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 Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)

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Sarah Jean Tisara

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PostSubject: Barriers on IT implementation   Mon Oct 12, 2009 3:46 am

Idea In every move, in every implementation barriers are unavoidable. Sometimes it is for the improvement of the performance but most of the time it’s a hindrance in implementing something. Organizations are as alike and unique as human beings. Similarly, group processes can be as straightforward or as complex as the individuals who make up the organization. It is vital to successfully launching a new program that the leaders understand the strengths, weaknesses, and idiosyncrasies of the organization or system in which they operate. Try to anticipate barriers to implementation so that you can develop strategies to minimize their impact or avoid them altogether. The following list of common barriers can be used to help your leadership team identify potential obstacles. The list of essential elements for change can help the team brainstorm possible solutions. The lists are a good starting point for a planning session that will be most effective if it also takes into account the organizations unique.

Idea In our adapted company, the technical department head point out few of the barriers that they encountered on IT implementation, one of them is the resistance of their employees. This resistance of employees is due to lack of knowledge and ability to adapt to changes, that’s why they are having a difficulty on implementing a new system or to change their system.

Common Barriers
· Studying the problem too long without acting
· Trying to get everyone's agreement first
· Educating without changing structures or expectations
· Tackling everything at once
· Measuring nothing or everything
· Failing to build support for replication
· Assuming that the status quo is OK

More Barriers to Change
· Lack of such resources as time and commitment
· Resistance to change
· Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion
· Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities
· Ineffective teams
· Burdensome data collection

Essential Elements for Change Effort
· Define the problem
· Define the target population
· Define effective treatment strategies and establish procedural guidelines
· Establish performance measures; set goals
· Define effective system changes and interventions
· Develop leadership and system change strategy

Idea A barrier is an obstacle which prevents a given policy instrument being implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented. In the extreme, such barriers may lead to certain policy instruments being overlooked, and the resulting strategies being much less effective. For example, demand management measures are likely to be important in larger cities as ways of controlling the growth of congestion and improving the environment. But at the same time they are often unpopular, and cities may be tempted to reject them simply because they will be unpopular. If that decision leads in turn to greater congestion and a worse environment, the strategy will be less successful. The emphasis should therefore be on how to overcome these barriers, rather than simply how to avoid them. ECOCITY provides a useful illustration of the ways in which such barriers arise, and of how obstacles have been overcome, in case study cities.

Idea Many information systems projects take considerably longer than originally planned. State-local projects, with their added layers of legal and organizational complexity are especially vulnerable to this problem. Since so many different organizations are affected by them, time delays lead to serious difficulties in planning for and adjusting to changes in operations.

Idea Existing state-local systems suffer from the lack of a ubiquitous, consistent computing and communications infrastructure. This makes it difficult or impossible to operate technology supported programs in a consistent way from place to place and organization to organization. It also slows and complicates communication among state and local staff involved in joint programs. New York State is currently embarking on a statewide networking strategy called the NYT that will help solve this problem for future systems.

cyclops What are the principal barriers?

In our work in PROSPECTS, we grouped barriers into the four categories listed below. More recent work in TIPP has demonstrated that failure to adopt a logical approach to the process of strategy development can also impose a barrier to effective planning. This Guidebook is designed to help cities avoid this happening. TIPP also provides a set of recommendations.

1) Legal and institutional barriers
These include lack of legal powers to implement a particular instrument, and legal responsibilities which are split between agencies, limiting the ability of the city authority to implement the affected instrument. The survey of European cities in PROSPECTS indicates that land-use, road building and pricing are the policy areas most commonly subject to legal and institutional constraints. Information measures are substantially less constrained than other measures.

2) Financial barriers
These include budget restrictions limiting the overall expenditure on the strategy, financial restrictions on specific instruments, and limitations on the flexibility with which revenues can be used to finance the full range of instruments. PROSPECTS found that road building and public transport infrastructure are the two policy areas which are most commonly subject to financial constraints, with 80% of European cities stating that finance was a major barrier. Information provision is the least affected.

