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 Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)

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Ma.AnnKristineTomada

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PostSubject: part2..   Tue Aug 25, 2009 4:29 pm

The following areas are suspicious of generating barriers to Business Reengineering implementation success:

1. Project Related Causes

The Business Reengineering project setup may lead to barriers, which have to be dealt with. Project contents and project management can be of such nature, that both hard and soft barriers evolve.

Project contents are represented by project objectives, the selected business processes and the introduction of new Information Technology. The project contents may lead to considerable resistance and hard barriers. The project contents are particularly the source of many barriers, when the haven't been properly and understandably defined.
Project management can be a source of severe barriers, if the road to travel by, remains unclear to the people affected. If confusion reigns, doubt and sometimes fear develops. Doubt and fear lead to failing projects, because people who doubt or fear, do not take action towards attaining the project objectives. Not recognizing people's issues in project management leads to project failure.


2. People Related Causes


People affected by the organizational change are the richest source of potential barriers. This is true for people on all levels in an organization. Managers may resist a change, which jeopardizes their job, workers may fear unemployment by being replaced through a computer system, etc. People's behavior is based on their personality and norms of the groups they belong to.

Some top-managers/owners believe that operative people are the worst resisters, yet this is mostly not the case. Managers often resist change more intensively, because sometimes having sacrificed their lives (and that of their family) to their jobs, they have a lot to loose. Thus, many managers in Business Reengineering situations pay lip service to the change, but behave in old autocratic ways, to not suffer any personal drawbacks from the change. Workers in contrast, mostly want to be told, what is exactly expected from them. They typically do not play with words, and do not engage in micropolitics, as opposed to many managers.

3. Organization Related Causes


The organizational structure may cause barriers by being inflexible towards a drastic change in operations. In particular large bureaucratic organizations tend to wither changes which potentially destroy the existing structure. The embedded culture of the organization is another reservoir for potential barriers, in that culture unconsciously influences the thinking, decisions and actions of people working in a given company. Thus culture may dictate inability to escape the past, and inability to invent the future A number of Business Reengineering efforts derail because the strategic context in which the project was positioned changed significantly - rendering the new process design worthless.
4. Environment Related Causes

The environment of an organization, which is undertaking a Business Reengineering project may yield barriers to implementation success, by withstanding through the means of laws, regulations, and public resistance. The organization's business partners , i.e. vendors and customers, may resist consciously or unconsciously the objectives and contents of a Business Reengineering project the organization undertakes. Lastly the environment may rapidly change in a way, that makes the Business Reengineering project redundant.



I had included here my research of some typical root causes to information technology barriers. It shows the relationships between potential barriers to Business Reengineering implementation success and areas, which hold causes of these barriers. The relationship between barrier and underlying cause are not one on one, but rather several root causes may yield one particular barrier. Vice versa, one root cause may yield several barriers of different nature. We will not cover all relationships between potential barriers and root causes. Using Information Technology barriers and individual resistance as examples, we will explore several root causes. The root cause analysis process presented can easily be applied to other barriers and the root cause domains of individual, groups, organization and environment.


Root Causes to Information Technology Barriers


Information Technology is an important enabler of Business Reengineering. Only through the introduction of Information Technology, innovative business processes become available. Consider the case of a virtual bookstore. Customer related processes would not be possible without using the capabilities of the world-wide-web. On the other hand, Information Technology can has the potential to evolve as a barrier to Business Reengineering implementation. Information Technology barriers represent severe problems with the Information Technology infrastructure (hardware, software and networking). These problems typically emerge in the implementation phase of Business Reengineering projects.



Barrier 1: Selected Software-Solutions are not Process-Oriented

Example Manufact Inc.


1. Situation
Manufact Inc. produces and sells custom plastic injection machines. The company starts a Business Reengineering project. The main objective is to increase customer satisfaction by setting up self-directed work teams. These work teams are responsible for the delivery of plastic injection machines of high quality, low cost and fast delivery speed. The teams are supplied with an application software package meant to help in performing the new processes better than in the past. The chief information officer of the company selected the package, based on recommendations of other manufacturing companies.

2. Barrier
The Team, being responsible for the whole process from customer inquiry to delivery, compares the software functionality with the process steps it has defined. The team finds out that processing an order from start to finish requires more than eighty terminal transactions. Filling out ten different screen templates alone are required for defining a new customer order. Additionally the team finds out that the software cannot be configured to support the whole process they are responsible for. The team concludes that the software must have been developed for a different than a process oriented environment.


Underlying causes can be looked for in the areas of project content, project management, and partner (supplier) responsibility:


Root Cause 1: Unsatisfactory Selection Process

The software selection process may involve errors of project content and project management. Content errors are given, if it had not been properly defined, what criteria the software should adhere to. Among the criteria for process oriented software are workgroup computing and database-integration requirements (Tapscott/Caston, 1993). A typical error in project management was, that the selection process was not properly performed. A proper selection would have required from the vendor to respond to the process related criteria. Instead the company purchased the software based on the recommendation of another company. This company's organization and requirements could have been different.

Root Cause 2: Delivery Problems

Depending on the correctness of the RFP (request for proposal) which the company send to the software supplier, the supplier eager to book a much needed new software order, could have promised software functionality which in reality was not there. The company lost time and money by concentrating on a software not suited to their process needs.


Barrier 2: Users Do not Accept System


Example Media Partners

1. Situation
Media Partners produce print-media clippings. They observe German and Swiss papers and magazines on a daily basis, using key words provided by their customers. The company employs ninety readers that scan the print media, as well as ten clippers, that clip the traced articles with scissors. Forty percent of their income is based on the number of clippings they produce monthly. All clippings are sent to the customers by mail on a daily or weekly basis. All business processes are done manually. Media Partners plan to change that. They plan to introduce Information Technology to support the reading process and replace the manual clipping process through an electronic clipping service. The company expects additional revenue by setting up an externally searchable clipping database.



2. Barrier

After the first training hours with the new Information Technology equipment the readers find that they will be less productive with the computer. They fear their income will decrease. The clippers fear to loose their jobs.




Underlying causes can be looked for in the areas of project content, project management, people, organization and public.


Root Cause 1:Wrong Information Technology Configuration

The Information Technology Configuration can be faulty. For example too large keyboards could hinder the process of fast reading papers and keying in at the same time. The terminal dialogue could be too slow or too cumbersome. The hardware and network processes could be too slow or not be able to handle the workload. The system might not allow all readers to work in parallel with the new system.

Root Cause 2: Not Enough Test-Runs

A completely new computer application system has to be tested thoroughly (Lullies/Bollinger/Weltz, 1990). Volume-tests, performance-tests and availability-tests have too be planned for carefully. It is necessary to test the entire process. It might well be, that the readers are not satisfied, yet other affected personnel are happy with the new system. The overall results are important.

Root Cause 3: Knowledge and Skill Level Too Low

Missing knowledge and skills regarding computers and computer applications might be severe reasons for non-acceptance. In particular older people might be afraid to touch the keyboard since the fear to demonstrate their missing computer skills to the younger ones. It is necessary to take away fear by thoroughly explaining the new system to all those affected. Also ample room should be given for unsupervised training sessions.
Root Cause 4: Resistance

Resistance may develop out of missing knowledge or skills. Some people believe that the introduction of new technology is always accompanied by resistance. This may or may not be true, since new technology is often accompanied by curiosity for the new. Connor/Lake trace people's resistance to a lack of understanding, a missing will to accept the change and missing skills (see root cause 3) or resources to carry out the change (Connor/Lake, 1994).

Root Cause 5: Micropolitics

Micpropolitics describe power-games in an organization. The introduction of a new information technology often changes the complex power structure in an organization (Lullies/Bollinger/Weltz, 1990). This is particularly true for organizations undertaking global Business Reengineering projects, such as Media Partners. Experienced readers may fear to lose the seniority status to younger, more efficient colleagues.

Root Cause 6: Mistrust

If the system is accessible from outside the organization, people within the organization may mistrust the system. Media Partners plan to have her customers to access the clipping database. Errors may immediately be traced back to the individual reader. There is a potential for mistrust.

----not yet finish------- affraid


Last edited by Ma.AnnKristineTomada on Tue Aug 25, 2009 4:30 pm; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : kulang pa xa sir...)
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PostSubject: part3---   Tue Aug 25, 2009 4:45 pm

Barrier 3: Decentralization not attainable

Example Trading Inc.


1. Situation

Trading Inc. plans to replace its centralized information management system by a decentral client/server solution. The objective is to give more responsibilities to their store managers. They are expected to operate as if they were owners of their stores. This is very different from current processes, where store managers receive direct orders and close supervision from Trading Inc. headquarters. For example did the central marketing department decide about local pricing by downloading article prices to the store PC`s. Now it is expected that store managers fix their own local prices and improve profitability at the same time.

2. Barrier

182 stores are switched over to the new decentralized system. It is planned to have the old centralized system in operation as long as the new client/server system is not up and running. During implementation a large number of store managers claim that the new system is not properly thought through. They maintain to having not enough time anymore to pursue their original job of increasing local sales. They express concerns that headquarters puts more pressure on them by assigning more clerical work to the stores. Trading Inc´s top management considers putting a hold to the project.

Underlying causes can be looked for in the areas of project content, people, and culture.





Root Cause 1: Vague Project Goals

The project has not been properly explained to the store managers. They believe to be forced to take additional load on to their daily work-load. Top management did not share the real intentions with the store-managers. These call for more individual freedom for decision-making, more opportunities for personal development, etc. If the store managers knew the real project objectives, they would actively pursue project activities on their part.

Root Cause 2: Missing Discipline

In the past, the store managers were always told what to do. Expect from keeping the store operations moving, keeping the store clean and care about personnel, they had no major decisions to take. The new decentralization concept requires more openness from them, more risk taking, more involvement, more training, and more teaching. Those store managers, who are not accustomed to organizational changes of that nature miss the discipline necessary to make the project a success.

Root Cause 3: Strong Control Culture

The Business Reengineering project requires a new culture within Trading Inc. Away from the strong centralized bureaucracy, with the virtue of efficient decisions and operations towards a more collaborative culture, with the virtue of situational decision making based on local customer care. There is a large difference between both types of culture (Schneider, 1994). The store managers may think that headquarters will not really make the move and will eventually return to law and order thinking and practices. So they may think it is not worth the effort to get too heavily involved in the project. It might even be dangerous for one's own career within the company, once the old control culture will be reestablished.


Some Root Causes of Internal Individual Resistance


The second area we are looking at is individual resistance (of type A) against project contents and project management. Next to Information Technology problems, this area is most often mentioned by practitioners when asked for Business Reengineering Implementation problems. It is also the area of most wrong decisions within a Business Reengineering project. When asked to give a reason for individual resistance, managers responsible for effective Business Reengineering, often act as lay psychologists by reading people´s character as being too rigid or too negative. On the other hand, affected people act the same: „This manager will never be able to change himself". often prevail misunderstandings and prejudices. There is ample room for improvement in changing the views of project teams and people affected in the organization regarding one another.

Firstly, individual resistance can be broadly differentiated into constructive and destructive resistance to Business Reengineering success. Constructive resistance is always positive towards the objectives of the project. Yet there is resistance against the ways and means, and sometimes people´s behavior, who run the project. Destructive resistance is meant to stop the project. Both types of resistance can be overt or covert. Open means, one can hear and see the resistance. Covert means, the resistance is not noticeable from the outside. Definitely dangerous for the success of a Business Reengineering project is covert destructive resistance, particularly in tense implementation situations.

Five Roles of Resisting Behavior

• The Behavior of the Critic

The critic communicates openly and demonstrates constructive behavior towards the project goals. She is not in line with various aspects of the project approach. She adds ideas to the project contents. Critics are valuable individuals for the projects successful outcome. It is important that the project initiator and the project team take the critic into close consideration.

• The Behavior of the Skeptic

The skeptic demonstrates a similar behavior to the critic. She does not tell everybody though. She is doubtful about various aspects of the project content and project management, yet talks only when asked. She is a valuable source of ideas towards the projects outcome.

• The Behavior of the Terrorist

The Terrorist seems to constantly warn everybody regarding a negative outcome of the project. She demonstrates openly her distaste of the project objectives and the way the project is run. Often the terrorist announces her own actions against the project. These should be taken seriously, since in all likelihood the terrorist makes her announcement true (Watzlawik, 1976).

• The Behavior of the Saboteur


The saboteur demonstrates an extremely negative behavior. Communication is overt. The project team has to carefully watch out for saboteurs. Saboteurs should have no chance to covertly destroy the outcome of the Business Reengineering project. Typically only very few people turn out to be saboteurs.

• The Behavior of the Undecided

The undecided does not show clear signals of being covert or overt, constructive or destructive. That makes this behavior dangerous to the projects outcome. When the project turns to the positive side though, the undecided tend to be constructive.

Examples of barrier:

Barrier 1: Constructive Resistance

Both overt and covert constructive resistance can be traced back to the domains of project management, the individual person and the culture of the organization.

Root Cause 1: Project Management Approach

Constructive behavior of affected people is very much based on the way, the project is being managed. If the project team asks for openness and behaves itself in a way that people can communicate without fear, than it may be expected that people freely discuss their thoughts about the projects content.

Root Cause 2: Personalities of People Affected by the Project

Well educated non-destructive personalities, mostly express themselves in ways that truly help a projects outcome. People are often known for their character. They seem to be not easy, yet valuable members of the organization.

Root Cause 3: Former Experiences

Former experiences with organizational projects forms the behavior of people. If the experience is negative, than the behavior towards the new Business Reengineering project may be negative. If the experience was positive, the behavior towards the project is positive. Thus the behavior of new people to the organization may collide with behavior of incumbents. Former success may breed resistance in a way that people believe there is no need for change.

Barrier 2: Destructive Behavior

Both overt and covert destructive resistance can be traced back to the domains of project content, project management, the individual person, the groups, and the structure of the organization, which affects the culture in turn, and the public.

Root Cause 1: Project Objectives

The approach the project team is taking, decides to a large extent about the development of destructive behavior. If the project objectives do not take the people side into consideration, and solely push the project towards technological goals, destructive behavior evolves as a consequence. Psychologically people resist against objectives they do not accept as their own. Therefore it is necessary to align personal goals with the project goals. This is particularly true for those Business Reengineering projects which are set up to downsize the organization.

Root Cause 2: Missing Change Momentum

A Business Reengineering project changes the way a company operates on a daily basis. This change forces everybody affected to change her working style. As long as the working style is considered new, management has to keep pressure, to keep the change momentum up. If this is not the case, there is a tendency to go back to the old style.

Root Cause 3:. Destructive Personality

Managers of Business Reengineering projects explain destructive behavior often with alleged destructive personality. Yet, as psychotherapist Erich Fromm pointed out, while on the one hand destructive behavior is increasing in the world of today, on the other hand, only a minority of people has a destructive personality. He claims it is the society, which for a large part is responsible for destructive actions, people take (Fromm, 1973). Society can allow destructive personalities under the „right" circumstances. Therefore, before a person is accused of having a destructive personality, it should be checked, whether circumstances in the organization support destructive behavior.



Root Cause 4: Group Pressure

Group pressure may yield destructive behavior. Group norms may force the group member to behave destructively, even if as an individual, the group member would have behaved otherwise.

Root Cause 5: Loss of Power over People

People, who lose power over people, may react with destructive actions. For example lost a supervisor power, with the introduction of self-directed work teams. He reacted by covertly sabotaging the team's working results. It is necessary to give the person a new role with a new responsibility, that is not to be identified with a loss of power.

Root Cause 6: Loss of Acceptance

Often the loss of power over people is a loss of status in the world outside the work-place. This feeling of loss by the affected person can influence her decisions and actions in destructive ways.

Conclusion


Business Reengineering is an approach to organizational renewal, that begins with customer needs and then moves to the work itself (Nadler/Shaw/Walton, 1995). As a result it tends to take a reductionist approach, in that proponents of Business Reengineering may believe, everything else (structure, culture, people's behavior and motivation) will fall in place, once the reengineering has been done. This engineering mentality offers tremendous benefits through crisp and clear cut application of logic to the design of business processes, but also has a down side.

A large majority of Business Reengineering efforts begin with the redesign of processes and focus on the people side (members of the organization and customers likewise) only to the extent needed to ensure that the technical design can be implemented by humans.


The management of barriers, in particular regarding resistant behavior, is a new task that should complement the management of Business Reengineering implementation projects. The traditional approach to the management of barriers within Business Reengineering projects, masterminded by a top-down attitude to „people problems", has to give way to a Change Management oriented approach of recognizing people's valid concerns. Processes, systems, and structures can be adjusted mechanistically, but it`s people who are the critical success factor in making the new business processes work (Burlton, 1995).

Therefore it is necessary to review the people and culture oriented Change Management literature for intervention models, applicable to Business Reengineering projects. In Chapter 6 we will incorporate the findings in a framework of barrier management, that should be added to or replace the linear and technically oriented traditional approaches to Business Reengineering project management.
-----------------------------------------------the end------------------------------------
Reference:
http://www.prosci.com/w_3.htm

http://informationr.net/tdw/publ/papers/1989ISstrat.html
http://74.6.146.127/search/cache?ei=UTF-8&p=Management+Information+System+Project+Management+for+the+Coral+Gables+Fire-Rescue+Department&vm=r&fr=yfp-t-152&fp_ip=PH&u=www.usfa.dhs.gov/pdf/efop/efo27900.PDF&w=management+information+system+project+management+coral+gables+fire+rescue+department&d=C1TQjd29TXFm&icp=1&.intl=us


Last edited by Ma.AnnKristineTomada on Fri Sep 04, 2009 3:27 pm; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : i forgot to include my references....churie poh..un lsng poh sng kulng....)
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PostSubject: Barriers of Implementation   Wed Aug 26, 2009 6:06 am

study According to what I have research, barriers in IS/IT implementation have a kinds and things to be considered. It could also be an important too. But how and why is it? Just find out in more discussions below. You will learn here also what are these certain barriers are.

