframe computers (IBM BlueGene is a high end Mainframe) are measured.

Storage Services

Data Storage is a huge part of Internet Infrastructure. All those emails accessible online, all the web pages on your favorite web site are all stored on a hard drive in a DC somewhere. The basic level of storage is on-server storage, which means the hard drives in the computer server. This can cause not just performance and capacity issues, but also redundancy ones - local storage is inherently as prone to failure as the server it is in.

It is common to use specific storage devices - such as Direct Attached Storage (a dedicated and dumb storage appliance connected direct to your server), Network Attached Storage (a storage device that can be accessed by multiple machines over a network connection, and independent of the server itself) and Storage Area Networks, which are high-end, resilient and redundant set-ups that give high performance levels and are very scalable. A Storage Area Network may be shared among many services, applications, servers and customers. The unit of measure in storage is gigabytes (getting to be more commonly terabytes now) and IO’s per second (input-output read/writes the device can perform per second).

Server Applications

The final piece of underlying Internet Infrastructure is the server applications themselves. In order for an web application to be delivered from a server, that server requires an Operation System (typically Windows or Linux), a Web Server application (like Apache or Microsoft IIS), and a Database (such as MySQL, MS-SQL or Oracle). There any many more variations here, but the basic web server has these 3 things. From here you can install blog software, an ecommerce site, your new web 2.0 application, or any Internet capable piece of software (more include - Instant Messaging Server, File Storage Server, Message Board)

More complex applications tend to have dedicated servers, or pools or servers, for specific things - like a cluster of Database Servers, or a pool of Web Server to serve those ‘www.’ page requests. These may also have more complex network setup such as dedicated routers, load balancing and firewall devices (for traffic management and security respectively).

Billions of times each day, companies and consumers rely on our Internet Infrastructure to communicate and conduct commerce with confidence. With a strong heritage in operating Internet Infrastructure, providing industry-proven security services, and delivering a full spectrum of communications solutions. Moreover, it provides interoperability, scalability, and security to meet today’s unprecedented demand for
Information.

Internet Infrastructure Services

Businesses and consumers depend more than ever on the Internet to generate, consume and distribute content—boosting demand for hosted services. To manage increased data volumes and more complex applications amid rising energy costs, Internet infrastructure companies must operate with maximum efficiency while meeting customer expectations for capacity, performance and uninterrupted service availability.

This requires simplifying their own infrastructure to reduce power, boost performance and streamline operations. As strategic partners to Internet infrastructure customers, systems integrators can make storage a key enabler of success, thereby promoting lasting customer loyalty and strong growth for their own businesses.

sources:

http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet-infrastructure.htm
http://edbyrnehq.com/what-is-internet-infrastructure/
www.verisign.com/corporate/internet-infrastructure-overview.pdf+internet+infrastructure&cd=21&hl=tl&ct=clnk&gl=ph&client=firefox-a" class="postlink" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:2DZoO0RRZz8J:www.verisign.com/corporate/internet-infrastructure-overview.pdf+internet+infrastructure&cd=21&hl=tl&ct=clnk&gl=ph&client=firefox-a


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Aug 24, 2009 6:18 am

. . . C O N T I N U A T I O N . .

Rolling Eyes These are the steps to improve and optimize internet connectivity:


Exclamation Delete windows internet explorer and download Firefox you go to c and then programs and then delete all of the files in the internet explore folder don’t get frustrated because most of the files you deleted will reappear that is caused by another file you did not delete(in the internet explore folder) after you have successfully deleted all of the files in every internet explore folder you can delete the folder and then download Firefox at this link
http://www.filehippo.com/download_firefox/download/fc877e9a730f9480566f5b71bddf812f/ then once you’ve done that when you open up Firefox it will ask you run as default browser click yes and do not show message again then you have to download your plug-in don’t worry its really quick and easy once it says they are done double click one it to finish install here is all the links here is and best of all Firefox is easier to use better faster takes up less space and extremely customizable

adobe reader
http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html

adobe flash player special for Firefox
http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer

java
http://www.java.com/en/download/ and finally here is the site to get all your add ons and plug-in don’t worry all the downloads are safe on the site https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/