3) Political and cultural barriers
These involve lack of political or public acceptance of an instrument, restrictions imposed by pressure groups, and cultural attributes, such as attitudes to enforcement, which influence the effectiveness of instruments. The surveys in PROSPECTS show that road building and pricing are the two policy areas which are most commonly subject to constraints on political acceptability. Public transport operations and information provision are generally the least affected by acceptability constraints.

4) Practical and technological barriers
While cities view legal, financial and political barriers as the most serious which they face in implementing land use and transport policy instruments, there may also be practical limitations. For land use and infrastructure these may well include land acquisition. For management and pricing, enforcement and administration are key issues. For infrastructure, management and information systems, engineering design and availability of technology may limit progress. Generally, lack of key skills and expertise can be a significant barrier to progress, and is aggravated by the rapid changes in the types of policy being considered.

cyclops How should we deal with barriers in the short term?

It is important not to reject a particular policy instrument simply because there are barriers to its introduction. One of the key elements in a successful strategy is the use of groups of policy instrument which help overcome these barriers. This is most easily done with the financial and political and cultural barriers, where one policy instrument can generate revenue to help finance another (as, for example, fares policy and service improvements), or one can make another more publicly acceptable (for example rail investment making road pricing more popular). These principles are discussed more fully in. A second important element is effective participation, as outlined in ,which can help reduce the severity of institutional and political barriers, and encourage joint action to overcome them. Finally, effective approaches to implementation can reduce the severity of many barriers, as discussed in.

cyclops How can we overcome barriers in the longer term?

It is often harder to overcome legal, institutional and technological barriers in the short term. There is also the danger that some institutional and political barriers may get worse over time. However, strategies should ideally be developed for implementation over a 15-20 year timescale. Many of these barriers will not still apply twenty years hence, and action can be taken to remove others. For example, if new legislation would enable more effective instruments such as pricing to be implemented, it can be provided. If split responsibilities make achieving consensus impossible, new structures can be put in place. If finance for investment in new infrastructure is justified, the financial rules can be adjusted. TIPP makes a number of recommendations for longer term institutional change. Barriers should thus be treated as challenges to be overcome, not simply impediments to progress. A key element in a long term strategy should be the identification of ways of resolving these longer term barriers.

The need for the improved implementation of information technology (IT) has been identified in both empirical and highly structured research studies as being critical to effective innovation and development at an industry and enterprise level. This need is greater in the construction industry as it has been relatively slow to embrace the full potential of IT-based technologies.

Beany & Gordon (1988) researched the barriers that exist to successful introduction of IT systems (in this case CAD/CAM) and reported that they fall into three categories, structural, human and technical. Structural barriers are those factors inherent in the organisations structure or systems that are not compatible with the new technology.This can include communication, authority flows and planning systems, and reflect how the organisation has traditionally done things. A failure to perceive the strategic benefits of the investment, a lack of co-ordination and co-operation due to organisational fragmentation, and a perception of high risk are all symptoms of organisational problems. Human barriers include psychological problems that arise in most periods of change, such as uncertainty avoidance, and resistance to loss of power or status. Technical barriers, they noted, were factors in the technology itself, such as lack of system compatibility.

Functional barriers relate to information and work flows and include identification of strategic information needs. Technical factors relate to the need for flexibility and information handling capacity, with the dangers of disjointed islands of automation being created which limit information flow. Human factors are the need for job redefinition and the resistance to change which lead to a lack of company wide flexibility or commitment. Other authors have confirmed that the key barriers to IT implementation tend to be organisational, rather than technical, and that these barriers are often understated. Galliers, for instance, focused on general management problems in successful planning of strategic information systems and concluded that key factors were the attitude, commitment and involvement of management: the current sophistication of IS within the company: the ability to measure and justify the benefits of strategic IS: and the justify the benefits of strategic IS: and the integration of IS into business strategy. While the perception of the importance of these barriers is likely to change over time.
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PostSubject: Barriers of IT/IS implementation   Tue Oct 13, 2009 1:22 pm

Unfortunately, we were not able to interview the MIS officer of our adopted company, Holcim Philippines located in Bo. Ilang Davao City for this topic because their MIS officer was too busy doing his office work. So, to be able for me to answer the question on this assignment, I took reference from Dole, Philippines which remote office is located in Lanang, Davao City. Dole Philippines has been our adopted company for the Management Information System 1 module presentation.