Organizations are as alike and unique as human beings. Similarly, group processes can be as straightforward or as complex as the individuals who make up the organization. It is vital to successfully launching a new program that the leaders understand the strengths, weaknesses, and idiosyncrasies of the organization or system in which they operate. As you implement technology, you can also run into barriers in your firm. Try to anticipate these barriers to implementation so that you can develop strategies to minimize their impact or avoid them altogether.


Why are barriers important?

A barrier is an obstacle which prevents a given policy instrument being implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented. In the extreme, such barriers may lead to certain policy instruments being overlooked, and the resulting strategies being much less effective. For example, demand management measures are likely to be important in larger cities as ways of controlling the growth of congestion and improving the environment. But at the same time they are often unpopular, and cities may be tempted to reject them simply because they will be unpopular. If that decision leads in turn to greater congestion and a worse environment, the strategy will be less successful. The emphasis should therefore be on how to overcome these barriers, rather than simply how to avoid them.


What are the principal barriers?

Barriers are grouped into the four categories listed below.

1) Legal and institutional barriers
These include lack of legal powers to implement a particular instrument, and legal responsibilities which are split between agencies, limiting the ability of the city authority to implement the affected instrument.

2) Financial barriers
These include budget restrictions limiting the overall expenditure on the strategy, financial restrictions on specific instruments, and limitations on the flexibility with which revenues can be used to finance the full range of instruments.

3) Political and cultural barriers
These involve lack of political or public acceptance of an instrument, restrictions imposed by pressure groups, and cultural attributes, such as attitudes to enforcement, which influence the effectiveness of instruments.

4) Practical and technological barriers
While cities view legal, financial and political barriers as the most serious which they face in implementing policy instruments, there may also be practical limitations. For management and pricing, enforcement and administration are key issues. For infrastructure, management and information systems, engineering design and availability of technology may limit progress. Generally, lack of key skills and expertise can be a significant barrier to progress, and is aggravated by the rapid changes in the types of policy being considered.


How should we deal with barriers in the short term?

It is important not to reject a particular policy instrument simply because there are barriers to its introduction. One of the key elements in a successful strategy is the use of groups of policy instrument which help overcome these barriers. This is most easily done with the financial and political and cultural barriers, where one policy instrument can generate revenue to help finance another (as, for example, fares policy and service improvements), or one can make another more publicly acceptable (for example rail investment making road pricing more popular). A second important element is effective participation, which can help reduce the severity of institutional and political barriers, and encourage joint action to overcome them. Finally, effective approaches to implementation can reduce the severity of many barriers.


How can we overcome barriers in the longer term?

It is often harder to overcome legal, institutional and technological barriers in the short term. There is also the danger that some institutional and political barriers may get worse over time. However, strategies should ideally be developed for implementation over a 15-20 year timescale. Many of these barriers will not still apply twenty years hence, and action can be taken to remove others. For example, if new legislation would enable more effective instruments such as pricing to be implemented, it can be provided. If split responsibilities make achieving consensus impossible, new structures can be put in place. If finance for investment in new infrastructure is justified, the financial rules can be adjusted. TIPP makes a number of recommendations for longer term institutional change. Barriers should thus be treated as challenges to be overcome, not simply impediments to progress. A key element in a long term strategy should be the identification of ways of resolving these longer term barriers.


Furthermore, the following list of common barriers can be used to help your leadership team identify potential obstacles. The list of essential elements for change can help the team brainstorm possible solutions. The lists are a good starting point for a planning session that will be most effective if it also takes into account the organization's unique characteristics (Institute for Health Improvement).


Common Barriers
•Studying the problem too long without acting
•Trying to get everyone's agreement first
•Educating without changing structures or expectations
•Tackling everything at once
•Measuring nothing or everything
•Failing to build support for replication
•Assuming that the status quo is OK

More Barriers to Change
•Lack of such resources as time and commitment
•Resistance to change
•Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion
•Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities
•Ineffective teams
•Burdensome data collection

Essential Elements for Change Effort
•Define the problem
•Define the target population
•Define effective treatment strategies and establish procedural guidelines
•Establish performance measures; set goals
•Define effective system changes and interventions
•Develop leadership and system change strategy


Other common problems/barriers in implementation

Technology Disconnect - Among businesses there is a commonly used phrase called “technology disconnect". As applied to law firms, it refers to the gap between the managing partners who make the bottom line decisions for the firm and the technologists who make major technology recommendations to the firm which may cost thousands, tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands, or millions of dollars. I hear many stories from the "technologists" that the firm does not support their efforts. But is it surprising in light of some of the past technological solutions that were sold to law firms and failed to become reality?

Technology today is mature enough and generally standard enough to make reasonable future decisions, but the disconnect may still lie between the managing partners and the technologists or now more popularly called the Chief Information Officer (CIO) or Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO). The managing partner does not understand the technology and the CIO, unless he or she is an attorney and/or partner, does not understand the business of the law firm. The managing partner usually does not see his job as understanding the technology, let alone implementing it. The CIO does not understand the practice of law and remains focused on installing the technology, but not the applications or teaching that will benefit the firm. The solution is for both the managing partner to take a greater interest in technology and the CIO to take a larger role in understanding the business of the firm. The foundation of the old must be preserved with the calculated implementation of new technology investments.

The managing partner(s) will have to be fluent in broad technology concepts so that they can communicate intelligently with the CIO about the value of such concepts to the firm. It is important for the CIO's to demystify the technology to the lawyers and others in the firm. Scheduling speakers, training sessions, keeping resource material available, and so on, can accomplish this. The managing partners must be willing to understand the technology and bridge the gap between their bottom line roles and the implementation of new technologies. Lawyers who did not grow up in the computer era manage law firms. They do not understand their power, capability and applications. Their resistance to the incorporation of digital information into the firm will spell trouble for these firms.

Be careful what you wish for - you may get your wish! One situation to be wary of is that in which the leaders accept that technology is important and see the implementation as buying some hardware and software, without training the firm. They generally will “tell” the committee, Chief Information Officer (CIO) or technology advocate what to do. This is a very difficult situation. Generally, they are the authority in the firm but do not understand technology and generally are too busy to spend the time understanding it. Education, if the leader takes the time, may be the only solution.

Computer Literacy - A recent survey showed that 51% of the top executives in the United States are computer illiterate. They rely heavily on their management team for advice for technology purchases. The main reasons for computer illiteracy are that computer knowledge and skills are considered a low priority, computers intimidate executives, and they resist change. They may be the naysayers who will not support your efforts to enact your firm’s strategic plan. Their negative comments and actions can cause a rift, and much worse, a nonadoption of technology in the firm.

Technology Department Resistance - Strangely enough, your own technologists may be against implementing new applications; maybe for good reason. Does your firm support their department with sufficient resources? What happened the last time that they implemented a new technology? Did you hold them responsible for glitches? Did you reward them for their long hours and worry about the implementation of the technology?

One sign of their hesitancy is shown in meetings where they point to a 3-year implementation period for applications that could realistically be up and running within 6 months. Others are reluctant to move to client/server or Intranet technology because it decentralizes their control over the computers. Be aware of the technologist who does not want to change. They are content in the DOS environment, using outdated technology, and see change as more work. However, change for change sake is not good – the benefits must be demonstrated.

Capital Investment and Billable Hour Concerns - Most law firms are not capital intensive. The money that is earned by the firm is distributed to its members. Before, the firm did not have to set aside or consider the thousands or tens of thousands of dollars that are necessary to implement or upgrade existing technology. It maybe difficult to convince one of the senior partners to invest substantial money in new software, hardware and training when he may be retiring in a few years. Also, beware of the impulsive enthusiasm where the partners have not committed for the long term.

Do not ever underestimate the impact of the billable hour on a technology plan. In simple terms, it would be more profitable for a firm if each attorney practiced law with a quill pen and law books. The lawyer could charge by the hour, incur no secretarial expenses, and manually research the law. The lawyer would make more profit than by automating. In fact, if one invests in technology to get the work done faster, then the firm will lose revenue by investing in the technology and by decreasing the number of billable hours that one could charge their client. This is a short sighted view that does not consider your client’s need for low cost, efficient services, value based billing, and the ability to handle more matters in a shorter period of time.

Once you understand the obstacles to implementation, sound practical approaches can be developed to overcome any objections. However, a word of caution, some law firms will not change. They have old cultures, and cumbersome structures and politics. They will give only lip service to needed reengineering and quiet the unrest by investing in some technology. Unfortunately, if a firm’s management is unwilling to adopt technology, they maybe discarded like the typewriter


On the other hand, for my adopted organization, the barriers that they’ve encountered were the following:

1. Difficulty of implementation
- Their difficulty of implementation is mostly on their time scheduling. Mostly, the implementation of their systems would be extended because of some problems and errors that arise during simulation and more revisions that they have done on it to make the systems good and function properly and perfectly as well as to achieve the customer’s satisfaction.

2. Security is an over hyped problem
- Regarding to their security, they do really have a problem on it because they don’t have the System Administrator whose the one will maintain and control the security of the server. Therefore, their General Manager is only the one that can now control and manipulate the server. But he is also very busy and not always around on their company that’s why this is the cause why the other personnel cannot access the server and cannot do their job which supposedly the information in an information system should be available for the users at any time.

3. Lack of personnel
- In their company, they were just few personnel there that’s why sometimes they cannot pursue to do the other systems because sometimes they will have so many projects to do and they cannot do it all. But inspite for that, still the company strives to be reputable in its excellent output of business solutions and systems.

4. Lack of potential customer connected
- Because of no server and loss of wireless networks or loss of internet connection sometimes, there would be no connection also with their customers. Therefore, the customers cannot access the files that they have to download and cannot have a communication with them.

5. Cost
- There was also the time in their company that they have a problem of the cost of enterprise that’s why they had a difficulty and cannot implement what they want to implement all the way sometimes.


References:
•http://www.konsult.leeds.ac.uk/public/level1/sec10/index.htm
•http://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/22/4481.html
•http://www.elawexchange.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=345&Itemid=310




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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 26, 2009 11:14 am

Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation. (2000words)

Organizations that will be able to realign their operational policies and practices with the new IS will have an easier time with the implementation, create more positive organizational goodwill, successfully optimize the software, and achieve a greater return on their investment.


Our adopted organization is ANFLOCOR. Their MIS (internal affairs) are for its clients, they create a system that is required by their clients. On the word of the Senior Manager- IT and Management Services of ANFLOCOR their end-users who are also their customers are their main concern. They do not consider the end-users as a barrier (the term ‘barrier’) in their IS/IT implementation but their approval is a necessity before the implementation. Since the IS that ANFLOCOR brings into being are from the request of their customers, implementation will really vary upon the customer that is why it is necessary for them to have the nod of their end-users/customers before implementing it.


However, on the end-users/customers part, in view of the fact that they took ANFLOCOR’s service there is the assumption that the company (end-user/customer) had already discussed the cost and their current system before taking the service of ANFLOCOR.

In my point of view, our adopted organization for study – ANFLOCOR, since whom we interviewed is under MIS for internal affairs whose main focus are their clients also and only have their clients as barriers on IS implementation. Although realistically speaking, they are not the one responsible for the implementation but their customer. Then again, they have to satisfy the customer and the customer will only be satisfied if they can see that the IS to be implemented conforms to their:

• Organizational Policies and Procedures (Workflow and Timing, Transaction Flows, Organizational Rules and System Rigidity);

• Computer Related Procedures and Policies (Data Entry Policies and Procedures, Timing Considerations, Data Updates, User Access and Security Administration);
• Input and Processing Capability (Speed, Information Retrieval, Data Integrity, Printing and Report Design, and Distribution Needs); and
• Organizational Technology Capability (IT Staff, Users and Management).

Let me explain further those aforementioned issues, because they are what the clients of our adopted organization for study – ANFLOCOR – consider.


Organizational Policies and Procedures

•Workflow and Timing: Manual processes and/or current systems must blend into the new IS.

•Transaction Flows: Address, revise and reach agreement on input forms, authorization signatures, and report routing.
•Organizational Rules: The system must include specification of any organization specific rules in existence.
•System Rigidity: Once again emphasize that the flexibility of manual processes may evaporate with a new system.

Computer Related Procedures and Policies
•Data Entry Policies and Procedures: Who's responsible for entering the data? Does this still make sense if the business processes change with the new system?
•Timing Considerations: When will reports be generated? What are the cut-off dates for data entry?
•Data Updates: Can anyone update data at any time or will there be cut-off times and/or dates?
•User Access: Which users shall have access to which portions of the database and on what basis?
•Security Administration: What levels of security do they currently have? What do they want? Is there a plan for the prevention of data damage or loss, the backup of data and program files, unauthorized distribution of information, computer viruses, network crashes, and interruptions in power?

Input and Processing Capability

•Speed: Just because a system can hold a large volume of records does not mean that it can process changes to all those records rapidly. Acceptable time parameters should be established early in the project.

•Information Retrieval: Users must be able to retrieve grouped data, such as a list of certain types of loans.
•Data Integrity: A good system includes several types of procedures that maximize the accuracy of the data it contains. Most data errors occur in the data entry process through miscoding or operator carelessness. Edit and validation processes limit the types of data accepted in a particular field.
•Printing and Report Design: A good system is capable of producing reports for management, employees and other government organizations.
•Distribution Needs: The form in which information needs to be disseminated has to be addressed. Options may include electronic mail, batch data, use of external databases, distributed or off-line printing at multiple locations, and other telecommunications options.

Organizational Technology Capability
•IT Staff — A centralized database will require the use of a network, in some form, to enable user’s access to the data. Also the larger the database required, typically the more sophisticated it will be. Both of these elements together will require a high skilled network systems administrator. Consider the availability and cost of acquiring such a person for the institution.
•Users — Depending on the daily staff’s previous experience with using computers, it may be necessary to provide a much greater amount of up front training in basic computer skills, in addition to training on the new software package. For novice users a windows based product can be much less intimidating.
•Management — Managers often receive the same training as staff users, but in fact their primary contact with the MIS is not putting data into the system, but getting information out of the system. It is important to provide training to management that is customized to their information needs as managers. In some cases, exporting the data or reports into MS Excel or a similar tool will be necessary to do more in depth data modelling and trend analysis. An MIS is only as good as the information its users can extract from it.

Reference:
http://www.cgap.org

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PostSubject: ASSIGNMENT 5   Fri Aug 28, 2009 5:12 am

Based on your adopted orgnaization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation ..(2000words)

Enable to answer, first we should identify the some words.

Barriers

In economics and mostly especially in the theory of competition, barriers to entry are obstacles in the path of a firm that make it difficult to enter a given market.[1]

Barriers to entry are the source of a firm's pricing power - the ability of a firm to raise prices without losing all its customers.

The term refers to hindrances that an individual may face while trying to gain entrance into a profession or trade. It also, more commonly, refers to hindrances that a firm (or even a country) may face while trying to enter a market, industry or trade grouping. Barriers to entry restrict competition in a market.


Barriers to entry for firms into a market


Barriers to entry into markets for firms include;

* Advertising - Incumbent firms can seek to make it difficult for new competitors by spending heavily on advertising that new firms would find more difficult to afford. This is known as the market power theory of advertising.[2] Here, established firms use of advertising creates a consumer perceived difference in its brand from other brands to a degree that consumers see its brand is a slightly different product.[2] Since the brand is seen as a slightly different product, products from existing or potential competitors cannot be perfectly substituted in place of the established firm's brand.[2] This makes it hard for new competitors to gain consumer acceptance.[2]
* Control of resources - If a single firm has control of a resource essential for a certain industry, then other firms are unable to compete in the industry.
* Cost advantages independent of scale - Proprietary technology, know-how, favorable access to raw materials, favorable geographic locations, learning curve cost advantages.
* Customer loyalty - Large incumbent firms may have existing customers loyal to established products. The presence of established strong brands within a market can be a barrier to entry in this case.
* Distributor agreements - Exclusive agreements with key distributors or retailers can make it difficult for other manufacturers to enter the industry.
* Economy of scale - Large, experienced firms can generally produce goods at lower costs than small, inexperienced firms. Cost advantages can sometimes be quickly reversed by advances in technology. For example, the development of personal computers has allowed small companies to make use of database and communications technology which was once extremely expensive and only available to large corporations.
* Globalization - Entry of global players into local market make entry of local players into the market difficult.
* Government regulations - It may make entry more difficult or impossible. In the extreme case, a government may make competition illegal and establish a statutory monopoly. Requirements for licenses and permits may raise the investment needed to enter a market, creating an effective barrier to entry.
* Inelastic demand - One strategy to penetrate a market is to sell at a lower price than the incumbents. This is ineffective with price-insensitive consumers.
* Intellectual property - Potential entrant requires access to equally efficient production technology as the combatant monopolist in order to freely enter a market. Patents give a firm the legal right to stop other firms producing a product for a given period of time, and so restrict entry into a market. Patents are intended to encourage invention and technological progress by offering this financial incentive. Similarly, trademarks and servicemarks may represent a kind of entry barrier for a particular product or service if the market is dominated by one or a few well-known names.
* Investment - That is especially in industries with economies of scale and/or natural monopolies.
* Network effect - When a good or service has a value that depends on the number of existing customers, then competing players may have difficulties in entering a market where an established company has already captured a significant user base.
* Predatory pricing - The practice of a dominant firm selling at a loss to make competition more difficult for new firms that cannot suffer such losses, as a large dominant firm with large lines of credit or cash reserves can. It is illegal in most places; however, it is difficult to prove. See antitrust.
* Restrictive practices, such as air transport agreements that make it difficult for new airlines to obtain landing slots at some airports.
* Research and development - Some products, such as microprocessors, require a large upfront investment in technology which will deter potential entrants.
* Supplier agreements - Exclusive agreements with key links in the supply chain can make it difficult for other manufacturers to enter an industry.
* Sunk costs - Sunk costs cannot be recovered if a firm decides to leave a market. Sunk costs therefore increase the risk and deter entry.
* Vertical integration - A firm's coverage of more than one level of production, while pursuing practices which favor its own operations at each level, is often cited as an entry barrier

Barriers to entry for individuals into the job market

Examples of barriers restricting individuals from entering a job market include educational, licensing, or quota limits on the number of people who can enter a certain profession such as that of lawyer, and educational, licensing, and experiential requirements for people who wish to be neurosurgeons.