Exclamation Do some basic maintenance on your PC. Run Disk Defrag, a scan disk, a virus scan, a malware scan, and clear your recycle bin. An unusually slow Internet connection experience is often the only sign that your computer is infected with viruses or other malware. Delete old files and temporary files. Never allow the free space on your C: drive to be less than 10% of the total size or twice the installed RAM (which ever is larger). A well maintained PC will operate much better than a PC that has never had any maintenance. Google or your local computer repair store should be able to help you with this if you don't know how.

Exclamation Reset Your Home Network. Sometimes restarting your home network if you have one will drastically increase the speed of your connection.

Exclamation Optimize your cache or temporary Internet files. These files improve your Internet connection performance by not downloading the same file over and over. When a web site puts their logo graphic on every page your computer only downloads it when it changes. If you delete the temporary files it must be downloaded again. if you disable the cache, it must be downloaded every time you view a page that uses it. This can be done by opening Internet Explorer, clicking on "Tools" at the top and choosing "Internet Options". On the General tab, click the "Settings" button next to Temporary Internet Files. Set Check for newer versions to "Automatically". Set amount of disk space to use to 2% of your total disk size or 512 MB, which ever is smaller. On Firefox, click "Tools" then "Options," and go to the privacy tab. Then click on the Cache tab within this.

Exclamation Never bypass your router. Most routers include a firewall that is very difficult for hackers to defeat. If you don't need to use Wireless then hook your computer directly to your router. Routers will only slow down your connection by a few Milli-seconds. You won't notice the difference but the hackers will.

Exclamation If you are using a Wireless router, make sure it doesn't conflict with a cordless phone or wireless camera. Wireless routers come in two varieties; 802.11bg (2.4Ghz) or 802.11a (5.8Ghz) If you are using a 2.4Ghz Cordless phone and 2.4Ghz Wireless router then your Internet connection speed will slow while you use the cordless phone. The same is true of wireless security cameras. Check on your phone and camera, if it's 900Mhz then it's fine. If it says 2.4Ghz or 5.8Ghz then it could be the cause of your slow connection speed while they're in use.

Exclamation Call your Internet service provider (ISP). Sometimes you just have bad service. They can usually tell if your connection is substandard without having a technician come to your home. Just be nice and ask.

Exclamation Upgrade your computer. If your computer is slow, it doesn't matter how fast your Internet connection is, the whole thing will just seem slow. You can only access the Internet as fast as your PC will allow you to.

Exclamation Replace your old cable modem. Any solid-state electronics will degrade over time due to accumulated heat damage. Your broadband modem will have a harder and harder time 'concentrating' on maintaining a good connection as it gets older (signal to noise ratios will go down, and the number of resend requests for the same packet will go up). An after-market cable modem as opposed to a cable-company modem will frequently offer a better connection.

Exclamation Often your connection speed is slow because other programs are using it. To test if other programs are accessing the Internet without your knowing, Click Start, Click Run. Type "cmd" (without quotes). Type "netstat -b 5 > activity.txt". After a minute or so, hold down Ctrl and press C. This has created a file with a list of all programs using your Internet connection. Type activity.txt to open the file and view the program list. Ctrl Alt Delete and open up the Task Manager. Go to the process menu and delete those processes that are stealing your valuable bandwidth. (NOTE: Deleting processes may cause certain programs to not function properly)

No No After you have tried all this try your connection again and see if it's running any faster.


Tips

•Call your ISP and have them verify all of your TCP/IP settings if you are concerned. Ask them to verify that your Proxy settings are correct.

•Don't expect dial up or high speed lite service to be fast. The Internet is primarily geared towards Broadband Connections. Sometimes, you have to wait a little.