Before I discuss to you the barriers in implementing the information technology or information system in our adopted organization or company, let me first define the following words:

>Barrier
>Implementation
>Information Technology
>Information System

To begin with, let me first define the word "barrier"

Barrier is something that impedes or obstructs the movement of a subject or something that blocks or hinders something from moving forward. It is also referred to as a limit.

Let me now define the word implementation. Implementation is classified as the execution or the carrying out of a plan. The word implementation is also defined as the action that must follow any preliminary thinking in order for something to actually happen. In an information technology context, implementation encompasses all the processes involved in getting new software or hardware operating properly in its environment, including installation, configuration, running, testing, and making necessary changes.

Information technology is composed of the hardware and the software. It has the capacity to handle large amounts of information, these information in return are being processed, for example, handed over to the end users. It refers to anything related to computing technology, such as networking, hardware, software, the Internet. Many companies now have IT departments for managing the computers, networks, and other technical areas of their businesses.

Information system, on the other hand, is the combination of the components of information technology plus the people. Information System allows the company to handle large amounts of data or information. Handling large amount of information are done by the Information Technology components - hardware and software and these information technology components are being managed by the people in the company mainly by the management information systems department or information technology department of a certain company.


After having four terms defined, I will now discuss the barriers of implementing the information technology or information systems in an organization.

Dole Philippines is one of the largest producers - marketer of packaged fruits and vegetables. We interviewed a management information systems programmer from Dole Philippines, Davao remote office. According to her, the end users should be involved in the implementation of the project of the company. She described critical barriers that can somehow affect the information technology or information systems project implementation. These are inexperienced staff, lack of defined IS/IT implementation methodology, lack of IS/IT implementation awareness, lack of support, lack of resources, organizational politics, and time pressure.

Inexperienced Staff

According to dole Philippines' management information system programmer, inexperienced staff needs trainings and seminars to upgrade their knowledge about the new system. Moreover, with the help of these trainings and seminars, the employees and staff will be able to improve their performance in doing their tasks for the company. With the help of trainings and seminars, the inexperienced staff will have mastery of the uses of the system.

One of the reasons of unsuccessful implementation for information technology or information system is the technical director and staff's lack of knowledge on a particular system. Due to this reason, they will have difficulty in understanding the uses, the purposes and the benefits of existing softwares.

Next is the involvement of the experienced staff on the implementation of information systems or information technology in the company because they are the ones who have the knowledge and the experience about the implementation of the system. If the staff have a thorough understanding about the process of the information system or information technology, there will be improvements and better resolution for the said systems

A training policy for Information System or Information Technology must be established to meet the training needs. Responsibilities should be assigned to each staff member regarding IS/IT implementation activities (e.g., process design, process testing, and process deployment). A mechanism that will monitor the progress of each staff member, collect and analyze the feedback from each member and to extract the lessons learned should also be established by the organization.

Lack of IS/IT implementation awareness

According top the Dole Philippines’ management information systems programmer, the involvement of the end user during the development or change of the information technology or information system is very important. For this reason, all the employees involved will have awareness about the matters and solutions.

Moreover, the implementation of information technology or information system is very expensive and is the process of adopting new practices, it is very important that the organization should give or conduct awareness activities for the stakeholders. Information technology or information system implementation is not as beneficial without sufficient awareness of its benefits which must also be promoted. The users and the staff should be able to know their duties and responsibilities within the time of the implementation or upgrading of the system. The staff must plan to organize and to make the information system a part of their organization. Other than that, they must be aware how much investment does the implementation or change of the system needs.

If the staff or the end users will not be given enough awareness about the implementation or change of the information technology or information system, that will cause low performance among the employees and might affect the operations of the company. Moreover, they will have enough knowledge about the benefits, importance and the use of such system which would somehow mean incompetence among the end users.