Whilst both types of barriers to entry attempt to guarantee that people entering those fields are suitably qualified, the barriers to entry also reduce competition. This has the effect of facilitating premium pricing for the services of regulated professions. That is, if just anyone could enter these fields, the income of the incumbents would be expected to be lower.

Classification and examples

Michael Porter classifies the markets into four general cases:

* High barrier to entry and high exit barrier (for example, telecommunications, energy)
* High barrier to entry and low exit barrier (for example, consulting, education)
* Low barrier to entry and high exit barrier (for example, hotels, ironworks)
* Low barrier to entry and low exit barrier (for example, retail, electronic commerce)

* Markets with high entry barriers have few players and thus high profit margins.
* Markets with low entry barriers have lots of players and thus low profit margins.
* Markets with high exit barriers are unstable and not self-regulated, so the profit margins fluctuate very much along time.
* Markets with a low exit barrier are stable and self-regulated, so the profit margins do not much fluctuate along time.

The higher the barriers to entry and exit the more prone a market tend to be a natural monopoly. The reverse is also not true. The lower the barriers the more likely to become a perfect competition.

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barriers_to_entry

Switching barriers

Switching barriers or switching costs are terms used in microeconomics, strategic management, and marketing to describe any impediment to a customer's changing of suppliers.

In many markets, consumers are forced to incur costs when switching from one supplier to another. These costs are called switching costs and can come in many different shapes.

Competition, collective switching costs, and market performance

Switching costs affect competition. When a consumer faces switching costs, the rational consumer will not switch to the supplier offering the lowest price if the switching costs in terms of monetary cost, effort, time, uncertainty, and other reasons, outweigh the price differential between the two suppliers. If this happens, the consumer is said to be locked-in to the supplier. If a supplier manages to lock-in consumers, the supplier can raise prices to a certain point without fear of losing customers because the additional effects of lock-in (time, effort, etc.) prevent the consumer from switching.

QWERTY example

Competition is also influenced by collective switching costs, especially in markets with strong network effects. Collective switching costs are the combined switching costs of all users in a particular market. For example, the QWERTY keyboard layout illustrates the difficulty of collective switching costs and the problems associated with co-ordinating an escape from a collective lock-in. Since its adoption, alternate keyboard layouts have been developed and used (e.g. the Dvorak layout). Individuals and firms who perceive an alternate keyboard layout as more efficient may still be dissuaded from choosing it on the basis of switching costs.

New users who have to choose between QWERTY and another layout may favor QWERTY because it dominates the keyboard layout market. Individual lock-in leads to collective lock-in as network effects drive more and more new users to adopt QWERTY and prevent current QWERTY users from switching to another layout.

Collective switching costs affect competition by strengthening incumbents and hindering new entrants, who must overcome both the collective and individual switching costs to be able to succeed in the market. Recognition of these switching costs has recently led to several attempts to design alternative keyboard layouts which lower the barrier to entry by retaining many of the features of QWERTY. However, none of them is in widespread use.

Switching costs are likely to be present in a large class of markets. The importance of understanding switching costs has been emphasised with the rise of information technologies, since switching costs seems to be a phenomenon that is especially strong in the information economy. Shapiro and Varian (1999) write: "[y]ou just cannot compete effectively in the information economy unless you know how to identify, measure, and understand switching costs and map strategy accordingly." Businesses are not the only ones who need to be aware of and understand switching costs. Since switching costs affect market performance, governments and regulators also have incentives to understand switching costs in order to be able to promote competition effectively.

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switching_barriers

Barriers to entry, exit and mobility

The idea that there are barriers preventing firms from entering markets and barriers preventing them from leaving requires that we view markets as similar to fields surrounded by gates of differing sizes and complexity. The gates have to be surmounted by firms wishing to enter or to leave.

To some extent the gates can be both raised and lowered, not just by those inside the fields but also by those outside wishing to enter. Typical barriers to entry include patents, licensing agreements and exclusive access to natural resources. A patented pharmaceutical, for instance, gives the patent holder exclusive rights for a certain period (usually a maximum of seven years) to manufacture and sell that pharmaceutical within a specified market.

The economies of scale (see article) that can be gained from being large and established in a particular field can also act as a barrier to entry. If new entrants calculate that they need to sell large volumes before they can hope to be competitive with existing firms, this acts as a deterrent to their ambition. When, for instance, did a new entrant last try to begin manufacturing for the mass car market?

Barriers to entry can also be erected by governments. Regulations covering the financial services industry are designed to act as a barrier to rogues and villains. But inevitably they also deter many honest businesses too. Forty years ago, foreign banks could not operate in Britain unless they had an office within walking distance of the Bank of England, then the industry’s regulator. Needless to say, property prices in the City of London’s “Square Mile” were among the highest in the world and acted as a powerful barrier to entry for newcomers.

Well-established firms in a particular field or market may be tempted to raise the barriers when they see a newcomer approaching their patch. They can do this, for instance, by lowering their prices, thus making the newcomers’ products less competitive. Moreover, lowering prices may be an easy option for the incumbents since their prices may have been higher than the free-market level because of the barriers.

Monopolies exist where there are insurmountable barriers to entry. If there were no (or only low) barriers, other firms would enter such markets to participate in the monopoly profits.

Barriers to exit make it more difficult for a company to get out of a particular business than it would otherwise have been. They include things like the cost of laying off staff, and contractual obligations such as the payment of rent. For a classic high-street bank with a large number of staff and a wide network of branches, the barriers to exit from traditional banking businesses can be considerable.

Paradoxically, firms sometimes decide for themselves to erect barriers that hinder their own exit from a market. This can be a strategic ploy designed to convey to their competitors the message that they are committed to that market, and that they are not going to leave it in a hurry.

Old ideas about barriers to entry were given a new twist with the development of e-commerce. By using the internet, firms can sometimes surmount traditional barriers with an ease not previously available. Economies of scale, for instance, do not apply in quite the same way.

Much of the deregulation of the 1980s and 1990s was designed by free-market-oriented governments to lower barriers to entry in industries ranging from airlines to stockbroking. But it had only limited success. A 1996 study of the airline industry by the American government’s General Accounting Office, for example, illustrated the complex way in which barriers to entry become tightly woven into the fabric of an industry. The study found that three things—namely, limits on take-off and landing slots at certain major airports; the existence of long-term leases giving airlines the exclusive use of airport gates; and rules prohibiting flights of less than a certain distance—continued to impede new airlines’ access to airports.

Despite this, in recent years a number of low-cost carriers have managed to some extent to circumvent these barriers by using secondary airports and by marketing tickets via the internet.

Idea:

All can say is in our adopted company the NCCC ,one of their barriers in IT ,first, is the adopting of the new technology. To which adopting new technology to improve their productivity and to make the leading market in Davao. Second, was the switching costs in changing the style of management and also in the technology.


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PostSubject: IT implementation Barriers   Fri Aug 28, 2009 5:25 am

Based on your adopted orgnaization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation.

IT Implementation Barriers
Lack of adequate financial support is top IT implementation barrier.
Financial pressures are a powerful limitation on capital investment in information technology. The top three IT implementation barriers cited by 2001 survey respondents are lack of adequate financial support for IT (21%), difficulty proving IT quantifiable benefits/ROI (15%), and vendors’ inability to effectively deliver product or service to respondents’ satisfaction (14%). Although it is still a top concern, difficulty in proving ROI has decreased in significance from 22% last year.
Accessing capital and demonstrating return-on-investment are not the only challenges. While recruiting and retaining high-quality IT staff was mentioned, staffing concerns dropped for the second year in a row; only 6% of respondents cited it as a barrier, compared to 15% in 2000, and 23% in 1999.


AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE LINK BETWEEN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IMPLEMENTATION BARRIERS AND COPING STRATEGIES IN THE AUSTRALIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

R.A. Stewart1, S. Mohamed2 and M. Marosszeky3
ABSTRACT: The need for the improved implementation of Information Technology (IT) has been identified in both empirical and highly structured research studies as being critical to effective innovation and development at an industry and enterprise level. This need is greater in the construction industry as it has been relatively slow to embrace the full potential of IT based technologies. In an attempt to understand1 why the construction industry lags other industries in the uptake and effective implementation of IT, this study reports on an investigation of the Australian construction industry, which identifies the impediments or barriers to IT implementation and the most effective coping strategies to overcome them. A questionnaire-based research approach was adopted for this purpose and a total of 134 valid survey responses were received from various architectural, engineering and construction professionals. The questionnaire was designed to identify perceptions of the most significant barriers to IT implementation and to determine the most ‘practical’ and ‘effective’ corresponding coping strategies to mitigate their effects at three decision-making levels: Industry; Organization and Project.

Keywords: information technology, barriers, coping strategies, decision-making tiers, construction.

INTRODUCTION

The uptake of Information Technology (IT) in construction has lagged well behind most other industries. A number of historical, industrial and market forces have shaped the industry’s structure and culture, thus affecting the rate, extent and nature of IT adoption in key business processes. Reasons for the slow uptake of IT have been investigated and are well-documented (Marsh and Finch, 1998; Betts 1999; Marosszeky et al., 2000; Stewart et al., 2002). They include the very nature of how the industry constructs one-off projects creating a project rather than a process perspective of production and of investment opportunity, supply chain fragmentation, lack of client leadership, low level of technology awareness and training, necessary up-front investment, on-going maintenance costs and resistance to change. Surveys have also shown that IT is still restricted to administrative and accounting functions, or for highly specific technical functions within the various disciplines (Betts and Clark, 1999; Marosszeky et al., 2000). Within the building and construction industry cluster in Australia, the constructors make the greatest contribution to employment, 158,000 firms employ on average 2.3 people. Less than one percent of this sector employs more that 20 people. Among designers, the average size of the some 4,600 architectural firms is 4.6 employees and of the approximately 4,600 engineering consultants, 5.6 people (DISR., 1999). As a consequence, a supply chain consisting of hundreds of organizations delivers major projects. With such fragmentation and such small organizations, only a relatively small number of industry leaders are in a position to plan for strategic IT implementation (Marosszeky et al., 2000). Betts (1999) argues that there is a rather limited strategic use of IT in construction and advocates that industry leaders, national agencies and professional institutions should drive towards a more effective strategic exploitation of IT in the sector. Marosszeky et al. (2000) recommend the development of inter-organizational collaboration to re-engineer the supply chain using IT. To assist in the development of a soundly based strategic approach to IT implementation in construction, this paper reports the results of a questionnaire survey-based investigation into the significant barriers to effective IT implementation and coping strategies to overcome them.
The paper first of all presents a literature review of the barriers to effective IT implementation in the construction industry categorized into three (3) discrete levels: industry, organization and project. Next a similarly structured approach presents coping strategies reported in the literature. The combination of barriers and associated coping strategies provided the background to the development of the survey instrument. The paper then outlines the research methodology, analysis and results. The analysis identifies the most commonly perceived barriers at each level and looks for correlations between barriers and coping strategies.

BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE IT IMPLEMENTATION

Effective IT implementation in construction is essential to improve productivity. However, the take-up of innovative IT applications and tools has been limited. In an attempt to understand the reasons for the poor diffusion of IT, some researchers have investigated the barriers to effective IT implementation in construction. Reconciling the relevant literature (Love et al., 1996; Tucker and Mohamed, 1996; NSW; 1998; Marsh and Finch, 1998; DIST, 1998; Baxendale, 1999; Smith, 1999; Marsh and Flanagan, 2000; Love et al., 2001; Marosszeky et al., 2000; Marosszeky, 2002) a holistic view of the top-down effect of these barriers is illustrated in Figure 1. The barriers detailed in this figure have been drawn from an extensive review of the literature and categorized into the three levels at which IT implementation barriers exist: industry, organization and project. In the paragraphs that follow, each of these levels and their respective barriers are briefly described. At all levels, numerous barriers inhibit a higher level of IT diffusion in this industry. At the industry level, the barriers that tend to inhibit the adoption of information and communication technologies are typically related to the competitive nature of the industry, the fragmented supply chain comprising mainly small organizations and the dispersion of expertise. One major contributing barrier is the poor inter-operability between different computer applications and/or organizational management strategies. The cost-driven culture of the industry has a profound effect on the uptake and effective utilization of IT investments by individual organizations. Small and medium organizations are particularly sensitive to fluctuations in profit margins resulting in limited resources available for IT expenditure. At the enterprise level, research indicates that many managers are reluctant to invest in innovation and of those that do; they usually provide limited strategic planning to ensure its efficient implementation. Reasoning behind this reluctance to invest in IT may stem from a lack of perceived return on investment on IT expenditure, and a project focus that seeks to achieve the full return on process investment from single projects. Conservative practices of business managers and limited funding devoted to IT expenditure at the organization level sets the scene for poor IT implementation on construction projects. However, the overriding factor at the project level is their relatively short duration and the very tight time frames under which they are delivered, these factors inhibit training and experimentation with IT at the project level. Moreover, many project staff may have low IT literacy and fear changing their work practices to embrace innovative IT applications and tools.



COPING STRATEGIES

The importance of coping strategies as a means of identifying and prioritizing business needs and technical systems has been recognized in several IT planning approaches (Ward and Griffiths, 1996). However, the use of coping strategies in the context of IT implementation in construction has received limited research focus. The first step in this study was to identify a set of IT coping strategies specifically for the construction industry, this was drawn from the literature (Tucker and Mohamed, 1996; Miozza et al., 1998; Finks, 1998; Pena-Mora et al., 1999; Mitropoulos and Tatum, 2000; Mak, 2001; Duyshart et al., 2002; Marosszeky, 2002; Stewart et al., 2003). Figure 2 provides an overview of the top-down effect of coping strategies on the efficient and effective diffusion of IT in construction. The coping strategies have been categorized in the same three levels as the barriers: industry; organization, and project. The first of these levels describes industry-specific strategies that are required at the macro level to promote more effective IT implementation. The second level presents strategies to ensure the smooth diffusion of proposed IT projects at the organization level. The third level describes coping strategies on individual construction projects to ensure that IT has a positive influence on operational processes. All of these coping strategies were included in the questionnaire survey and they were linked to related specific barriers. In the paragraphs that follow, the compiled list of coping strategies, at every level, are briefly described. To overcome barriers to IT uptake, practical and effective coping strategies should firstly be implemented at the industry level (Miozzo et al., 1998). This requires a high degree of commitment from Government, institutions and associations to raise awareness of available IT applications/tools and their benefits. Moreover, to overcome the IT literacy gap between the large and small/medium enterprises (SMEs), a series of IT information forums need to be developed. A possible strategy is to procure construction projects using alliance-based management approaches; this ensures that standardized processes/outputs derived from commonly available IT applications are used throughout the supply chain (Stewart et al., 2003). Clients and their project managers need to drive such a process. At the organization level a series of forums for promoting standardized IT implementation may aid improved IT diffusion but only with the full support of senior management (Miozzo et al., 1998). Their support will ultimately influence the level of funding allocated towards IT investments, which in turn, dictates the degree of training and support provided (Stewart et al., 2003). Achieving these objectives should encourage employees to embrace IT related applications throughout the organization and its projects. Construction projects are very unique environments, which are largely decentralized from the IT architecture of the organization. These projects face very specific IT implementation challenges and thus require definitive coping strategies to overcome them. Appointing a project IT champion would help ensure an improved appreciation and increased level of utilization of IT projects by site staff (Pena Mora et al., 1999). Additionally, dedicating IT training and support sessions within the construction program would enhance the degree of IT diffusion (Duyshart et al., 2002). At all levels, a series of practical and effective coping strategies are required to help overcome IT implementation barriers.


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research methodology was developed with the purpose of achieving the following research goals:
• Refinement of the screened list of barriers;
• Ranking the refined barriers in order of significance;
• Linking barriers to coping strategies;
• Establishing the effectiveness and practicality of coping strategies;
• Recommending guidelines for effective IT implementation.

The study looks at these issues at the above-mentioned three levels.
a. Questionnaire Design

In order to achieve the above research goals, the questionnaire contained questions on the background of the survey respondents and the IT portfolio of their organization. This was followed by eight questions relating to the significance of the barriers at the industry level. For these questions, respondents were required to rate the level of significance of each barrier using a five-point Likert scale from 1 to 5 (“1” not significant to “5” most significant). The next group of questions asked the respondents to link each of the eight barriers to a series of coping strategies and then rate the level of effectiveness (i.e. its potential to overcome one or more of the barriers) and practicality (i.e. ease of implementation) of these strategies. This was done using a scale from 1 to 5, where “1” has very little potential, or most difficult to implement to “5” has great potential or very easy to implement, for effectiveness and practicality, respectively. Following this are two sections that incorporate barriers and coping strategies specifically designed for the organization and project tier, respectively, which also follow the above-mentioned questioning process.

Sampling Procedure

The questionnaire was targeted at respondents from the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. Responses were sought from respondents with different position descriptions to gauge perceptions from a broad range of perspectives that are representative of opinions throughout the sector. The questionnaire was sent to 520 professionals from the AEC industry. A small sample of government project managers also participated in the survey. One hundred and forty (140) positive returns were received, representing an average response rate of 27%. This rate appears to be consistent with other reported mail surveys (Fellows and Liu, 1997). Six questionnaires were eliminated due to missing data, leaving a final sample size of 134. Prior to determining significant barriers, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to test whether the group of values of each item were equal for each group of respondents: Principal Engineer/Director/Department Head, Site Engineer/Project Manager, Design Engineer, Architect, HRM/Finance/Administration officer, IT professional and Other. This helped clarifying whether or not the opinions of these seven groups were the same for the various barriers at the three levels. The results suggest a consensus between the seven groups in relation to all barriers covered in the survey.

SURVEY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

The following sections detail the following sections detail the results of the questionnaire survey starting with a brief classification of the respondent profiles, followed by the ranking of barriers according to mean significance, and finally the linking of these barriers to possible coping strategies.