•Download programs that make browsing faster:

•Loband.org is a browser inside of a browser that loads web pages without the images.

•Firefox and Opera both have options to disable images.

•In Firefox, you can also use extensions such as NoScript that let you block scripts and plug-ins that would otherwise slow things down a lot.

•If you are using Internet Explorer or Firefox, try downloading Google Web Accelerator. It is meant to speed up broadband connections, but it can also slow your Internet connection. Try enabling it and disabling it and see when your Internet connection runs faster.

•If you are using Firefox, download the Fasterfox extension and Firetune.

•Reduce the amount of programs running that use your Internet connection (Instant Messengers, RSS Feeders, and MS Applications set to send Internet data)

•Google Accessible Is designed to search pages in order of how clean they are of junk. This will bring up pages that are usually not only easy to read, but are quick to load.
•Upgrade your RAM. This will not only improve your regular computer use, but it will affect the speed of your Internet connection because your computer works faster.

•Use the Stop button to stop loading pages once you've gotten what you want.

•Some times malware on your computer can eat up your bandwidth. Make sure you have an up-to-date malware protection program.

•Most Internet Providers have flaky DNS servers (no citation necessary, it's a given) - so, instead of using those provided by your ISP, switch your DNS servers to use those of OpenDNS. OpenDNS is far faster, and more reliable, simply using 208.67.222.222 and 208.67.220.220 as your domain name servers will speed up most flaky DNS problems (may even speed up your networking since OpenDNS has large caches).

•Look into running your own local DNS server on your network. Some newer routers may include their own nameserver, otherwise, check into AnalogX.com's DNSCache program, it works great to hold commonly accessed domain names in the "cache" so that the IP addresses do not have to be looked up every time you navigate to a new page.

Exclamation Exclamation Warnings Exclamation Exclamation

•Viruses and malware can often use up your bandwidth and slow down your Internet connection. Make sure you have protection against this. Many ISP's will provide software for this. Make sure your anti-virus and malware scanners are up-to-date.

•Bypassing the router will leave you more vulnerable to attacks because you no longer have the built-in firewall from your router protecting you.

•Watch out for scams that claim to make your Internet go a lot faster for free. They may tell you to download their program, which usually has a lot of other hidden programs attached that might steal your identity.

Much like organic viruses found in the real world, computer viruses, which are malicious programs, are just as crafty and can greatly damage your computer system, starting from slowing it down considerably to making it crash. Protecting your computer from malicious attacks is therefore of vital importance and even more so if you use the Internet on a regular basis.

Although you may religiously follow the golden rule of not downloading anything from strange websites or opening unknown attachments, there is always a chance of viruses sneaking into your system without you being aware of it. Also, with the increased incidence of flash memory drives being used as portable devices for storing and sharing data, the chances of a virus infection become even more pronounced.

A virus present in your friend’s flash drive can easily be transferred to your computer when you plug it in. Thus there arises a need for anti virus software that will monitor your system on a regular basis, checking for virus attacks.

Some of the well-known commercial anti virus software include the ESET Nod32 Antivirus 4, the Norton Antivirus 2009, Kaspersky Anti-virus 2009, Panda Antivirus Pro 2009, AVG and the BitDefender Antivirus 2009 to name a few. Ideally, anti virus programs should come with the ability to detect a wide range of viruses and the manufacturing company should come up with regular updates. Getting updates on a regular basis is an extremely important factor as new viruses are created on a daily basis.

Now the ESET Nod32 Antivirus 4 is quite a well-rated commercial anti virus software that is fast and light while protecting against a host of malware. One of the highlights of this anti virus program is the use of its ThreatSense technology which comes is very handy as it can help ward off attacks from even new viruses.

Norton Antivirus 2009 is another commercial anti virus software that is widely used and protects your computer from a wide range of viruses, worms, rootkits and other infective agents. You can also get “rapid pulse” updates after every five to fifteen minutes. However, the flipside to using Norton is that you would have to pay for any technical support that you may require.