Lack of Support

Another barrier in the implementation of the information technology or information system is the lack of support by the company or organization for the said project or plan. Lack of support may happen due to the reason that the certain company or organization would give an insufficient to no importance for the project. This might also be because of the reason of what was discussed earlier - the lack of awareness by the heads, by the stakeholders and by the employees of the company. Another reason for the lack of support is that the company or organization does not know or is unaware of the benefits or advantages that the company may get from the said information technology or information system implementation and in the failure of making it part of the company. The last is when the management or the company itself disagrees with the information technology or information system implementation.

Therefore, the management should set up rules or project plans and strongly support the information technology or information system implementation and give high importance for the said project.

Lack of Resources

The result of the company or organization’s lack of support for the implementation of the information technology or information system in the company is the lack of resources which in turn becomes a barrier for the implementation of such system. Without any investment by the company for such project, the implementation would be very impossible. Therefore, the management must have sufficient awareness with regards to the full details and benefits of information technology or information system from the planning of the project to the time frame and finally, to the cost of the implementation up to the time when the new system will be implemented in the company. The management should also provide or hire competent and knowledgeable or experienced staff in order for the company to get the best results and to enjoy the benefits of such system.
Proper planning must be done in order to provide all the required resources for the implementation of the information technology or information system. The company must be able to provide rules for the information technology or information system plan and that includes the time frame of the project. The information technology or information system plan must also be composed of experienced staff who will be working for the project. Moreover, they must make a thorough study about the information technology or information system project and the best ways on how it must be implemented to help improve the business operations of the company, to make the best out of end users and for them to be able to improve their performance for not only for their own but also for the company itself.

Organizational Politics

Another major information technology or information system implementation barrier mentioned is the Organizational Politics. It affects the implementation of the information technology or information system in such a way and as what I had mentioned or discussed earlier is when other people within the company or that the company itself disagrees with the information technology or information system implementation for the reason that they might not have sufficient awareness or knowledge about such system and how important is such for the company. This disagreement also happens due to the difference of one group’s or individual’s perspective, belief, plans, capabilities and time pressures.

Therefore, in order to make the information technology or information system and to make it a part of the company or organization’s culture a success, proper planning must be done and that includes trainings and seminars which tackles about the benefits, needs, purposes and the proper use of the system that are thoroughly organized or studied before the seminar or training will be handed over to the end users

Time Pressure

Another information technology or information system implementation barrier is the time pressure. Time pressure happens when the people or the staff who are developing the information technology or information system implementation is having difficulty in finishing the project within the marked deadline due to the shortness of time.

To address this barrier, the development staff should be committed in doing the project and should be given sufficient time to complete the information technology or information system implementation. In this way, time pressure may somehow be avoided and the project can be finished as planned.


Lack of Defined Information Technology or Information System Implementation Methodology:

The last but not the least barrier in implementing information technology or information system is the lack of defined information technology or information system implementation methodology. There is a need to design a good implementation methodology that contains the competent and committed staff with their duties and responsibilities. Also, it must contain the rules in implementing the project, the time frame of the project and the cost of developing and implementing the project. Furthermore, it should be stated in the implementation methodology the trainings and seminars together with the topics that will be tackled in the trainings and seminars that the end users will undergo and will be learned before the new system will be implemented or will be handed over to the company.


References:


http://searchcrm.techtarget.com/definition/implementation

http://www.techterms.com/definition/it

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Oct 14, 2009 5:42 pm

Based on our adopted company which is GH Office Depot, their department doesn’t have any IT/IS implementation perhaps as we asked them how important does the computerized system are, Mr. Hector told us that it only comprises the 20% of their business. Even before, they only use computerized system for its uses purposes prior in giving the services to its customers.
Let’s have a review on my data gathering on the net.
Identify barriers to implementation — and strategies to overcome them
Organizations are as alike and unique as human beings. Similarly, group processes can be as straightforward or as complex as the individuals who make up the organization. It is vital to successfully launching a new program that the leaders understand the strengths, weaknesses, and idiosyncrasies of the organization or system in which they operate. Try to anticipate barriers to implementation so that you can develop strategies to minimize their impact or avoid them altogether. The following list of common barriers can be used to help your leadership team identify potential obstacles. The list of essential elements for change can help the team brainstorm possible solutions. The lists are a good starting point for a planning session that will be most effective if it also takes into account the organization's unique characteristics (Institute for Health Improvement).
Common Barriers
• Studying the problem too long without acting
• Trying to get everyone's agreement first
• Educating without changing structures or expectations
• Tackling everything at once
• Measuring nothing or everything
• Failing to build support for replication
• Assuming that the status quo is OK
More Barriers to Change
• Lack of such resources as time and commitment
• Resistance to change
• Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion
• Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities
• Ineffective teams
• Burdensome data collection
Essential Elements for Change Effort
• Define the problem
• Define the target population
• Define effective treatment strategies and establish procedural guidelines
• Establish performance measures; set goals
• Define effective system changes and interventions
• Develop leadership and system change strategy
http://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/22/4481.html
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PostSubject: Assignment #5   Thu Oct 15, 2009 12:19 pm


During information system implementation any organization however good, big or small experience implementation barrier.

What is a barrier?
A barrier is an obstacle which prevents a thing to be implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented.

What is implementation?
Implementation is putting something into practice or operation.

So generally, Information System (IS/IT) implementation is the process of changing into a new information system and putting this new system into operation.

According to the information that I gathered from our interview with our prospect companies I have enumerated here the most common implementation IS/IT barrier an organization experiences in changing into new system.
These barriers are congregation of the data gathered from our interview with Ford Davao and Wilcon Builder's Supply.The barriers are as follows:

INEXPERIENCED or NOT KNOWLEDGEABLE END USER. This barrier is experienced after the system is set up and installed, meaning it is now made available to the end user. One of the reason of ineffective implementation is that end user are not knowledgeable enough about the newly implemented system.
That is why it is very important to include end user training in every IS/IT implementation plan. Another barrier related to end users is resistance.
There are some people that tend to be reluctant to go out of their comfort zones which would make them refuse to accept change. If there is an implementation of IS/IT, it should be expected that there can be resistance by some traditionalist who are not comfortable or threatened with the change. This resistance can be a problem especially if your company spends a considerable amount of financial resource for the implementation but the end users are not utilizing it making the implementation ineffective. In this case, the implementation of IT/IS will be considered a liability instead of an asset for the company. This barrier can be avoided by proper planning, education and communication in order for end users to appreciate the new system.

COST. Perhaps one of the most fundamental barriers any organization experience in implementing system change is the cost. Change is only as good as the cost. A lot of factors in the implementation process are affected by cost. Hardware and software for instance are determined by cost. It is an unchangeable fact that money is an instrument needed to implement any drastic change at any sector of the organization. Without proper financial budget resources and materials required in the actual implementation are not made available inhibiting possible changes.

POOR IMPLEMENTATION PLAN. The implementation methodology is not properly planned. The cost, time of implementation, materials, hardware/software, testing and all necessary approach to arising problem are not properly planned and thought about. No measures of solutions are provided if ever one of these problems occurs.
It is very important to understand that implementation of IS/IT doesn’t stop from installing the whole system, even the testing of system is still part of the implementation.

From what I gather in our interview, barriers in Information System (IS/IT) implementation are unavoidable but can be lessened. An organization before doing drastic change must identify and plan carefully the changes they want to implement.

I will also present some of the data I gathered from my research, here are some of the most common barriers experienced in implementing new IS/IT.

Common Barriers
•Studying the problem too long without acting
•Trying to get everyone's agreement first
•Educating without changing structures or expectations
•Tackling everything at once
•Measuring nothing or everything
•Failing to build support for replication
•Assuming that the status quo is OK

More Barriers to Change

•Lack of such resources as time and commitment
•Resistance to change
•Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion
•Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities
•Ineffective teams
•Burdensome data collection

Essential Elements for Change Effort

•Define the problem
•Define the target population
•Define effective treatment strategies and establish procedural guidelines
•Establish performance measures; set goals
•Define effective system changes and interventions
•Develop leadership and system change strategy


So what does learning the barriers to IS/IT implementation?