Classification of Respondents

This section details the profile of the organization, business, respondent position and IT applications/tools utilized. Firstly, the questionnaire survey was targeted mainly at the private AEC industry (94%), in addition to, a small percentage (6%) of government and quasi-government AEC professionals. The questionnaire survey primarily aimed to gauge the perceptions of Australian consultants and construction contracting personnel. However, the respondents’ business type profile was categorized into five categories to include secondary businesses types. As expected, most respondents were employed by construction-contracting organizations (48%), followed closely by consultants (39%), with government employees (5%), developer employees (4%) and other (4%) making up the remainder of the respondents. The respondents’ position description was categorized into seven categories. The position description of Principal Engineer/Director /Department Head was the most common (45%), followed by Site Engineer/Project Manager (16%), Design Engineer (14%), Architect (8%), HRM/Finance/Administration Officer (8%), IT professional (7%), and other (2%). The next part of the questionnaire asked respondents to detail what IT applications and tools they had available to them on construction projects. As mentioned previously, the survey adopted an information-centric definition of IT, and thus only those types of applications/tools were included in the survey. In total, seven IT applications and tools were included in the survey, as follows: (1) Internet; (2) e-mail; (3) Local Area Network (LAN); (4) Wide Area Network (WAN); (5) Web-Based Project Management Application (WBPMA); (6) Video conferencing; and (7) On-line remote network (mobile). As expected, all respondents had embraced basic IT applications and had access to e-mail and the Internet (100%). Also, LANs (77%) were widely adopted by these organizations. However, more innovative project management and communication technologies, such as Wide Area Networks (WAN) (37%), Web Based Project Management Applications (WBPMA) (35%), video conferencing (23%) and On-line remote networks (26%), were not yet widely adopted. It is important to note that this research did not focus on establishing the extent to which innovative IT was utilized, but rather it was more concerned to identify the availability of certain IT based technologies in the work environment and the level to which respondents had an appreciation of the role of IT in managing project information and its associated benefits. Respondents were also asked to detail the period within which they had implemented specific IT tools. This time frame was used to reflect the link to previous surveys where IT utilization was limited (Love et al., 1996). A couple of trends can be identified such as: most respondents began to embrace the internet and email in the last 4-6 years; and the more innovative IT applications and tools, that have been implemented, have only been in the last 1-3 years.





Significant Barriers to IT Implementation

The barriers that had been grouped as a result of the literature review were kept together in the survey and respondents were asked to rate their significance on a scale of one to five as detailed previously. Table 1 details the mean significance scores for the eight industry level barriers labelled A through to H. Respondents rated barriers E: Cost driven and/or ill informed client organisations (3.48), H: Poor inter-operability between different applications/organisations (3.46), and G: High cost associated respondents did not see barrier D: Lack of leadership by major client organisations (2.96) and B: Cyclical variations in workload activity levels (2.71) as being highly significant barriers to effective IT implementation for communication. Surprisingly, respondents did not link barriers G and B together as one would expect cost and stability of income to be linked. Perhaps this can be explained by the inherent short-term view of practitioners working in the industry. Table 2 details the mean significance scores for the six organization level barriers labelled A through to F. Respondents rated barriers E: Limited resources available to small and medium enterprises (3.96) and H: Lack of perceived return on investment of IT expenditure (3.77) as the most significant barriers. Adversely, respondents did not see barriers A: Conservative business practices (3.02) and B: Resistance to change by staff (3.00) as being highly significant barriers to effective IT implementation. Finally, Table 3 details the mean significance scores for the six project level barriers labelled A through to F. Respondents rated barrier F: Tight project timeframes inhibit training and experimenting with IT (4.00) as the most significant barrier. Adversely, respondents did not see barriers B: Fear of change and uncertainty by some project participants (2.95) as being highly significant barriers to effective IT implementation.

Table 1: Mean significance of industry level barriers
Code BarrierDescription MeanSignificance Rank
E Cost-driven and/ 3.48 1
or ill-informed client
organisations
H Poor inter-operability 3.46 2
between different
applications
G High cost associated 3.45 3
with IT applications
C Low profit margins 3.33 4
F Relatively low level of
IT awareness(exposure to IT) 3.18 5
A Fragmented nature of 3.07 6
the industry
D Lack of leadership by major 2.96 7
Client organisations
B Cyclical variations in
workload activity levels 2.71 8


Table 2: Mean significance of organization level barriers
Code BarrierDescription MeanSignificance Rank
E Limited resources available 3.96 1
to small and
medium enterprises
F Lack of perceived return 3.77 2
on investment on IT
expenditure
C Lack of organisational 3.26 3
strategic planning
D Reluctance by management 3.08 4
to invest in innovation
at a company level
A Conservative business 3.02 5
practices
B Resistance to change 3.00 6
by staff

Table 3: Mean significance of project level barriers
Code BarrierDescription MeanSignificance Rank
F Tight project timeframes 4.00 1
inhibit training and
experimenting with IT
D Limited IT expenditure 3.48 2
on projects
E Lack of IT leadership 3.45 3
on projects
C Low technology literacy 3.43 4
of some project participants
A Security & privacy issues 3.31 5
B Fear of change and 2.95 6
uncertainty by some
project participants

Linking IT Barriers to Coping Strategies

The next group of questions asked respondents to link the barriers detailed in Tables 1 through to 3 to a series of coping strategies for the industry, organization and project levels, respectively, and then rate the effectiveness and practicality of these strategies. The results of this part of the questionnaire survey are detailed in Tables 4 through to 6 for the three levels, respectively, and described as follows. Columns (1) and (2) detail the coping strategies codes and descriptions. Column (3) details the barrier codes and the percentage of the respondents who linked them to relevant coping strategies (i.e. for Table 4: H (38%) means that 38% of respondents linked barrier H to coping strategy CS1). Column (4) details the mean significance of the linked barriers as per Tables 1 to 3 above. Columns (5) and (6) detail the mean effectiveness and practicality scores, respectively, for the linked barriers in question. These scores are combined in Column (7) (i.e. for Table 4: the CS1-H link = 3.36 + 2.64 = 6.00) to represent a more meaningful rating for the ‘usefulness’ of the coping strategy for overcoming the linked barriers. Finally, each link is ranked according to the significance of the barrier and the ‘usefulness’ of the associated coping strategy. For example, for the industry level link CS1-H (38%) detailed in Column (Cool of Table 4, the importance of the link is determined by multiplying the mean significance by the usefulness score (3.46 × 6 = 20.76). This ranking provides industry and enterprise leaders with a means to focus on the most important barriers that can be overcome by the suggested coping strategies, see Column (9). In order to retain the most significant barriers and their respective links to coping strategies, the authors refined the analysis as follows: (1) Remove barriers with a mean significance < 3; (2) Remove links where less than 30% of respondents linked barriers to coping strategies; and (3) Remove barrier-to-coping strategy links that have a mean usefulness (i.e. mean effectiveness + mean practicality) less than 6. The purpose of these steps is to refine the analysis to ensure that only significant barriers are identified for each level, that coping strategies target their intended barriers, and that the coping strategies are reasonably ‘likely’ to achieve their desired result. The following sections describe the most significant findings from the study at each level.

Industry level

In general, respondents indicated that the suggested coping strategies for the industry level barriers are impractical with a mean score for all links as 2.91 (i.e. < 3) while the mean effectiveness for all links was marginally higher at 3.27. The indication that the coping strategies are impractical could be explained by a perception that these IT barriers are out of the control of individual organisations and need to be addressed at the industry level. This assertion would reinforce the observation of Miozzo et al. (1998), that Government departments and client organisations should provide guidance to the industry. In addition to linking the barriers to coping strategies, respondents were asked to suggest other coping strategies for more effective IT implementation. Only two additional coping strategies were suggested: (1) develop tertiary/professional development courses to raise awareness of IT opportunities, and (2) obtain industry agreements on software types and upgrade timing to ensure improved interoperability. It is interesting that only two respondents were willing or able to provide any additional coping strategies. This could reflect pessimism, a sense of limited control or a lack of understanding of the direction that industry should take. At the industry level, 11 links remain from the above-mentioned refinement process (see Table 4). The CS2-H link (22.32) was ranked first and this was followed closely by the CS4-E link (22.10) as the most appropriate to target by the respondents.

Organization level

The results from the organization level (Table 5) follow similar patterns to the industry level analysis. As with the industry level results, the respondents indicated that the suggested coping strategies for the organization level barriers are impractical with a mean score for all links (e.g. average score for all links) of 2.89 (i.e. < 3) while the mean effectiveness for all links was higher at 3.47. Since the only suggestion for a coping strategy at this level was to “educate managers within the organization” it could be inferred that respondents see many of the suggested strategies as difficult to implement within the operating constraints of the construction industry environment. Perhaps, an IT champion, who has the full backing of corporate management, is required to ensure these strategies can be properly implemented. At the organization level, eight links remain from the refinement process (see Table 5). The CS3-E link (27.40) followed by the CS5-E link (24.00) was ranked as the most appropriate to focus on by organisations.

Project level

The project level results (Table 6) follow a similar pattern, respondents indicating that they considered the suggested coping strategies to be impractical, the mean value for all links is low at (2.88). However, two coping strategies, CS1 and CS2 were perceived to be both practical and effective for overcoming barriers . These relate to providing adequate technical support and involving IT staff with construction projects. Other suggestions were again limited with only two responses for the project level: (1) Ensure on-line firewalls/security is adequate; and (2) Develop methods to evaluate the benefits of IT investments. At the project level, only four links remain from the refinement process (see Table 6). The CS1-C link (24.28) was ranked as the most important at the project level.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The following recommendations have been formulated from the above analysis. Tables 7, 8 and 9 detail individual barriers at the three levels together with corresponding coping strategies considered most suitable to overcome them. Utilising the ranking procedure outlined above, the barriers and their corresponding coping strategies have been presented in order of perceived effectiveness. However, organisations may wish to target particular barriers, for instance, to specifically target barrier number five from Table 7 – Relatively low level of IT awareness (exposure to IT). In this case, three coping strategies are recommended and these are listed in order of perceived effectiveness. A company could proceed to develop a detailed plan for the implementation of each coping strategy. The same approach can be followed for the industry and project levels. To ensure that the empirically determined coping strategies are fully embraced by all tiers of the construction industry it is important that a number of practical recommendations are followed:
• Top management commitment be established and maintained throughout the
IT project lifecycle;
• Adequate budgets are allocated towards IT endeavers to ensure that
their implementation and long-term utilization is sustained; and
• Implement IT-induced changes in a planned and progressive manner.


CONCLUDING REMARKS

The use of IT is growing rapidly, and is expected to become the dominant technology for business communication between organisations in the near future. However, data from the National Office for the Information Economy (NOIE, 2000) shows that the national construction industry lags well behind other industries in its uptake of IT based technologies. This paper has presented an extensive literature review, which was used to identify barriers to, and coping strategies for, IT implementation. Based on the literature review, IT implementation barriers and coping strategies were identified and categorized into three levels; namely industry, organization and project level. The first of these groups focuses on macro level industry-specific factors and barriers. The second group deals with factors and barriers at the organisational level which impact on the efficient and effective diffusion of IT projects throughout an enterprise. The third and final group presents barriers and coping strategies on individual construction projects which impact on the positive influence of IT on operational processes. The questionnaire survey validated the identified set of barriers to IT implementation and the corresponding coping strategies that can assist to overcome them. From the refinement process the most significant barriers to IT implementation and the most ‘practical’ and ‘effective’ coping strategies to overcome them were selected. The most significant barrier for each level and the most ‘useful’ coping strategies to overcome them, respectively, were identified as: o Industry level: Poor interoperability between different applications/organisations; Develop standardized processes/outputs with commonly available IT applications to facilitate inter-operability between members of the value chain; o Organization level: Limited resources available to small and medium enterprises; Adopt IT related applications with short learning curves; o Project level: Low technology literacy of some project participants; Ensure adequate technical support is provided to project staff. From the above it could be concluded that the issue of interoperability between different electronic exchanges is a major challenge facing the industry. This may well explain the continual growth in using web-based applications – as an alternative – to facilitate increased efficiency in data exchange. It may also pave the way for future development of open standards, which is a vital component in attracting small and medium enterprises to participate broadly in adopting information and communication technologies. Such enterprises would definitely opt for technologies with short learning curves to avoid stretching their limited resources and to provide opportunities for the skilling of their staff. This agrees well with the high degree of consensus in the respondents’ perception that IT training and technical support is one of the most ‘practical’ and ‘effective’ means to improve IT implementation. In conclusion, this paper has identified critical barriers to IT implementation and a series of useful coping strategies as perceived by Australian construction professional at the industry, enterprise and project levels.

references: http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/handle/10072/5153
http://www.himss.org/2001Survey/HIMSS/surveyfinal/6.htm


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Sep 09, 2009 7:31 pm

Having an Information Technology or Information System in an organization provide the purpose of being useful in terms of improving and developing the performance of the organization, but thinking and presuming only the greatest influence it offers in your organization is just a mere overstated. In every step we make it means moving forward but walking towards the set goals doesn't mean a piece of cake, everything cost a lot—life change equivalent fees. In every single thing you have, there is always an affiliate price towards it.
Apparently, choosing much functional and newly discovered Information Technology and Information System insinuates cost, maintenance and skills. Being on the top of your reigning empire entails a larger and a greater an immediate need of having the best Information Technology and Information System to sustain you’re growing realm. On the other hand, even the small enterprise needs also an Information System to provide a systematic and authenticated outcome for financial and budgeting purposes.
On the other hand, the technology is use for barely in making a wise and proper decision for the organization or company. It deliberately upbringing its essential benefits for the company and people involves within the circle. Its contiguous growing is concretely proving that it is totally a factor of company’s success. In today’s organizations are lively operating computers that dealing up the things of the company efficiently and primly. It made the business sector active and be part of the circle of the corporate world. The substantial effect is inseparable for business by businessman or company owners. Investing vast amount of the equipments showing that they give to support for the big benefits it returns to the company. All organization are fun of discovering what Information Technologies and Systems available in the market that best suited on the company need and useful to the organization.
Meanwhile, it sometimes becomes obvious that some other may disregards that resort for existing of new problem. Driving into the best result for the company’s progress and profit leads to more complicated situation. The situation is like finding ways to survive in the sinking boat; you have to unload the boat by throwing the heavy cargos or bravely jump the boat to make you survive. In business sector, you have to sacrifice something for company’s progress. The Information system is selected based on the company penury. I present some of the Challenges and barriers of the technology available in the market and some situation that how important and significant Information Technology and Information System in the organization and in society.
In many areas of organization the information is very crucial so it needs a proper handle and security. Organizations finds it way of making the information be shared and processed in the clearest way and depart on the intended recipient without any disturbance while in process.
In the field of medicine-Automated EMR and CPOE. In this situational case it elaborates how the process of implementing the new technologies that tackle information being formalized. Implementing is critically process and takes a long discussion before do action proper to address the necessity. I will present a processed that done by the doctors of Indianapolis how the meeting and implementation is addressed. They all consider the possibilities that may cause if it will implement and how it affects if still old method is used in processing the information.
Dr. Ned Lamkin, president of the Indiana Employers Quality Health Alliance, is a board member of the Indiana Health Information Exchange, and is one of many doctors in Indianapolis who believes information technology can help improve patient care.

Technologies:

EMR-An electronic medical record (EMR) is usually a computerized legal medical record created in an organization that delivers care, such as a hospital and doctor's surgery. Electronic medical records tend to be a part of a local stand-alone health information system that allows storage, retrieval and manipulation of records.

CPOE-Computerized physician order entry (CPOE), is a process of electronic entry of medical practitioner instructions for the treatment of patients (particularly hospitalized patients) under his or her care. These orders are communicated over a computer network to the medical staff or to the departments (pharmacy, laboratory or radiology) responsible for fulfilling the order. CPOE decreases delay in order completion, reduces errors related to handwriting or transcription, allows order entry at point-of-care or off-site, provides error-checking for duplicate or incorrect doses or tests, and simplifies inventory and posting of charges. Although manufacturers use the term Computerized Physician Order Entry, a more accurate term would be Computerized Prescriber Order Entry.

Barriers:

Conversation:

One of the common barriers to adoption of technology is the expense, said Marc E. Duerden, MD, president of the Indianapolis Medical Society. "The problem as a physician is it costs a lot of money,".
Bernard J. Emkes, MD, a family practice physician in Indianapolis, agreed. "Automated EMRs with reminders and evidence based algorithms would help address many of these issues, but the cost of implementing that infrastructure cannot be borne up front by physicians, as they struggle with rising malpractice costs, declining reimbursements, increased pressures to see more patients, and a federal government that continues to try to balance healthcare costs on physicians backs through a flawed sustainable growth rate formula."
Dr. Clement J. McDonald, director of the Regenstrief Institute at Indiana University School of Medicine, said "CPOE systems generally cause physicians to lose efficiency. It takes physicians longer to enter orders into computers than to write them on paper, and this can mean 30 or more extra minutes out of a physician's day – time that cannot be used caring for patients
Duerden said, is that some of the technology is laborious.
Indianapolis docs weigh barriers to IT implementation
June 21, 2004 | Bernie Monegain
http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/indianapolis-docs-weigh-barriers-it-implementation

=========================================================================

Based on our adopted organization, the MIS Manager addressed it factorial form. He identified that there are many identified barriers in the Information System or Information Technology implementation in an organization. For what I have read in some articles over the internet, I will categorized in into five (5) divisions in which I think the most important factors, these are the (1) Financial Problems, (2) Physical Problems, (3) Technical Problems, (4) Organizational Problems and (5) Social Problems.

As an elaboration of the division of the obstacle identified in the implementation of Information System, the following are the lists of more specific problems in each category.

1. Financial Problems

Funds should be considered in implementing an Information System in an organization. For this determined the resources needed in the processes, development and maintenance of an efficient system. If we have limited resources we may encounter insufficiency of funds to put into action the desired solution. This includes hardware replacement, software updates and maintenance and as well as funds for the specialized skills training for the company’s staff. With this, we can also determine if we can maximize the usage of Information System within the organization according to the company’s need and its users. In the side of the investors, they may be hesitant to spend money for this project for will be very costly and requires ample time to complete the system yet the results or outcome is unsure. What I can say to the investors in this matter, if we want a changes or development we must take the risk, for business is a gamble, just makes sure that you have all the weapons not to lose in the game.