The Kasperky Anti-virus 2009, which is a little more expensive than other anti virus programs, is quite a force to reckon with when it comes to virus protection. The software is fast and easy to use while detecting viruses, both known and unknown present even in user applications. It also has built-in system restoration capabilities along with automatic updates.

The Panda Antivirus Pro 2009 is another solid anti virus program that has an “ultrafast scan engine” which along with viruses, also detects and removes rootkits. The BitDefender Antivirus 2009 is another impressive anti virus program which uses minimal computer resources while protecting your system from malware with 96% accuracy. AVG Antivirus is another reputed antivirus and antispyware program which has real-time virus protection and also has a free edition for home use.


RERENCES:
http://forums.techarena.in/tips-tweaks/1135446.htm
http://www.wikihow.com/Maximize-the-Speed-of-Your-Internet-Connection
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet
http://blogote.com/2009/softwares/best-anti-virus-softwares.html
http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/98771/Policy Makers workshop/policymakers/html/pol_mod5.html

jocolor feel free to drop your comments at www.florenzie-palma.blogspot.com
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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Mon Aug 24, 2009 4:51 pm

continuation.....

Dealing with an innovation impasse

Many times I’ve seen software companies whose goal was to remove the need for brains when developing software — and I suspect the same holds for running an IT department. It comes from lofty motives — you should want to standardize to insure consistency and automate repetitive tasks where possible (that’s what computers are for, after all). But when you go too far with that goal, you lock out innovation. Riding along the monorail of “how we’ve always done things” you can build up quite a head of steam — until something goes wrong and you can’t change directions quickly enough. All solutions are designed with the participation of the individuals who are part of the situation. If group training is needed, then an assessment is made with management and with team members to decide what specific skills, content areas, and attitude changes are needed in order to achieve desired results.
Decisions are made for measuring results and for integrating training or learning objectives into existing reward and recognition systems. (Sometimes, there might be a need to "re-engineer" these systems to meet the needs of a new work arrangement). Concrete measures are identified which not only define behavioral change but also changes in the bottom line. The goal is to keep a focus on making training support the overall business objectives. Follow-up strategies are defined that link the new processes and new concepts to the organization's business objectives. These encourage on-going implementation of skills and processes. In some cases review sessions might be scheduled. Each of these states serves as a foundation for any future activities that might be designed and delivered. Our goal is to make sure that our clients receive professional and personalized services and training in order to enhance the productivity and excellence of their organization. HCL Quality Process Consulting is a niche service offering as a part of the suite of Transformation Services. HCL Quality Process Consulting offers process improvement services that span the entire continuum ranging from Process definition, implementation & training to Process assessments for Model and non-model based improvement initiatives. HCL’s Quality team of over 200 professionals is leveraged to provide Quality Consulting Services to HCL’s clients. HCL’s Quality Consulting strength lies in the skills and rich experience of our consultants, who have considerable experience in Project management, Software Engineering, Models like CMMI, ITIL, ISO etc. They bring with them practical implementation experience of various processes that best fits client’s IT environment. For continuous improvement program related to IT processes, HCL recommends Model and Non-model based approaches:Model Based Approach (S-P-E-A-R): SPEAR stands for Study-Promote-Execute-Achieve-Realize. We build the overall process capability by adopting models and standards like ISO 9001: 2000, CMMI Level 5, ISO 27001 / BS7799, BS15000 / ISO 20000 as reference models Non-model Based Approach (P-R-O-B-E): PROBE stands for Process Re-engineering Ownership for Business Eminence. We build action plans for an overall process journey to define, train, and deploy specific processes based on the detailed analysis of identified business objectives, issues, concerns and priorities. Service Offerings HCL provides the following services that ensure a deployment of comprehensive process improvement program in an organization: 1. Current State / Gap Analysis: Current state analysis helps organization to understand the “As-is” state of various IT practices. It also finds out gaps vis-à-vis desired model/standard or with the selected inputs. Key inputs for current state analysis include Business/IT objectives, Best practices, and selected models/standards, in addition to the practices that are being assessed. Under Gap Analysis we discover the improvement opportunities for the organization and the recommend changes. 