By identifying and anticipating the possible barriers that may occur during system change an organization can develop strategies to minimize barriers impact or may avoid it altogether. By knowing the potential obstacles that we may experience during transition we could brainstorm for the best possible solution thereby making a good start in making the implementation plan.




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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Oct 16, 2009 9:50 am

Barriers in their IS/IT Implementation


In an organization, barriers are common to all. In any form, there would be a barriers or hindrance to do the act and in doing some. But, these barriers may be good or bad. It would or would not help the company depending on how the company and its employee approach to these issues.

There are many forms of barriers present in an organization. Barriers that may occur may vary on what type of organization is, because in every circumstance things change. These barriers, employees have a big contribution. In fact, employees are one and have the major contribution, concerns and involvement in this matter. In addition, there are still a lot of factors that is involved in this matter of issue.

A barrier is an obstacle which prevents a given policy instrument being implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented. In the extreme, such barriers may lead to certain policy instruments being overlooked, and the resulting strategies being much less effective. Potential risks and barriers to implementation have board coverage.

Our adopted company is ANFLOCOR which is holding company. As a holding company their services to their affiliates or subsidiary companies is the core of their major business flow. Compare to other organizations, ANFLOCOR doesn’t produced goods or manufacture goods, but instead its focus and concerns are to its subsidiary companies. With the series of interview we had with the Senior Manager – IT and Management Services of the company, we identified some of their barriers in information system and information technology implementation.

Resistance to Technology
Resistance is present in almost everywhere. It is part of the action or activity in our daily life and in every change we plan to have. It is part of the circulation and it may or may not help to achieve the success in our action. As a matter of fact, without resistance things may won’t work well or make it balance. In a sense, it would serve as an evaluation of the action we did or the change we had.
More likely, people resist because they don’t want change. It may seems burden to them or not necessary to engage with. Frequently, resistance takes place due to lack of understanding to the changes and its implications, fear to lose something they value and missing skills or resources to carry out the change.

***In the said company, resistance of the end-users to implement new IS/IT is visible. It is one of the concerns of the IT personnel of the company every time they implement new system. End-users may experience the reasons why fear of change that is stated above. To point out, the said company does not directly consider their end-users or clients as “barrier” in implementing new IS. In fact, as a holding company, their focus is to the “internal service” they can offer to their client. They work for the benefit of its clients or customers. They also provide what the clients suggest or needed. In implementing new IS, client side and approval are sought first before the implementation made.
But, based on observation, it is most likely due to lack of orientation and evaluation to its users to the limitation, scope, parameters and opportunity of the change they plan to do.

Project Implementations Period
As stated earlier, end-user or clients approval plays a big role in implementing new IS. When a need of the client is shows, the company does their role of providing services and does the system as mandated by the clients. On the period of making the system, there would instances that alterations of the functionality occur as the pace of necessity move. In effect, it may consider as barrier in implementation of IS but only partially.


To all intents and purposes, barriers vary occasionally depending to the kind of organization. Organizations core value, concerns, goal, role, activity and priority play a significance role in every step of the way and pace of improvements. But still, a lot of factors still present and show now or later. Here are some of the potential risks and barriers in implementation of new IS that may occur in any kind of organization.


Potential Risks and Barriers in Implementation of New IS


Delayed Decision Making by External Agencies
- Delayed decisions by agencies may jeopardize timelines
- Decisions that alter requirements may affect contracts


Negative Customer Reaction
- Customer may not be satisfied because needs may not meet.
- May be customer backlash if expected benefits don’t materialize
- Customers may not be satisfied with implementation rate of program
- Customers may see this as a way to justify increase in bills

Public Pressure on Government to Change Direction
- Program will not be completed prior to some political events
- Public pressure on government to reverse decisions


Changing Technologies
- The rapid change of the technology may also be considered as barrier. Changes in technological aspect also consider before implementing new IS that in effect relate to planning. As a result, it can insure the effectiveness of the new system and cope up in the competing issue in the market.