2. Physical Problems

When we are talking of the physical aspects of Information System we are pertaining to the hardware, software and network topology. Thus, this may involve redesigning the network, hardware replacement in order to have more improve speed and efficiency and as well as the determining the most appropriate software to used. It is the very important framework of any information organization. Effective Information access and use depends on communication facilities such as telephones, Internet, fax, computers, as well as an adequate supply of electricity. Computer literacy is almost non-existent in primary and secondary education. It is very much limited in colleges and universities due to shortage of skilled human resources and computing infrastructure. Using the best physical system must be based on the organization not because of what favorable in the market today. It must be studied thoroughly and technically presents the most credible proposal that address the need of the organization.

3. Technical Problems

IT Infrastructure- Lacking of a shared, reliable computing and network infrastructure to address the needed collaboration for the implementation. When an institution lacks an IT infrastructure there will be a difficulty in operating technology supported programs with consistency from one office to the other or building to building. It also slows and complicates communication among the organization or other institutions

Unrealistic time frames- Some information systems take considerably longer than originally planned. Time delays lead to serious difficulties in planning for and adjusting to changes in operations. Since they consume more time than they expected, the deadline will become a pressure.

Difficulty of data collection and management- Data collection is considered to be the most critical and difficult part of implementing an Information System for it is the foundation of the entire system process. Thus, this convey what the system is all about, its scope and limitations. Proper management of the said data is essential.

4. Organizational Problems- the organization heads set too ambitious goals that require a lot of resources that may not be able to achieve. I suggest that in making the goals of the company they should focus on what are the necessities or focus on the needs of the organization that it must meet the business requirements of the party and it should be brief and accurate.

Unskilled Staff
As mention above, system must be maintained and monitor from time to time and the people who will handle this transaction must be well trained and have an expertise on maintaining the system. Not having this kind of people inside the organization will add up to the barriers to the success of the system.

5. Social Problems- The resistance of the organization and its people to the technology is also a factor that I consider as one of the obstacle. Human resources as the participants to the implementation of Information System should be able to meet or abide the requirements or standards of the company’s specific IS. In planning as well as in the development of the said system, the human resources should participate hand in hand in the process. We can consider the human resources as one of the Information System barriers with regards to its implementation for they are the one who gives the specifications, requirements and standards that help to develop the functionalities of the company. These people are also the one who will utilize, manage and control to be able to acquire the benefits of technology.
Communication is another factor that adds up to the impediments of technology. As what I mentioned above, every participant in the implementation must work together to make sure the success of the desired output is not impossible to attain. Without this there is no guarantee that the system will be a help to the organization or maybe it will just be add to its liabilities. Instead of gaining from what they have invested, they are more likely to lose or worsen the company’s situation.


Last words:
In my opinion the implementation of the new Information technology or Information System is basically based on the company needs for the assessment that need a swift action to make the operation more effective and allow the organization to compete on the other existing companies or organizations. In contrast, the barriers exist because new system needs new manipulation which requires factors that makes the decision-making hard. The presented barriers are positively being overcome through the long run of implementation. It just sacrificing something now, but as the process run along the benefits would be slowly be visible and presto, it’s for company’s improvement.

Indeed: "Information Technology can be very helpful, but it depends on what it is,” "It's wiggly."



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Sep 20, 2009 11:13 pm

Implementing or introducing a new system can be done in two ways:
• Direct Implementation
• Parallel Running
With this method of implementation the users stop using the manual system and start using the computer system from a given date.

The advantage of this method is that it is less costly in effort and time than any other method of implementation. The disadvantage of this method is that if problems occur the users do not have any alternative apart from returning to a manual system which may prove difficult if it has been discontinued.
With parallel running, the new system is introduced alongside the existing system. With parallel running both systems (manual and computer, or old computer and new computer system) will be in operation at the same time. This has the advantage that the results from the new system can be compared with those of the old system.
However, it has the major disadvantage that each job is done twice and therefore it means a lot of extra work for the users.

Information Technology (IT) employed today has many inherent problems that many expensive solutions have never been able to solve:
• Information technology is managed as technology, rather than as capital preventing integration with the business
• Information technology employs large monolithic information systems that are laid over the business, instead of information processing solutions that are utilized by the business
• Information Technology defines different architectures to define and align the business, systems, hardware and networks, and data and information, rather than integrating each with the business
• Different categories of information capital are mixed in many systems using different entity names and definitions producing information complexity and preventing proper information capital management
• Since the business is not organized, information systems manage information related to structures laid over the business and do not capture, process, or report actual business data or report actual business management information
• Information Technology is difficult to manage because it mixes business, facility, and management capital that require diverse management and operating capabilities
• It is difficult to manage return on IT investments since the investments are lumped together and do not produce direct measured business improvements
• Information Technology has grown into a large expensive empire that involves much unnecessary processing, extensive overheads, and unsolvable problems

These problems can never be solved with 20th century management that tries to improve the enterprise by laying new or improved structures over the business.

The only way to eliminate the Information Technology problems is by organizing the business with to enable 21st century business management. Information technology must be integrated in the business as capital defined as specific solutions utilized to produce specific business results. Business management enables the following measures to eliminate the unsolvable Information Technology problem:

• The actual business is organized as specific capital solutions, including IT solutions, utilized in performance to produce specific business results
• Information system solutions are defined and integrated with the business process as modules to produce a specific result or a chain of results
• Information systems focus on managing actual business data in result value and quality, performance cost and effectiveness, capital worth, and return on capital investments that is not processed today
• Information Technology is defined and organized as capital, with other capital of the same category, for proper capital management by those with the professional capability
• Information capital is defined and managed as business data, human knowledge, facility records, and management intelligence to produce information solutions needed by the business
• Enterprise information is integrated by capital solution utilized, result produced, supplier, customer, time period, business transaction, etc in an enterprise Business Information Base for one set of complete and accurate business information
• Information systems and processing devoted to managing arbitrary structures laid over the business and special systems to address problems in data reconciliation, information integration and extraction, and management reporting are discontinued, if not directly needed by the business
• New information system implementation integrates business and information processing with other capital solutions to produce specific output results needed by the business
• The business is organized for a new generation of 21st century business management systems and business-information process modules, to process the actual business result by result, and provide one set of consistently-defined management information

Managing information technology as capital utilized by the actual business eliminates the unsolvable IT problems in business alignment, information complexity, data reconciliation, unknown costs and value, unknown capital worth and returns, CIO and IT management capabilities, data integration and control, and on and on.
Since the business is not organized, different management structures must by laid over the business to manage the enterprise. Information systems are another set of overlaid structures that process and report the system structure, plus data captured by overlaid organization, business process, account, administrative, cost, quality, performance, and other structures. Each enterprise structure defines the enterprise with a different set of data entities, producing the information and business complexity problems. Information systems do not directly manage the business to capture actual business data and report one consistent set of complete and accurate business management information.

Enterprise information systems include material control, production control and manufacturing resource planning systems, supply chain and customer relationship management systems, cost and quality management, operational management information, and other systems that support revenue result management. Capital result management systems include human resource management, financial management, general ledger, accounts payable and receivable, asset management, IT architecture management, inventory, purchasing, strategic planning, executive information, and other administration systems. Investment result management systems include investment analysis and planning, project management, portfolio management, shareholder management, etc. Each system is laid over the business, rather that being utilized as a solution by the business to produce the managed revenue, capital, or investment results.

Each of the systems defines the enterprise with different data entities creating a large information cross-referencing and integration problem. Systems manage such enterprise entities as department, center, station, responsibility, unit, function, process, object, activity, etc, instead of specific business results. The enterprise is left with a large problem to sort out the information, integrate like information, and relate information to the business. The problem is addressed to some degree by implementing an enterprise application architecture from a single vendor. Most enterprises still must make additional investments in information integration and data reconciliation systems for performance management, management and executive reporting, and strategic enterprise management. Even with all this such actual business data as result value and quality, performance costs and effectiveness, capital worth and utilization, investment utilization and return, etc cannot be captured and processed.
Business process re-engineering tended to create a gap between business processing and information processing. Instead of integrating the processing, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems were laid over the business process. The selling point was that best practices incorporated in the ERP system would automatically solve the problem. But this proved difficult to do in practice, since best practices need to integrate all the solutions utilized in the complete business.

Since the business is not managed, it is difficult for the enterprise to identify how to gain specific benefit from information systems. Most enterprise information systems are sold by vendors who promise many benefits. Few enterprises really understand how to gain from the system. Enterprise system implementation is a large undertaking. Invariably, system implementation is restricted to putting the system into operation as a monolithic structure laid over the existing business. Even if the objective of system acquisition was business improvement, the objective usually gets redefined to “implement the system”. The enterprise is left on its own to make changes to gain benefits from the system.

Most implementation consultants employ a methodology that allows them to implement systems with staff that do not need to understand the enterprise business. The emphasis is on “doing what the customer wants” and satisfying “user requirements”, which is difficult to argue against. The administrative department is defined as the user, rather than revenue result users, who use the system to produce results or face the customer. Usually, the main requirement of the administrative department is “no change”. These users often benefit from existing methods, and cannot visualize advanced ways to utilize systems to benefit other users. To minimize problems and delays in implementation, methodologies convert existing practices and utilities convert existing data. Utilization to achieve benefit is “up to the users” meaning revenue result users. Training covers system operation rather than using the system for business benefit.

Information systems are managed by Information Technology that does not take responsibility for business benefit
Many enterprises view system business performance as a responsibility of Information Technology. But, IT will take responsibility only for the internal operational performance of the system as it is set up. Problems exist because neither IT, nor anyone else, was ever made responsible for the business benefit provided by the system. Enterprises often try to solve the lack-of-business-benefit problem with new more-complicated systems, rather than solving the IT and business problems and improving the utilization of existing systems.
Most information system implementations are cost projects that provide marginal benefit
Most enterprise system implementations are “cost projects”. Implementation itself provides little benefit to the real users and limited return on the investment. Enterprise performance problems are converted to the new system, in effect casting the problems in concrete, making change much more difficult, and escalating the cost of future performance improvement. IT investments are lumped, rather than defining and implementing the specific business, human, facility, and management solutions that must be utilized by the business to provide the return. The business that utilizes IT is not defined to enable measurement of the value added to the business by IT investments.
Information systems, hardware, and strategy are managed as technology rather than capital to be utilized for benefit
These problems are topped off by the problems of managing information as technology rather than as capital. This keeps information processing and business data separate from the business organization and processing. Data, knowledge, records, and intelligence are not managed by the proper human capability, and are not integrated to deliver solutions to be utilized by the business. IT facilities are operated separate from other facility equipment capital such as telephone networks, and the enterprise equipment infrastructure. IT strategies are planned and managed separate from other enterprise strategies creating future alignment problems.

The Information Technology Solution
Manage information technology as business, facility, and management capital
Investment in enterprise systems and technology must be to enable significant result and performance improvement and not be an end in itself. Information system utilization is a result management responsibility to utilize the system to achieve business result value-added. Information system performance is the responsibility of specific capital management to provide the IT infrastructure and deliver accurate data, knowledge, records, and intelligence solutions to support achieving results at an acceptable cost. The analysis, processing, and data parts of IT are business capital and is managed with other business capital. The enterprise service architecture, hardware, software, and networks are facilities that must be managed with other facility capital. IT strategies are integrated with other capital development and management strategies to produce strategic results as management strategy capital. Other information capital must be managed as human knowledge, facility records, and management intelligence.

The solution to information system investment is through a managed business to understand and plan significant result and performance improvements using the system as the enabling technology. Result value-added provides the justification and payback for enterprise systems. The results the enterprise must achieve utilizing the system are described and the future result value is planned. Performance problems are analyzed to make beneficial business changes that maximize the value-quality of results produced, improve the functionality of the system, and create an integrated Business Information Base. Application systems are not addressed as isolated capital investments, but as components of business process solutions. The application is first integrated into each business process utilized to produce business output results. The improved business process is then integrated with other needed solutions and implemented to produce higher value-quality results, result by result. Business management consultants use the 21st Century Management Consulting Model and 21st century management conventions, definitions, and standards to help the enterprise integrate and implement the full set of solutions needed to produce high value-quality results across the scope of a system.


http://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/22/4481.html
http://www.konsult.leeds.ac.uk/public/level1/sec10/index.htm


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PostSubject: ASSIGNMENT 5   Mon Sep 21, 2009 8:45 pm

wee


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PostSubject: ASSIGNMENT 5   Mon Sep 21, 2009 8:53 pm

Organizations are as alike and unique as human beings. Similarly, group processes can be as straightforward or as complex as the individuals who make up the organization. It is vital to successfully launching a new program that the leaders understand the strengths, weaknesses, and idiosyncrasies of the organization or system in which they operate. Try to anticipate barriers to implementation so that you can develop strategies to minimize their impact or avoid them altogether. The following list of common barriers can be used to help your leadership team identify potential obstacles. The list of essential elements for change can help the team brainstorm possible solutions.


A barrier is an obstacle which prevents a given policy instrument being implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented. In the extreme, such barriers may lead to certain policy instruments being overlooked, and the resulting strategies being much less effective. For example, demand management measures are likely to be important in larger cities as ways of controlling the growth of congestion and improving the environment. But at the same time they are often unpopular, and cities may be tempted to reject them simply because they will be unpopular. If that decision leads in turn to greater congestion and a worse environment, the strategy will be less successful. The emphasis should therefore be on how to overcome these barriers, rather than simply how to avoid them.

How should we deal with barriers in the short term?

It is important not to reject a particular policy instrument simply because there are barriers to its introduction. One of the key elements in a successful strategy is the use of groups of policy instrument which help overcome these barriers.

How can we overcome barriers in the longer term?

It is often harder to overcome legal, institutional and technological barriers in the short term. There is also the danger that some institutional and political barriers may get worse over time. However, strategies should ideally be developed for implementation over a 15-20 year timescale. Many of these barriers will not still apply twenty years hence, and action can be taken to remove others. For example, if new legislation would enable more effective instruments such as pricing to be implemented, it can be provided. If split responsibilities make achieving consensus impossible, new structures can be put in place. If finance for investment in new infrastructure is justified, the financial rules can be adjusted.



Operational problems
* Need for co-ordination and networking among professionals and educational institutions
* Need for supportive policy to release information
*Insufficient access to information source
*Confidentiality
*Redundancy of information
*Nature of policy directives
*Need for identifying sources of information
*Centralization of activities
*Need for systematic documentation


Operational improvement

* Set clear policy guidelines on information dissemination
* Encourage government to have depository laws and enforce them
* Introduce information system
* Use mass media
* Follow a bottom-up approach
* Develop grassroots level inventory of information
* Create awareness of the value of information
* Identify user information needs
* Consult target groups
* Develop target-oriented and useable information
* Develop effective system of information management and dissemination; information should be simple, understandable and manageable
* Institute efficient and effective co-ordination and networking
* Encourage a free flow of information — horizontally and vertically

Financial barriers

The figure below provides perceptions of the severity of financial barriers for European cities. It suggests that road building and public transport infrastructure are the two policy areas which are most commonly subject to financial constraints, with 80% of cities stating that finance was a major barrier. Information provision, again, was the least affected in terms of financial constraints. The only differences by city size are that small cities are less likely to perceive financial constraints on land use policies, and large cities are even less likely to identify financial constraints on information measures.

Political barriers

The figure below summarises information on political barriers for European cities. It suggests that road building and pricing are the two policy areas which are most commonly subject to acceptability constraints, with around 50% of cities stating that acceptability was a significant constraint on road building and pricing measures. Public transport operations and information provision were the least affected by acceptability constraints. Generally, large and small cities were more likely than medium sized cities to identify political barriers. Large cities were much more likely to perceive such barriers for road and rail infrastructure projects; small cities were more likely to identify them for pricing measures.

Practical and technological barriers

While cities view legal, financial and political barriers as the most serious which they face in implementing land use and transport policy instruments, there are some concerns also over practical limitations. For land use and infrastructure these may well include land acquisition. For management and pricing, enforcement and administration are key issues. For infrastructure, management and information systems, engineering design and availability of technology may limit progress. No attempt was made to survey cities' views on these, since they are very specific to individual instruments.



References:
http://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/22/4481.html
http://www.elseviersocialsciences.com/transport/konsult/public/level1/l1_barr.htm
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 22, 2009 12:16 pm

Assignment 5: Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation... (2000words)

NekenFab, Inc.
Hpusing Construction
2/F Arañez Bldg., Prk 30, KM Ma-a Davao City, Philippines.


Companies wanting to optimize their IS/IT resources (e.g. the hardware, software, networks, people) have a strategic intent of IS improvement. They are focused on reducing costs, improving service quality, and bringing in new technical and management expertise.

This strategy’s success comes from achieving economies of scale, implementing cost reduction and service improvement, and bringing in technical expertise. Many IS/IT organizations are finding it very difficult to find the right blend of technical and business skills to fully exploit today’s technology.

Most companies don’t have the expertise to maintain existing complex systems and implement new ones and even fewer companies have the capabilities to market, install, and support products originally developed for internal use.

Because of the risks and rewards associated with commercial exploitation of IS/IT, the issues of sharing and control are unique.
"Innovate or die." That was the rallying cry of software firm Microsoft and its founder Bill Gates.
Access is not just about availability. Cost affects usage. High cost is still a barrier. While prices have definitely come down the cost of access is still too high to have a transformatory impact.
Human development in ICT can be encouraged through increased awareness of opportunities and capabilities in ICT. The environment should encourage ICT education and provide incentives especially for those investing in research, development, training, software and other creative efforts. Acquiring infrastructure is great but it is serious investment in education that will bridge the digital divide and enhance the quality of infrastructure, the quality of access, the quality of usage, the quality of growth.

At the end of the day, infrastructure is not just about access, it's about what you do with access.

A few years ago, "cyber café" was a strange word from another world. Today cyber cafés exist in virtually every neighborhood especially in the urban centers. Because cost of ICT is still relatively high for most individuals, the cybercafe has significantly improved accessibility to the Internet in Philippines.