2. Process Improvement Planning: Process Improvement Planning (PIP) is a key phase of the process improvement initiative. The PIP methodology used by HCL comprises of 3 key phase – Strategize, Prioritize, and Plan Strategize: In this phase the health of the process improvement is analyzed by studying the various inputs and identify the desired state of the process with reference to models/standards. Prioritize: This phase includes objectives prioritization, identifying quick-wins, evaluating pilot approach and detailing out plans. Plan: Based on the output of the two phases above, the tactical plans are drawn up in this phase, which comprises of estimating the effort, identifying resources, budgets and drawing up timelines. 3. Process Definition: HCL Quality Process Consulting helps the organization in developing a Quality management framework that can cover SDLC, IT Project Management, Information Security/BCM, Vendor Management, IT Controls, IT Service Management and related IT processes. The Process Consultants have multiple years of experience in setting up the process definitions that covers methodologies, key operating procedures, templates, forms, guidelines and checklists that address the needs of various profiles of projects and services. Key features of HCL’s standard processes include ETVX based process flows, responsibility matrix, metrics-based process effectiveness measurement and guidelines to manage various profiles of projects. 4. Measurement Framework: Measurement is the mechanism by which an organization gains insight into its performance. HCL proposes the “Goal-driven Software Measurement Framework” approach to define and deploy the right measurement framework in IT organizations. 5. Training: Training is a critical element of deployment phase of any process improvement initiative. High Quality of training reflects on team’s ability to ramp-up on required skills and deploy the new practices. It plays a key role in Organization change management of deploying new processes or getting compliant to a new model. HCL’s consultants have been trained as trainers to impart professional process training. 6. Implementation Support – S6 Approach: We endeavor to partner with Clients in their internal process improvement initiatives. HCL’s Consultants as part of the Core team can significantly contribute by simplifying implementation and reducing pain points. (Click here to view the 6 approach) 7. Audits & Assessments: This phase reflect compliance and effectiveness of process, people, tools and their interactions. Audits and Assessments serve as qualitative indicators of practice implementation across the IT organization. HCL’s consultants have multiple years of experience in conducting Audits and Assessments. They are certified to conduct audits and their credentials include Certified Lead Auditors, Certified Lead Assessors, and Auditors Registered with IRCA. 8. Change Management: HCL’s consultants help client organizations manage change, by deploying appropriate proactive measures. This included steps like obtaining senior management commitment, communication campaign, success stories, FAQs and Web-pages etc. Organization change management is a key aspect of focus in all transformation initiatives.

What would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations, steps, processes, etc) in order for the internet connectivity be improved?

IT organizations are continuously facing challenges with respect to demanding business requirements. They need to meet them through improvement of operational efficiencies, changing technological landscape, sourcing strategies, better Governance etc. IT processes form the underlying DNA of IT management in the organization. If I am given an opportunity to be an IT consultant in our University I would suggest that the University should focus on innovation on its technology. I should implement and support ways to help the university by supporting projects base on technology. I would create an IT structure that will help the university to improve the quality internet access they have. Of course I will develop a IT infrastructure,steps and processes which deals on improving our network technologies.



http://www.hcltech.com/enterprise-transformation-services/IT-process-consulting/
http://www.prospects.ac.uk/p/types_of_job/it_consultant_job_description.jsp
http://careers3.accenture.com/Careers/SouthAfrica/Technology_Infrastructure_Consultant
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_technology_consulting
http://blogs.techrepublic.com.com/project-management/?p=440
http://www.lynco.com/process.html
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: before August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   

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