Similarly, group processes can be as straightforward or as complex as the individuals who make up the organization. It is vital to successfully launching a new program that the leaders understand the strengths, weaknesses, and idiosyncrasies of the organization or system in which they operate. Try to anticipate barriers to implementation so that you can develop strategies to minimize their impact or avoid them altogether. The following list of common barriers can be used to help your leadership team identify potential obstacles. The list of essential elements for change can help the team brainstorm possible solutions. The lists are a good starting point for a planning session that will be most effective if it also takes into account the organization's unique characteristics.
Common Barriers
• Studying the problem too long without acting
• Trying to get everyone's agreement first
• Educating without changing structures or expectations
• Tackling everything at once
• Measuring nothing or everything
• Failing to build support for replication
• Assuming that the status quo is OK
More Barriers to Change
• Lack of such resources as time and commitment
• Resistance to change
• Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion
• Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities
• Ineffective teams
• Burdensome data collection
Essential Elements for Change Effort
• Define the problem
• Define the target population
• Define effective treatment strategies and establish procedural guidelines
• Establish performance measures; set goals
• Define effective system changes and interventions
• Develop leadership and system change strategy


To address the problem, there are 3 things to consider in implementing new IS:

Still, as difficult as major IT implementations can be, they can be properly executed. The roadmap to success lies in successful planning and management of the overall project. Many problems can be avoided or at least mitigated by paying constant attention to the "three R's" of project management: requirements, resources and recovery rates.
These three R's comprise the foundation of effectively planning and implementing projects. Successful large-scale project managers measure each of these project components and continuously communicate their status to senior management and the project team.

Requirements
The requirements of an IT implementation define the core reasons a business is investing time and resources in the project. The requirements of a project, often referred to as the project scope, must clearly set out what the project team is expected to deliver, and should be documented in detail.
By accurately documenting the work that needs to be done, the project manager can provide senior management with a better understanding of the time frames and resources that will be required to complete the project.
Prior to commissioning a major initiative, senior management should require the project team to complete a cost/benefit analysis. This analysis should outline high-level deliverables that will result from the project meeting its goals. The project team also should define metrics and benchmarks that can be used to measure the benefits of change and the progress and completion of each deliverable.
For example, if a new system is being deployed that reduces the time required to print, sort and attach hangtags, the current amount of time required to complete these activities must be accurately benchmarked. After the new system has been deployed, management can compare the new tagging time requirements against the historical benchmarks and quantify the amount of time saved.

Resources
The second of the 3 R's -- resources -- includes all employees, consultants and vendors who are required to successfully complete the project. Resources also encompass the budgets, capital expenditures, equipment and infrastructure necessary to achieve the requirements of the project within the target time frame. Resources are the most important commodities of the project. Without them, none of the project requirements will be completed. They also can be the most difficult aspect of a project to accurately pinpoint.

In determining the amount of resources that will be required to complete a project, many base their calculations on the firm's number of full-time employees (FTEs). Deriving an accurate FTE count, however, can be a difficult task. Thousands of variables change the resource requirements of major projects on a daily basis. People become ill, quit, go on vacations and take maternity or paternity leave.
When establishing an estimate for a project, the project manager must consider the amount of work that needs to be completed and put a stake in the ground in terms of the resources that will be required to do the job. As the project progresses, it is important that the project manager revisit the original estimates with updated information, and adjust his or her team's size, budget projections, etc. accordingly.