The internet has changed everything about the world as we know it (e.g. communication, commerce, and business) including the rules of competition and barriers into regional, national, and global markets. At one time, companies could dictate their own pace of change, however, today that pace is driven by customer demand. The internet has totally changed customer expectations regarding convenience, speed, comparability, price and service and has driven companies to either meet those raised expectations or be pushed aside by the competition. Most companies failed to anticipate the demand and are now forced to use outsourcing to keep pace with growing demand. With the expansion of the global economy, strategic outsourcing with multiple vendors will enable companies to offer the best capabilities in virtually every functional area.

No Organizational Culture Barriers

Culture of physical/paper records
Their workflow is designed for paper .
Paper provides them a sense of security .
Paper provides proof of action .
Paper is readily available (cheap) .

Culture of organization type
he company is a construction industry and most of its data is on paper .
Staff education lacks priority in organizational plans because they focus on the fields (sites) .

No Technology and Standards Barriers

There is a technical challenge to assure user authentication and successful use of system
The interface for retrieving records would have to be standardized so that providers would not be trying to learn each individual system .
There are far more users of information system than there are technical assistants available to address technical issues .
According to them, technical documentation for information system is usually long and not user friendly .
Staff may not receive proper training in user authentication and system use .

Organizations lack adequate infrastructure and role delineation for the development and enforcement of security, privacy, and information management policies and procedures
No IT personnel .

No In-house Resources for Information Management Barriers

There are variations between shifts in both practices and available resources
Shift variation in practice is related to the educational barrier listed previously . All staff needs to be educated on appropriateness of information, procedures for access and security of the records .
There is massive data that must be considered .

There is a lack of ways to share IT educational materials
Some IT educational materials may be proprietary .
There are ways of sharing educational material, but a lack of information/leadership to execute …

There are insufficient resources for language diversity to assure provision of information, and comprehension of information given
The personal record needs to be accessible to everyone in order to be successful …
Again, the company is a construction company which means that some of their staff is not that good in understanding the system technically .

There are variations in resource availability from organization to organization
Providers without the appropriate resources will not be able to participate in the shared record. These resources could be defined as monetary or technical .
There is a lack of funds and/or resources in some branches .
Resources are limited in rural areas where the project sites are located .
Resources are limited in poor communities where some project sites are located .

There are variations in information technology development from organization to organization
Some organizations do not have any form of electronic data in which to interface . Most organizations do not have a full EMR implemented yet. And one of these companies/organization is NekenFab, Inc. .
There is a lack of funds for across the board information technology development .
Some organizations lack the ability to attract professional resources due to geographic


No Privacy and Security Leadership Development Barriers

Organizations have dual functions in legal counsel and privacy officer, which spreads staff too thin for effectiveness
Appropriate policies and procedures for privacy and security may not get created or adhered to without proper attention . This could lead to security breaches or inappropriate access .

Organizations exclude privacy experts in information technology solutions up front, and instead include them in the back end of the solutions process
It is always more effective to build privacy and security into a solution than to tack it on after implementation. These implementations often have other flaws that cannot be addressed after the implementation has been completed .
There is a lack of awareness of who are the privacy experts i.e. HIM Professionals, other .

There is a general lack of security officers for information technology
The expertise in IT security is essential to performing risk analysis and mitigation . This is a rapidly evolving field that requires people with a detailed knowledge of information security . The potential for security breaches will increase substantially without oversight from these types of professionals .
The security officers’ concept/position is still evolving .

There is a lack of centralized authority or organization for the privacy and security of construction information
The policy decisions concerning security protocols around a combined record need to be centralized so that the associated risks can be properly identified and managed . It would cause conflicts to have a violation in one county be allowable in another for example .
Privacy and security are still legal matters and very complex .
Laws are constantly changing .

There is a lack of organizational infrastructure for information edit checks, audits, and general quality assurance of construction information
There would need to be some type of random audit checking to determine if access to a record was appropriate . Providers would need to have a construction need to view information or there would be violations from the curious to the criminal . How many people would access the records of a VIP if they were available electronically?
There are multiple construction information quality assurance systems .
There are multiple people involved in the development of quality assurance of construction information .
Key players are often missing in the planning strategy for quality assurance of construction information .

Legal expertise resides in organizations outside of construction information management staff
Provider staff need education on the operational privacy and security procedures that directly affect them . They will be making the daily decisions that affect the privacy and security of construction information . These decisions may not be appropriate or in line with policies and procedures if the expertise is not available to them .
Construction information management staff often times do not have direct access to the legal expertise .
Construction information management may have to go through two or more persons to access legal expertise .
Legal expertise costs money and is expensive .


Furthermore, NekenFab’s uses their own Information System (MIS) in their business transactions. With the support from the latest computer-based design system, the company offer services that can manage, design and optimize or operations from the initial conceptualization to the actual construction of the project. NekenFab, Inc. is trying to surpass this array of barriers until now.

Idea PS: I may have the same post with my groupmates. Idea


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PostSubject: Barriers on IS/IT Implementation   Wed Sep 23, 2009 8:25 pm

Based on our adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation ..

As innovative technology continues to change, businesses need to adapt at an increasingly fast rate, and must be able to successfully implement major IT projects to stay in the game. However, in every IS/IT implementation there are also barriers or resistance that accompany it. When we talk about “barrier” it is something that obstructs or hinders an action or movement. So I will discuss to you the barriers which prevents an IS/IT to be implemented based on our adopted organization.

Based on our adopted organization, here are some of the barriers in their IT implementation:

  • The resistance of the people to the Technology

  • Organizational Politics

  • Project Implementation takes too Long

  • Lack of skilled staff and IT Support

  • Why change when everything is working fine

  • Lack of Financial Support



The resistance of the people to the Technology
Resistance may develop out of missing knowledge or skills. Some people believe that the introduction of new technology is always accompanied by resistance. This may or may not be true, since new technology is often accompanied by curiosity for the new. The people's resistance is due to a lack of understanding, a missing will to accept the change and missing skills or resources to carry out the change.

Organizational Politics
The organizational structure may cause barriers by being inflexible towards a drastic change in operations. In particular large bureaucratic organizations tend to wither changes which potentially destroy the existing structure. The embedded culture of the organization is another reservoir for potential barriers, in that culture unconsciously influences the thinking, decisions and actions of people working in a given company. Thus culture may dictate inability to escape the past, and inability to invent the future.
People confront the project (resistance), or the project gradually loses commitment by upper management.

Project Implementation takes too Long
Another common obstacle to the IT implementaion is the perception that timelines for such projects are inordinately long. Of course, they are complex and require considerable planning and validation time, in addition to performing the actual upgrade work. However, as with any project, the longer the timeline,the more time it takes to realize the benefit – and the greater the likelihood that it will be interrupted, suspended, or even cancelled. IT organizations need to find ways to define an overall modernization roadmap, deliver in smaller, incremental steps, update the plans as business and IT needs change, and show progress along the way.

Lack of skilled staff and IT Support
In the section relating to Small and Medium Enterpirises (SMEs) and how they work with IT equipment, the results highlight that the majority of SMEs and self-employed workers currently function with little IT support and are left to tackle front end IT issues without consulting an IT expert. Subsequently the time spent by employees on fixing IT issues signifies a worryingly high cost to SMEs.
The system must be maintained and monitor from time to time and the people who will handle this transaction must be well trained and have an expertise on maintaining the system. Not having this kind of people inside the organization will add up to the barriers to the success of the system.

“You can have a perfect IT system running and no one is using it correctly. Companies invest a lot of money in IT and get no or negative business benefits,”

Why change when everything is working fine
There are, however, some disadvantages to the change management methodology that has more to do with not properly following its processes. If resistance from employees is not effectively dealt with through communication, it can derail any project.
Not understanding the culture of your company can allow the rumor mill leaders to circulate incorrect or corrupting information about the change. Also, stakeholders and customers need to be kept informed and brought in on the change. If not, they make also resist the change, and clients may choose to go through another company.
A bad change management plan can also negatively affect an organization. Change management is just that managing change. And, without a plan to deal with every step of the change (before, during and after), the strategy could fail at any point in time, possibly bringing down the entire company.

“It is about realising real and lasting change by recognising the human aspect impacting IT change,“

Lack of Financial Support
In the side of the investors, they may be hesitant to spend money for this project for will be very costly and requires ample time to complete the system yet the results or outcome is unsure. What I can say to the investors in this matter, if we want a changes or development we must take the risk, for business is a gamble, just makes sure that you have all the weapons not to lose in the game.


Reasons for problems in implementation and business change

Most companies find it difficult to implement new information systems and management solutions and to implement the benefit of business change. Business change is a mysterious unknown that is very difficult to manage.
There are several reasons for the problems in business change, mainly:
  • The company does not organize and manage the actual entities that change

  • The company does not have a good method to ensure beneficial business change

  • We do what everybody else does and employ conventional wisdom, which ensures that we have the same problems as everybody else and that we make bad decisions

  • We implement change on a rickety foundation of uninvolved management, resistant users, administrative objectives, consultant methodologies, no goals for return, etc.



Problems can be avoided by paying constant attention to the "three R's" of project management:
·1 Requirements,
·2 Resources
·3 and Recovery rates.


Still, as difficult as major IT implementations can be, they can be properly executed. The roadmap to success lies in successful planning and management of the overall project. Many problems can be avoided or at least mitigated by paying constant attention to the "three R's" of project management: requirements, resources and recovery rates.
These three R's comprise the foundation of effectively planning and implementing projects. Successful large-scale project managers measure each of these project components and continuously communicate their status to senior management and the project team.

Requirements:
The requirements of an IT implementation define the core reasons a business is investing time and resources in the project. The requirements of a project, often referred to as the project scope, must clearly set out what the project team is expected to deliver, and should be documented in detail.
By accurately documenting the work that needs to be done, the project manager can provide senior management with a better understanding of the time frames and resources that will be required to complete the project.
Prior to commissioning a major initiative, senior management should require the project team to complete a cost/benefit analysis. This analysis should outline high-level deliverables that will result from the project meeting its goals. The project team also should define metrics and benchmarks that can be used to measure the benefits of change and the progress and completion of each deliverable.
For example, if a new system is being deployed that reduces the time required to print, sort and attach hangtags, the current amount of time required to complete these activities must be accurately benchmarked. After the new system has been deployed, management can compare the new tagging time requirements against the historical benchmarks and quantify the amount of time saved.

Resources:
The second of the 3 R's -- resources -- includes all employees, consultants and vendors who are required to successfully complete the project. Resources also encompass the budgets, capital expenditures, equipment and infrastructure necessary to achieve the requirements of the project within the target time frame. Resources are the most important commodities of the project. Without them, none of the project requirements will be completed. They also can be the most difficult aspect of a project to accurately pinpoint.

In determining the amount of resources that will be required to complete a project, many base their calculations on the firm's number of full-time employees (FTEs). Deriving an accurate FTE count, however, can be a difficult task. Thousands of variables change the resource requirements of major projects on a daily basis. People become ill, quit, go on vacations and take maternity or paternity leave.
When establishing an estimate for a project, the project manager must consider the amount of work that needs to be completed and put a stake in the ground in terms of the resources that will be required to do the job. As the project progresses, it is important that the project manager revisit the original estimates with updated information, and adjust his or her team's size, budget projections, etc. accordingly.

Recovery Rates:
The recovery rate can be measured from the time any requirements of the project are completed through the time the business begins to recover its capital investment. A classic mistake of many project managers is to focus 100 percent on the end of the project. If project managers do not develop and manage interim milestones, they are unable to determine the rate at which they are achieving project requirements. As a result, they are not able to clearly determine whether the project is on time and if it will meet the deadline.
In the end, requirements, resources and recovery rates must all be carefully balanced to successfully realize the benefits of a large-scale project that is on time and meets budget. As changes occur, it is imperative that the project manager identifies which of the three R's each change affects. When a project is in balance, any change to one of the three R's will cause a compensatory change in another. For example, as requirements are added to a project, either additional resources or additional time must be added to the initiative.


Conclusion
While the barriers that are mention above are significant, business growth, and even survival, depends on overcoming all of them. Moreover, today’s patchwork of finely tuned, yet highly brittle, legacy applications prevents organizations from quickly capitalizing on new opportunities and winning in a global marketplace. Many organizations have been feeling the negative impact of inaction for years
– but have lacked the ability to make a compelling argument for change.


“Is it not the strongest of the species that survive,
not the most intelligent, but the one most responsive
to change.”

Charles Darwin


References:
http://informationr.net/tdw/publ/papers/1989ISstrat.html
http://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/22/4481.html
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Ida Karla Duguran

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 29, 2009 12:57 am

Many organizations have responded to the changing demographics of the workplace by implementing a variety of benefits and policies designed to help employees balance their work and non-work lives. These benefits and policies are instituted with the desire to create what has been termed as the "family-friendly" workplace. The terms "family-friendly workplace," "family-friendly company," and "family-friendly employer" refer to a workplace that, to some extent, acknowledges and responds to the work and personal/family responsibilities assumed by employees.

Barriers are defined as factors that prevent organizations from implementing, and/or factors that reduce the effectiveness of family-supportive benefits and policies after they are in place.

On our adopted organization, the barriers in their IS/IT implementation are the following:

Unemployment - While information technology may have streamlined the business process it has also crated job redundancies, downsizing and outsourcing. This means that a lot of lower and middle level jobs have been done away with causing more people to become unemployed.

Privacy - Though information technology may have made communication quicker, easier and more convenient, it has also bought along privacy issues. From cell phone signal interceptions to email hacking, people are now worried about their once private information becoming public knowledge.

Lack of job security - Industry experts believe that the internet has made job security a big issue as since technology keeps on changing with each day. This means that one has to be in a constant learning mode, if he or she wishes for their job to be secure.

Dominant culture - While information technology may have made the world a global village, it has also contributed to one culture dominating another weaker one. For example it is now argued that US influences how most young teenagers all over the world now act, dress and behave. Languages too have become overshadowed, with English becoming the primary mode of communication for business and everything else.


Barriers to strategy

Building on Porter's (1985) definition of strategy as, ' . . . the route to competitive advantage that will determine . . . performance', we can define an Information System Strategy as the analysis of the role that information systems can play in helping business units or companies to define a route to competitive strategy.

An information systems strategy brings together the business aims of the company, an understanding of the information needed to support those aims, and the implementation of computer systems to provide that information. It is a plan for the development of systems towards some future vision of the role of information systems in the organization.

Mintzberg (1987) suggests that strategy formation is a craft, rather than a science, and the process of crafting a strategy will involve negotiating various barriers. The barriers suggested in the literature include a number that affect any innovation, such as the hostile attitudes of management levels in a company, and the problem of recruiting appropriate staff. Some, such as the difficulty of measuring benefits, are more specific to IT implementation.

(The following data were from a study that had a survey of a big number of companies together with different financial services companies carried out to determine the extent to which the idea of 'information system strategies' was recognized in these organizations, how strategies, where they existed, were related to business aims, the elements of which strategies were composed, and the nature of barriers to design and implementation.)

Companies with a strategy were asked to identify the barriers either to setting up or implementing a strategy and to state whether the barrier had been major or minor. The results are shown in condensed form in Table 6. In Table 6, the ranking is based on the company citing a barrier as a major impediment. It is interesting, however, to look at the ranking that emerges when the change in proportions citing a barrier as a problem at set-up and implementation is used. This can be seen in Table 6, but is also set out in Table 7 for ease of reference.

Rank % response
Set-upImpln. BarrierSet-upImpln.
1 3 Measuring benefits 30.5 32.6
2 2 Nature of business 27.7 34.8
3 1 Difficulty in recruiting 24.1 36.9
4 6 Political conflicts 23.4 19.9
5 5 Existing IT investment 22.0 24.8
6 4 User-education resources 17.0 29.1
7 11 Doubts about benefits 15.6 8.5
8 9 Telecommunications issues 10.6 11.3
9 7 Middle management attitudes 9.9 13.5
10 8 Senior management attitudes 9.2 9.2
11 10 Technology lagging behind needs 6.4 9.2

Table 6. Rank importance of barriers to strategy

Some of the changes shown in the table might be called logical shifts: for example, one might expect greater difficulty in recruitment when an organization actually needs to recruit, at the implementation stage; one might expect the lack of resources for user education to become more apparent when user education for the new systems needs to take place; and it is not surprising that technology lag makes itself felt after the initial optimism of the planning stage.

Rank Barrier % change
1 Difficulty in recruiting +12.8
2 User-education resources +12.1
3* Nature of business +7.1
3* Doubts about benefits -7.1
5 Middle management attitudes +3.7
6 Political conflicts -3.5
7* Existing IT investment +2.8
7* Technology lagging behind needs +2.8
9 Measuring benefits +2.1
10 Telecommunications problems +0.7
11 Senior management attitudes 0.0
* = Ties.

Table 7. Change in significance of barriers from set-up to implementation

Logical explanations for some of the changes are more difficult to find, however: the nature of the business (degree of diversification, rapidity of growth, etc.) is perceived as a major barrier initially and by an even greater proportion during implementation - what is the explanation for this? Perhaps it is that anticipated problems in this area actually materialize. Also, the attitudes of middle management assume a greater significance at implementation - this may be related to the lack of resources for user education and to the perception that technology lags behind needs, i.e., is failing to deliver anticipated benefits. Perhaps the smaller increase for senior management attitudes is related to the marked decline in the significance of political conflicts. The downward shift in political conflict may also be associated with the decline in doubts about benefits, although the difficulty of measuring benefits remains a problem.
When we examine the extent to which these factors are perceived to be either major or minor barriers, the picture shown in Table 8 emerges.

% response Rank
Set-up Impln Set-up Impln Barrier
42.5 45.4 10 10 Senior management attitudes
53.9 52.5 6 6 Middle management attitudes
61.7 75.2 3 1 Recruitment
51.8 48.2 7 8* Doubts about benefits
63.8 63.8 2 4 Measurement of benefits
49.0 49.6 9 7 Existing IT investment
59.5 72.4 4 2 User-education resources
58.2 59.6 5 5 Political conflicts
66.7 67.4 1 3 Nature of the business
49.6 48.2 8 8* Telecommunications issues
39.7 41.8 11 11 Technology lagging behind needs

Table 8. Significance of barriers as either major or minor

From these various rankings, the difficulties in recruiting appropriate staff, the lack of resources to engage in user education, the nature of the business, and the difficulties of measuring benefits, emerge as the key features of IT strategies that are likely to cause problems for companies.