Recovery Rates
The recovery rate can be measured from the time any requirements of the project are completed through the time the business begins to recover its capital investment. A classic mistake of many project managers is to focus 100 percent on the end of the project. If project managers do not develop and manage interim milestones, they are unable to determine the rate at which they are achieving project requirements. As a result, they are not able to clearly determine whether the project is on time and if it will meet the deadline.
In the end, requirements, resources and recovery rates must all be carefully balanced to successfully realize the benefits of a large-scale project that is on time and meets budget. As changes occur, it is imperative that the project manager identifies which of the three R's each change affects. When a project is in balance, any change to one of the three R's will cause a compensatory change in another. For example, as requirements are added to a project, either additional resources or additional time must be added to the initiative.



http://www.growthhouse/palliative
http://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/22/4481.html
http://informationr.net/tdw/publ/papers/1989ISstrat.html
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PostSubject: Barriers in IS/IT implementation   Sat Oct 17, 2009 12:54 am

Information Systems is very important nowadays especially in a company. Every market leading enterprise will have at least one core competency – that is, a function they perform better than their competition. By building an exceptional management information system into the enterprise it is possible to push out ahead of the competition. MIS systems provide the tools necessary to gain a better understanding of the market as well as a better understanding of the enterprise itself.

Businesses make use of information systems so that accurate and up-to-date information will be available when it is required. Since it is not always possible to predict what information will be needed at some future date, most organisations use computers to record and store the details of all their business transactions. When a query arises, or a standard business report must be produced, this raw data can be retrieved and manipulated to produce the required information.

Information systems are the foundation for conducting business today. In many industries, survival and even existence without extensive use of IT is inconceivable, and IT plays a critical role in increasing productivity. Although information technology has become more of a commodity, when coupled with complementary changes in organization and management, it can provide the foundation for new products, services, and ways of conducting business that provide firms with a strategic advantage.

Six reasons why information systems are so important for business today include:
1. Operational excellence
2. New products, services, and business models
3. Customer and supplier intimacy
4. Improved decision making
5. Competitive advantage
6. Survival

According to the MIS officer of Holcim, the development of their system is ongoing. When we asked the MIS officer what some of their barriers are, he said that some of their barriers are of user problem or the customized reports that they needed. If something is not available in the system, the system needs to be developed because it’s a requirement in their reports.

In implementing a system, there may be barriers due to some reasons.

Many information technology (IT) innovations have been used to improve decision making and support reengineering activities. But organizations often find crossfunctional barriers to implementing IT innovations. These barriers reflect technical, organizational, political, and behavioral factors that can prevent organizations from obtaining all of the innovation's potential benefits.

What are the barriers in IS/IT implementation?

Beany & Gordon (1988) researched the barriers that exist to successful introduction of IT systems and reported that they fall into three categories, structural, human and technical. Structural barriers are those factors inherent in the organizations structure or systems
that are not compatible with the new technology. This can include communication, authority flows and planning systems, and reflect how the organization has traditionally done things. A
failure to perceive the strategic benefits of the investment, a lack of co-ordination and co-
operation due to organizational fragmentation, and a perception of high risk are all symptoms of
organizational problems. Human barriers include psychological problems that arise in most periods of change, such as uncertainty avoidance, and resistance to loss of power or status. Technical barriers, they noted, were factors in the technology itself, such as lack of system compatibility.

Ernst (1989) also stresses functional, technical and human factors relating to business process improvements. For Ernst, functional barriers relate to information and work flows and include identification of strategic information needs. Technical factors relate to the need for flexibility and information handling capacity, with the dangers of disjointed islands of automation being created which limit information flow. Human factors are the need for job redefinition and the resistance to change which lead to a lack of companywide flexibility or commitment. Other authors have confirmed that the key barriers to IT implementation tend to be organizational, rather than technical, and that these barriers are often understated (Scarborough & Lannon 1988, Wilson 1989). Galliers, for instance, focused on general management problems in successful planning of strategic information systems and concluded (Galliers 1991) that key factors were the attitude, commitment and involvement of management: the current sophistication of IS within the company: the ability to measure and justify the benefits of strategic IS: and the integration of IS into business strategy.

Before implementing the Information System, the company must first analyze the advantages and disadvantages of having an Information System.


http://is2.lse.ac.uk/asp/aspecis/19940017.pdf[url][/url]
http://www.allbusiness.com/technology/651437-1.html
http://www.scribd.com/doc/19697843/What-Are-Management-Information-Systems
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_are_information_systems_so_important_in_business_today
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