Further details of barriers and problems surfaced in the interviews. Even companies with a strong commitment were not immune to blind spots. For example, one interviewee said that:
...while there is this very strong belief in information technology, the top management have not believed in end-user computing... The main drive... is coming from DP because we see opportunities for managers, professionals, to help themselves. But it is not something for which there is a strong demand, and it is something which top management has treated as, you know, 'Why do you want to play with that, why don't you get on with your real job?'

The same person highlighted another inhibiting factor:
...another aspect of corporate style - the attitude to cost. The organization will quite happily invest millions almost at the drop of a hat in large-scale technology for big operational systems. I can get authority to spend a million or two on new hardware to improve the system in a ten-minute meeting with the managing director. And yet the same man will say, 'I might find a PC on the desk quite useful, but how much does it cost? [and then] 'It's not worth spending £2500 for a piece of junk on my desk.'

An interesting aspect of the recruitment problem was revealed in a financial services company which had a tradition of project teams directed by a senior manager from the user group and staffed mainly by users:
When we started all this there was quite a large army of part-qualified, or recently qualified, very bright, young actuaries, accountants, and so on, that we could pull on. An unfortunate effect of the systems we developed was that we reduced the need for the office to have a lot of those people - you didn't need lots of actuarial trainees with calculators doing these things any more. What we didn't see at the time was that we were cutting our own throats.
Now, over the last three or four years, that's been recognized in the office. Not just for computing reasons, but for all sorts of other reasons, it's starting to build up its professional input, its graduate trainees, again.




References:
http://www.smallbusinessbible.org/advan_disadvan_informationtechnology.html
http://informationr.net/tdw/publ/papers/1989ISstrat.html
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Norena T. Nicdao

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 29, 2009 9:31 pm

Before the discussion of the Information System Barriers in the company I adopted let's define barrier first.

What is Barrier?


In economics and mostly especially in the theory of competition, barriers to entry are obstacles in the path of a firm that make it difficult to enter a given market.
Barriers to entry are the source of a firm's pricing power - the ability of a firm to raise prices without losing all its customers.
The term refers to hindrances that an individual may face while trying to gain entrance into a profession or trade. It also, more commonly, refers to hindrances that a firm (or even a country) may face while trying to enter a market, industry or trade grouping. Barriers to entry restrict competition in a market.

We know that EMCOR is a well known company here in Davao City. EMCOR is a 100% Filipino-owned retail business corporation specializing in appliances, furniture, IT products, motorcycles, and money transfer through its network of specialty chain stores in the Visayas, Mindanao, and Palawan areas. With the launching of our online store, EMCOR will now be making its presence known in the online industry and promote its company’s goals and vision to the global community.

Source: http://emcor.com.ph/about.php

On the case of EMCOR here are the following list of the barriers in IS/IT implementation which their company identify possible solutions.

•Control of resources and Research and development - Some products, such as microprocessors, require a large upfront investment in technology which will deter potential entrants. If a single firm has control of a resource essential for a certain industry, then other firms are unable to compete in the industry.

The company has maintenance of the database through their programmer and system analyst. They are responsible in creating programs in different sections in the company. But in some case their programmers encounter failures to their work so the company decided to have Outsourcing.

• Cost advantages independent of scale - Proprietary technology, know-how, favorable access to raw materials, favorable geographic locations, learning curve cost advantages.

• Network effect - When a good or service has a value that depends on the number of existing customers, then competing players may have difficulties in entering a market where an established company has already captured a significant user base.

In economics and business, a network effect (also called network externality) is the effect that one user of a good or service has on the value of that product to other people.
The classic example is the telephone. The more people own telephones, the more valuable the telephone is to each owner. This creates a positive externality because user may purchase their phone without intending to create value for other users, but does so in any case.

In EMCOR they sometimes encounter problem in internet connection
they are only using the management monitoring system for their transaction in different store. They have two stores in Mangagoy, their system cannot access in that store so they planning to have some possible solution to address the problem. Because of their initiative the two stores in Mangagoy are now having their own database and can have their own system which is efficient.

EMCOR is now planning to have a Disaster Recovery System for the process, policies and procedures related to preparing for recovery or continuation of technology infrastructure critical to an organization after a natural or human-induced disaster.This system will automatically update every five minutes by the access of the internet and provides back-up and transfer to another system all the data of the company so that if something will happen to the company they can easily restore the entire file.

• Changing their system

The development stage of the company uses a Visual FoxPro as their front end and SQL 6.5 then change into SQL 7.0 and lastly the to SQL 2000 which they are currently using. Because of the system change the company's employee has a big adjustments on it that's sometimes the reason of having a failure on their work. The company provide solution to address this problem which is to help the employee to have trainging and studies in the new system of the company which they are using. This kind of solution is helping the employee to know better the new system to continue their work in the company.

• Employees

Like I said before in the system change employees must have training in order to learn how to operate or access the new system implemented in the company. The company decided to train their employees to address this problem.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barriers_to_entry
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Michael George Guanzon

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PostSubject: assignment 5   Wed Sep 30, 2009 7:21 am

Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation..

Barriers to achieving ideal intergovernmental systems...


These ideals are difficult to achieve because there are significant barriers to overcome. The Special Work Group identified many problems that state-local projects encounter. Among the top ranking barriers are:

A general lack of education and information about both technology and programs
Technology has rapidly permeated our society and most of our institutions, but government organizations often lag behind others. Government staff are often ill-informed and poorly trained in how to use information technology effectively. This is particularly true of the newest technical tools and platforms. Public employees, both users and technicians, seldom have ready access to skills training or professional development that continuously upgrades their knowledge and skills. Conversely, technical staff typically have few opportunities or incentives to learn the goals and operational realities of service programs and therefore tend to focus too sharply on the technical tools and too little on the programmatic reasons for new systems.

Lack of a shared, reliable computing and network infrastructure
Existing state-local systems suffer from the lack of a ubiquitous, consistent computing and communications infrastructure. This makes it difficult or impossible to operate technology supported programs in a consistent way from place to place and organization to organization. It also slows and complicates communication among state and local staff involved in joint programs. New York State is currently embarking on a statewide networking strategy called the NYT that will help solve this problem for future systems.

Goals that are too ambitious for the resources available to achieve them.

Project goals are often laudably comprehensive, but the staff, equipment, and dollars allotted to achieve them are often underestimated. Projects that could succeed on a smaller or incremental scale, fail to achieve success when their goals and resources are played out on different scales.

Human and organizational resistance to change.

In some cases, new state-local initiatives threaten a comfortable status quo. They promise big changes that not every participant is eager to see. Fear and resistance to change exist even in the best planned and managed projects. A new way of doing business threatens existing personal, organizational, programmatic, and political conditions by rearranging authority, influence, power, resources, and information. This natural resistance is exacerbated when new programs arrive with too little advance information, weak leadership support, inadequate user participation, too little funding, and less than comprehensive training and orientation.

Unrealistic time frames.
Many information systems projects take considerably longer than originally planned. State-local projects, with their added layers of legal and organizational complexity are especially vulnerable to this problem. Since so many different organizations are affected by them, time delays lead to serious difficulties in planning for and adjusting to changes in operations.

Organizational, programmatic, technological, and legal complexity.

The state-local environment is extraordinarily complex on a number of dimensions: organizational size, number of organizations, number and skills of staff, size of budget, financial practices, legal authority, programmatic focus, and geographic dispersion. Existing systems are an important complicating factor.Only so much change is possible in an environment that depends on information systems already in place — especially ones that were designed and implemented using older technologies. There is little that can be done to simplify this environment, making it essential that project participants have a good understanding of how it will affect their activities.

Changing priorities.
Any project that lasts more than a few months is subject to changing priorities for time, money, and attention. This problem is multiplied in state-local projects since each participating organization is likely to be working in circumstances and with responsibilities and priorities that are unique to its own situation.

Overlapping or conflicting missions among the participating organizations.

Government organizations at both the state and local level have public service and public accountability goals that can overlap or conflict, even when they are engaged in a joint project. For example, a state agency manager may have the role of project leader which implies facilitation, collaboration, and support for other participants. At the same time, that person’s agency may have oversight responsibility and financial and other regulatory means of compelling local compliance with state requirements. In other projects, non-profit service providers may be project participants sitting at the same table with state or local officials who license and inspect their programs.These roles are all legitimate but can conflict and become a source of difficulty in sorting out the working relationships within the project team.
The barriers are undeniable. But the potential benefits of successful systems are compelling reasons to go forward with well-designed state-local initiatives.

Other barriers in Implementing new system..
Human resource problems

• Insufficient skilled management in information-gathering and retrieving information
• Insufficient trained personnel at all levels
• Insufficient communication skills

Technical resource problems


• Need for modern information systems
• Difficulties in setting up information programme
• Problems in data processing
• Technical constraints to reproducing or copying documents
• Decoding statistics collected and the structure of statistical reporting
• Time factor in the collection and updating of information
• Need for qualitative aspects of information

Physical resource problems


• Need for publishing houses
• Need for documentation centres

Financial problems

• Need for funds for processing, printing and dissemination of information

Communication problems

• Production of incomprehensible information
• Insufficient understanding of the objectives, goals and aims of programmes
• Top-down approach
• Languages: media of communication
• Information-filtering
• Untargeted information
• Insufficient understanding among interest groups

Operational problems

• Need for co-ordination and networking among professionals and educational institutions
• Need for supportive policy to release information
• Insufficient access to information source
• Confidentiality
• Redundancy of information
• Nature of policy directives
• Need for identifying sources of information
• Centralization of activities
• Need for systematic documentation

Psychological and other problems

• Need for mutual trust between professionals and administrators
• Need for trust in information-sharing
• Need for of goodwill
• Competition between organizations
• Censorship
• War

2. How can these obstacles be effectively managed?

Human resource development

• Training
• Other capacity-building

Technical resource development

• Establish documentation centre (independent non-governmental institution for processing and disseminating information ?)
• Install modern information technology
• Create database
• Encourage small-scale publishing

Physical resource development

• Improve infrastructure
• Build documentation centre

Operational improvement

• Set clear policy guidelines on information dissemination
• Encourage government to have depository laws and enforce them
• Introduce information system
• Use mass media
• Follow a bottom-up approach
• Develop grassroots level inventory of information
• Create awareness of the value of information
• Identify user information needs
• Consult target groups
• Develop target-oriented and useable information
• Develop effective system of information management and dissemination; information should be simple, understandable and manageable
• Institute efficient and effective co-ordination and networking
• Encourage a free flow of information — horizontally and vertically



In our adopted company which is DOLE Philippines,Ms.Galindo mentioned some barriers in their IS/IT implementation.

Inexperienced Staff

People involve in the system should have the proper communication and social skills. Trainings and Seminars is important for them to upgrade and enhance their knowledge and improve their performance to the company.

Lack of IT/IS Awareness

The system that should be implemented in a company should be a user friendly. According to Ms. Galindo involving the user is very important when there is a development or a change of your system in the company or organization. In this way it will help both the IT people and the staff and the users to be aware of the other matters and the best solutions.

Lack of Resources

This barrier really affects the implementation of new system it’s because how can you implement your system if you have lack of resources to be use. Especially those very important resources like the programmers, system analyst and many more they are all considered as resources of a company.The company should have the resources or the budget, because having a system requires maintenance, probably hardware replacements.

Organizational Politics

A workplace can be conceptualized as a social marketplace in which individuals engage in transactions, all seeking to earn a return on their investments. The possibility of receiving a favorable return on one’s investment is contingent on the extent to which organizational rewards are perceived to be fairly allocated.
Politics help to recognize or even reconcile competing interests within an organization. Essentially, all employees bring their own interests, desires, wants, and needs to the workplace which leads to a diversity of interests in which politics form. Politics in an organization are viewed as both negative and positive. Everyone practices politics in some form or in some degree in an organization but viewing politics positively are considered to have a positive force within the organization. Relationships, norms, processes, performance and outcomes are all enormously affected and influenced by organizational politics due to the fact that they are all intertwined into the management system.
As we know, communication within an organization is the key element to success and achievement. A leader is an individual who should consider communication to be the most important aspect in their relationship within the organization. An employee and their leader need a high communication percentage in order to maintain success and achieve specific goals within the organization.

Time Pressure


Time is often in the form of meeting the project deadlines and getting the product within budget. Can also be considered as a barrier since it gives us limitations that we must follow. Such limitations can affect the developing process and the output.


references:

http://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/guides/tying?chapter=3&section=4
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_politics



Last edited by Michael George Guanzon on Mon Oct 05, 2009 9:52 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Michelle Adlawan

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Sep 30, 2009 5:20 pm

Implementing information technology is said to impose substantial growths and gains in an organization. These gains affects primarily in their business operations and transactions; moreover, to how they deal their services to their customers. Computerized accounting and payroll processing are just few of the biggest help of using information technology. It made the processes in a company faster and more accessible than before. It had made efficient for the employees, employers and customers in its business dealings. The strategic use of information technology had gained much attention in the industry perhaps because automation processes brings greater advantage in developing growth of an organization in becoming a more modern and a more competent part of the industry.

IT/IS implementation demands a great deal of responsibility within the people in an organization. This initial application also contributes problems and risks which might hinder the successful implementation of this technology in a company. It is undeniable that this new innovation denotes complexity in applying in a company. It is advisable to be aware of the barriers that could might and probably occur in the certain operations in a company.

As we gazed up to our learning in our previous searching of companies to adapt, Waterfront Insular Hotel (our former company) answer the question on what are their barriers in IT/IS implementation. They mentioned the connectivity in their Local Network Area (LAN) is sometimes low during their transactions and sometimes loss their connection in their server whenever operations are done in the network. They were not denying these problems in their company and because at the moment they were still looking for a replacement for the position of their IT Personnel, they still get the hang up with these barriers in their business operations. That is also the reason why our group decided to find another company and continue our study for our major paper and lucky enough we’ve found a substitute.
In our interview with our major paper adapted Company; they also stated their barriers in implementing IT. One is the software bugs that cause their system to slow down. That problem affects their operations in the company. Software bugs, however, is the common term used to describe an error, flaw, mistake, failure or fault in a computer program or system that produces an incorrect or unexpected result, or causes it to behave in unintended ways. Another problem that they indicated to us was the connection in their Local Network Area. They often get the problem in the connection with their LAN during one of their transactions in the company. Same with the Waterfront Insular Hotel, this causes the tasks that they have to do to be interrupted by this problem. It makes their transaction to delays and break. They said their still looking for solutions to the said barrier.

The strategic use of IT would normally reduce the barriers mentioned earlier. However, the enthusiasm in using this technology would be reduced if it becomes a burden instead of giving competitive advantage to the company. The main issue of this they way the organizations implement and maintain their information system and how these organizations adapt and change with this new intervention. There are certain factors to identify in discussing these barriers and the issue of implementing IT. These are the technology and the organization. The organization should be open for the challenge to change organizational structures in meeting and adapting the technological change in their marketing management. The organization should focus also to their human resource in which the main affected with the technological change. Unskilled staff is not healthy for the productivity of a company, thus the company should have trainings and seminars for their personnel and staff in order for them to be aware and knowledgeable and educated with the changes. Or else that would cause another barrier for the company to meet. Management information system would likely to be unfulfilled due to organizational structure deficiencies, communication problems between the users and IS staff, and deficiencies in strategic planning models of the company.

On my further research in the internet, I’ve read that the barriers that exist in successfully introduce IT systems in the organization falls into three categories: structural, human and technical. As I already mentioned, the company should adapt a change in their structure if they would comply with the changes in their technology. That is a challenge that is a need to implement if the company is apt to implement IT in their company. Structural barriers are caused when the organizational structure or system is not compatible with the new technology. This includes communication, authority flows and planning systems. Moreover, human barriers include psychological problems that mostly arise during the periods of change. Examples of these psychological problems are uncertainty avoidance and resistance to loss of power or status. Technological barriers, however, were factors in the technology itself, such as lack of system compatibility. With these technological factors, a need for flexibility and information handling capacity should be adapted and implied by the organization. In addition, financial is also a factor with these barriers. The company should also consider the financial factors and aspects in implementing IT. If such project implementation would be made, a funding and a wide planning should also be conducted in order for the company to not waste the time and effort in implementing such projects.

These said barriers are said to be strategic implication for the successful use of IT. The lack of awareness of the importance of these barriers would cause widely in implementing IT in the organization. If these will be left unaddressed, future difficulties would occur in the implementation of more sophisticated systems. With the knowledge of these barriers, the company would be able to manage the challenge in implementing IT/IS successfully.
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Thu Oct 01, 2009 2:01 am



Rhine Marketing Corporation - Computer Division (RMC-CD)
is a a leading manufacturer of personal computer, and distributor of a complete line of peripherals and other computer related services.

It has been our adopted company in our group for MIS Group Sharing. Mr. Cris, the MIS head of RMC-CD accomodated us well in the interview. He has told us about the MIS of RMC-CD. We have found out that RMC-CD branch in Davao City has adopted an in-house programmer. The Rhine System,(name of their IS) was developed by their self-employed personnel.

The Rhine system address to their needs of a more systematic fow of their transaction in sales. Originally, the IS of RMC-CD had started the renovation of the system way back 2000.

The system was mainly consist of Sales Inventory, Sales Income and for service and maintenance documentation. Sir Cris had told us that the implementation of the system was not easy. First, the makers of the system must identify first the needs of the company. Second, to identify the importance of addressing this needs. Third, will it cost to have a system? Fourth, will the system be user friendly? What's its framwork?

After answering the question, then you can proceed to the design and framework of the system. In the planning the design, According to Sir Cris, the programmer must choose a programming language that will suits to his capability so that he can make the system effectively. He has mentioned that every database administrator must update from the internet latest advancement in programming. A programmer has to update his knowledge because nowadays technology is fast paced ang constant to change.

Sir Cris had told us the barriers they have encountered in the implementation of the system. Sir Cris had enumerated some barriers in their IS/IT implementation:

1. Cost - the major barrier of IS implementation is the cost and expense of IS. Making a system is impossible without financial support. From the hardware to software, all of this has a cost. That's why, a company must have good financial capacity to cater expense of systems.

2. Adoption of System - it is very hard to teach user about the implementation of system, if the users are illiterate in using computers. According to Sir Cris, most senior staff or employee of Rhine has trouble in using the computer and the system. It took the senior staff ample time before they could fully understand the use of system. Because of this, most transactions are delayed. In contrast, those young employee or young age employee that has knowledge about computer has less difficulties in using the system.

3. Downsizing of Manpower - because of the implementation of IS in the company, most bookkeeper of Rhine has been dismissed. The manual system before are now automated causing deduction of manpower. It has 5% downsizing of manpower from Rhine, when the IS has took place in the transactions.

4. Feedbacks - users generates feedback. Either negative or positive, all of this could be barriers to IS implementation. Most negative feedbacks are about the features of system - functionality and accessibility. Most users complaints are about the unexpected changes of the transactions. For example, instead of manual written receipts, receipts are now printed because of IS. Some users were disappointed because their expectation was not reached.

5. Maintenance - After installation, maintenance took place. Each media and equipments are maintain in good conditions to generate an error free transactions. Maintenance are done by Is staff who are knowledgable in maintaining the performance of IS.

Rhine CMD has easily adjust to the implementation of IS. Most of the users had undergone orientation of system flow and activities so that they are equip with the new system. The MIS staff has assumed that users has nothinf to learn with computer, that is why they tried their best to make the system user friendly. They just make the system as what the manual systems before look like.

Sir Cris added that discrepancy of datas are unavoidable. But it can be address by up-to-date checking of systems and minimization of cheating.

Constant updates of systems is a good pratice in maintaining the IS functional.Updates from internet are plus factors.
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Fritzielaine A. Barcena

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PostSubject: Barriers of IT/IS   Thu Oct 01, 2009 2:19 am



1. SLOW INTERNET CONNECTION

What actually causes a slow Internet connection? Obviously, the capacity of a
given connection is finite, so if too many people request information at once,
then someone will have to wait. In an ideal world, organizations would simply
order more bandwidth to accommodate the increased traffic. But as we all
know, Internet access costs money, and most organizations do not have infinite
budgets.
It is an interesting fact of online life that users tend to consume more bandwidth
over time. It is very rare to find a user who, once they have had access to a
broadband connection, is satisfied with going back to a low speed dialup line.
As users are exposed to Internet services earlier in life and in a variety of venues
(for example at home, at work, at University, or at a cyber-cafe), they be come accustomed to using it in a certain way. They are increasingly unlikely to
know or care about the bandwidth required to listen to Internet radio, or to
download the latest video game, or to watch funny movies on a video sharing
service. They "just want it to work," and may complain when the Internet "is
slow." Users often have no idea that they can single-handedly bring an organization's
Internet connection to a halt by running a simple file sharing program
on their computer.

2. PROBLEM NETWORK SETUP

The networking field has become a core component for any company. All of thebusinesses rely on the networking industry, due its vastness and significance. Every daycompanies are planning and thinking to develop better strategies that can offer efficientand reliable communication solutions between their employees and customers formaximum revenue. The planning of a company’s network requires a lot of resources andaspects to study, and to evaluate them carefully to build a comprehensive secure andreliable platform. It is the job of a network administrator to take care of the company’snetwork infrastructure and upgrade or update the required components and applicationsfrom time-to-time that can follow new standards.This thesis is a practical work aimed to evaluate a company network infrastructure in itsreal environment. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate different aspects of thenetwork infrastructure used such as VPN, WLAN, firewall and physical security and giverecommendations to make their performance better and to offer more advanced strategies.This study will also provide an inclusive observation of the company’s needs and theirnetwork infrastructure, and will provide a concept how to evaluate and fix small mistakes,the kind of problems that can occur in an evolving company network. Lastly, this researchwill make recommendations and suggest a possible implementation on the studiednetwork infrastructure.

3. POOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Lack of business support
If you don't define the major characteristics of a project up front, it's very common to have differences in expectations among the major stakeholders. This is true even if you take all of your initial direction from the sponsor. As a project gets larger, even the sponsor may not have a complete picture of what needs to happen for the project to be successful. Other times, the sponsor has a vision, but there are other visions that may be better or more viable. These competing ideas end up surfacing later in the project, causing confusion and rework.
Poor estimates
Usually a project needs to have a budget and deadline before the business requirements are completed. In many cases, if the definition and planning are not done ahead of time, the project team starts off with inadequate resources and timeâ€"and you don't realise it until the project is already in progress. Many projects that could be successful are viewed as failures because they overshot their budgets and deadlines. This situation is often caused by the project manager committing to numbers that are too low, based on a lack of up-front planning.
Poor scope control
One of the major aspects of defining a project is defining the high-level scope. If you do not define and gain agreement on scope, you will find it very difficult to manage scope effectively throughout the project.


References:
www.wikipedia.com
http://www.builderau.com.au/strategy/projectmanagement/soa/Poor-Project-Management/0,339028292,320272911,00.htm


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janraysuriba

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PostSubject: IT/IS implementation barriers   Thu Oct 01, 2009 1:12 pm

A barrier is defined as “any condition that makes it difficult to make progress or to achieve an objective” (WordNet, 1997). The objective under scrutiny in this study is increased technology integration. The understood and yet unspoken connotation of a barrier is that its removal acts as an aid towards the achievement of the objective. Therefore, the study of barriers as they pertain to technology integration is essential because this knowledge could provide guidance for ways to enhance technology integration. Ertmer (1999) echoed this sentiment, in stating that by providing “teachers with knowledge of barriers, as well as effective strategies to overcome them, it is expected that they will be prepared to both initiate and sustain effective technology integration practices” (Conclusion section, ¶ 4).

To best demonstrate the existence of barriers to technology integration independent of the environment, it is essential to examine the recent history of technology in the classroom. This allows one to see that as the main barrier – lack of technology access – was removed, other barriers still remained. Nevertheless, common sense dictates that in institutions that lack sufficient access to technology, effective technology integration would be a daunting, if not impossible task. It appears that Maddux’s (1998) claim that “it is essential that computers be placed in classrooms. Until that happens, true integration is unlikely to take place” remains true.

In SONY Davao, the following are their BARRIERS:
- MONEY
- IT Support
- Training
- IT Infrastructure
- Time
- Priorities
- Changing Technologies
- Planning
- Fear

In Money, even if the SONY is a very known company internationally, still the Money is a major factor for the company during their Information System implementation. The Company already has plans in the past to implement what they have right now yet, for an organization like my visited company, it is not that easy to release vast amounts of cash just to provide what their company needed during those days. As our interviewee said, technology nowadays especially the systems produced via outsourcing changes every time. What he really mean by that was, if you want to cope up with your rivals, an organization also must be meticulous with the system that they are using especially with an organization like Son, wherein they are so engaged, even selling products of technology that changes every now and then.

IT Support. I noticed that at the main branch only has limited IT personnel. In fact, the one that we had interview is the only IT assigned in the certain branch. I can say that IT support is one of the barriers during their Information System implementation because, a certain organization can not automatically implement their information system without or lacking support from the IT people. Maybe the company is hesitant to recruit or hire IT people because of the cost that they would pay. I am not that sure about that though.

Training. I think the training here is particular with their personnel and the management. Training with regards on how to manipulate the certain Information system that created because most of the time, it is the personnel who objects first on the flow of the system. Maybe because they can not cope up that easily with the occurred changes or maybe because they do not want the system itself. Its not that they take no notice of the technology but still maybe they prefer the old system.
Lack of training can create problems during the IS implementation. Man hours will be wasted, errors will become visible, and timeline will exceed. To solve this, the management should require proper training to every personnel involved to eliminate possible damages.

IT Infrastructure. When we speak of Information Technology infrastructure, I think it refers to the physical attributes of a hardware. Like a desktop computer for example. Whenever an innovation occur, it is not just the software that innovates, but also the hardware. There are times when the hardware can not cope up with the system requirement of a software, reason why, infrastructure such as platforms and specs are considered as one of the barrier during Information system implementation.

Time. Time can be the worst enemy during an IS implementation. Certainly, no organization can handle time. Timeline exceeds whenever great damages are encountered. As stated above, lack of training can be one of the reasons why an organization exceeds their duration. There are many controllable and uncontrollable factors that can ruin the timeline. To address this, the organization or team must develop and evaluate more strategies and plans that will speed up their implementation.

Priorities. There are times when an organization finds another priority. Instead to quicken up implementation, they find another target or another apple of the eye which delays the work.

Changing Technologies. Due to constant change of technology nowadays, the company finds it hard to cope up every now and then, in an organization like sony, they must follow the trend of today. Because of this, the organization / company finds hard to decide the final plans for the system because they may tend to look for much newer trend.

Planning. Planning too long can be a hindrance to IS implementation. Staff assigned may make changes every now and then. Afterwards, consultations to the management must be done. Reason why, the IT people assigned to implement the said IS can not make a move because of changing plans and decisions most of the time. Other good example is, when the organization plans not too well. Without any consultations from the experts that makes the implementation mush faster, but the result? Repetition of work. So, to address this, the organization must have a timeline for planning. Six months would be enough I think.

Fear. Fear of insults, discriminations, and other ill factors that will lead the people involved in the implementation in vain. Also, lack of trust from the colleagues that will lead to fear of what would be outcome if the implementation would take place which is not a good attitude. If you are involved in changing your IS, you must have the confidence that you can make it and trust to your co-workers in order for the team to be united.


http://www.zu.ac.ae/lthe/vol2no1/lthe02_05.pdf
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alma cabase

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Oct 02, 2009 12:21 pm

Based on our interview and our personal observations in ouyr adopted compnay (PPA Philippine Port Authority) these are the barriers in the implementation of their system.

* Lack of personnel

*Lack or limited funds

*Outsourced system

*Lack of facilities

*Human resistance

*Gradual changes in system demands

I will explain each of them in the following paragraphs.

*Lack of personnel

In order to implement a system, a qualified owrkforce is a requirement. Especially in the hardware part of the system. In implementing it, numerous computer sets will be deployed and configured, a lot of networks will be established and the cables and wires must will be firmly and correctly be connected to their right positions. These steps will consume not only days but even months to ensure that the hardware part of the system is properly functioning. With regards to our adopted company, they extremely lack qualified personnels for this agenda. They only have 3 personnels that could handle advance IT related jobs. This is the reason why their system is not totally self operational. The system still requires them to be on guard on the possible errors and bugs. It took them a couple of months to establish the networks and other hardware requirements and it also took them more months to configure and debug their open source system for the software to adopt to the processes that their office have.

*Lack / limited funds


Their office is run by government funds. This is the sole reason why their funds are very hard to access. A personnel shared during our interview that in order to request even just a new keyboard it will take about a month of waiting. This is because the request will ne passed to numerous hands. First, in the head of their department, second, to the head of their office and third to the main office in Manila were a lot of personalities will eventually need to sign up or approve that request. This problem will eventually slow down the reaction of the system in terms of coorecting necessary bugs and errors. For example, if the system shuts down because of a hardware failure. And if the request for a new hardware will consume a lot of time, the backfire of the system being unoperational for the period of time for waiting for the new hardware will give their office a lot of problems.

*Outsourced System

What do I mean in an outsourced system?

Outsourcing is subcontracting a service such as product design or manufacturing, to a third-party company. The decision to outsource is often made in the interest of lowering cost or making better use of time and energy costs, redirecting or conserving energy directed at the competencies of a particular business, or to make more efficient use of land, labor, capital, (information) technology and resources[citation needed]. Outsourcing became part of the business lexicon during the 1980s. It is essentially a division of labour. Outsourcing in the information technology field has two meanings. One is to commission the development of an application to another organization, usually a company that specializes in the development of this type of application. The other is to hire the services of another company to manage all or parts of the services that otherwise would be rendered by an IT unit of the organization. The latter concept might not include development of new applications.
Why did the company outsourced?
• Cost savings. The lowering of the overall cost of the service to the business. This will involve reducing the scope, defining quality levels, re-pricing, re-negotiation, cost re-structuring. Access to lower cost economies through offshoring called "labor arbitrage" generated by the wage gap between industrialized and developing nations.
• Focus on Core Business. Resources (for example investment, people, infrastructure) are focused on developing the core business. For example often organizations outsource their IT support to specilaised IT services companies.
• Cost restructuring. Operating leverage is a measure that compares fixed costs to variable costs. Outsourcing changes the balance of this ratio by offering a move from fixed to variable cost and also by making variable costs more predictable.
• Improve quality. Achieve a step change in quality through contracting out the service with a new service level agreement.
• Knowledge. Access to intellectual property and wider experience and knowledge.
• Contract. Services will be provided to a legally binding contract with financial penalties and legal redress. This is not the case with internal services.
• Operational expertise. Access to operational best practice that would be too difficult or time consuming to develop in-house.
• Access to talent. Access to a larger talent pool and a sustainable source of skills, in particular in science and engineering.
• Capacity management. An improved method of capacity management of services and technology where the risk in providing the excess capacity is borne by the supplier.
• Catalyst for change. An organization can use an outsourcing agreement as a catalyst for major step change that can not be achieved alone. The outsourcer becomes a Change agent in the process.
• Enhance capacity for innovation. Companies increasingly use external knowledge service providers to supplement limited in-house capacity for product innovation.
• Reduce time to market. The acceleration of the development or production of a product through the additional capability brought by the supplier.
• Commodification. The trend of standardizing business processes, IT Services and application services enabling businesses to intelligently buy at the right price. Allows a wide range of businesses access to services previously only available to large corporations.
• Risk management. An approach to risk management for some types of risks is to partner with an outsourcer who is better able to provide the mitigation.
• Venture Capital. Some countries match government funds venture capital with private venture capital for startups that start businesses in their country.
• Tax Benefit. Countries offer tax incentives to move manufacturing operations to counter high corporate taxes within another country.

Why outsourcing became a problem?

The mere fact that the office lacks in personnel to tend to the different problems that the system may bump into, the system is also an outsourced one making it hard for the personnel to be familiar about the flow of the system in a short span of time. The developers of the system spent time to send an on-call representative to tend to the problem if the system especially on the early days of the implementation but this cannot go on forever. The personnel in-charge in the MIS department must be able to handle the problems because it is their job to do so. And it became a barrier in the implementation because currently the personnel are still studying the flow of the system and are not yet very confident in debugging it.

*Human Resistance

What are the possible reasons of resistance?
Most people don't like change because they don't like being changed. When change comes into view, fear and resistance to change follow – often despite its obvious benefits. People fight against change because they:

• fear to lose something they value, or
• don't understand the change and its implications, or
• don't think that the change makes sense, or
• find it difficult to cope with either the level or pace of the change.

Resistance emerges when there’s a threat to something the individual values. The threat may be real or it may be just a perception. It may arise from a genuine understanding of the change or from misunderstanding, or even almost total ignorance about it.

Why this concept did became a problem in system implementation?

Upon the order of their heads to convert their manual system into an automated one, even the IT personnel in their office have some doubts and resistance. They do not want the new system because they are confident with the old system. They resist the change because they do not want to be ignorant of something. They have some doubts whether the new system could benefit them more or just burden them by trying to learn something that is out of their skills. But they are slowly adopting the system. They are beginning to realize the importance of the system because of the good things that it is slowly becoming visible because of its implementation.


*Lack of Facilities

Like all other offices that are run by the government, their office facilities are very limited. They shared to us that the personnel are the ones coping due to this lack in facilities. They tend to use softwares that require lesser computer specifications. This is because they do not have the option to request for new equipments because they know that it will take a large amount of time to wait for their request to be granted.


*Lack of Trainings

Why training is important?

Having a formal IT training plan in place can be beneficial to the organization and offer benefits to employees that competitors may not offer. Although companies may risk losing employees that have just been trained, the benefit of training these employees far outweighs this risk. When IT staff is involved in a formal training plan, individual’s skill sets improve and they can contribute more to the organization.
Employees that feel that their company is investing in them may feel more job satisfaction and increased loyalty to their organization. The benefit of training employees is mutual and can be realized for quite some time. Organizations can also offer lesser skilled workers formal training in order to benefit from their new skills. This will also allow companies to save money on salaries for higher skilled workers.
Employee Training Programs Have Some Risks
Companies often have trouble finding skilled and trained technology staff and an even harder time retaining those employees. However, while this is an opportunity for most employees, it also presents a risk when so many organizations are competing for skilled workers. These newly trained workers can easily be lured away by other organizations offering more money, benefits, flexibility or just a new work environment.
Another risk to note in providing formal IT training is in making sure organizations get a return on investment for technology expenditures. If a company invests time and money in new technology, that company would certainly need employees with the right skill set to operate the new technology. If technology systems are underutilized because of improper training, the return on investment becomes minimal. Companies not investing in this type of training will not realize that return on investment.
The Importance of IT Training Programs
Formal IT training programs cannot be ignored because the benefits outweigh the risks. Most employees do want to enhance their skills. If companies offer training, employees may view this as an added benefit from their employer. Organizations that offer formalized training and keep employees’ salaries competitive mitigate the risk of losing employees to other organizations.

LINK: http://job-satisfaction.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_benefits_of_formal_it_training

Why lack of trainings became a barrier?

The old system that our adopted company used is a manual type of system. It does not require the end users to be knowledgeable in using a computer. Upon the implementation of the system, the end-users need to be trained in using the system in a computer. The problem arise because it will definitely take time for the first-timers to learn the basics f computing and to be able to master the basic computing functions will take even more. The longer it the time it takes for the employees to be oriented with basic computer knowledge, the longer it takes for the office to have the optimal performance of the system.

*Gradual change in system demand

As the system is implemented, the change in the demand of the system is still ongoing. This became a barrier because as the demand changes the system must respond to it and if the change in demand is gradual, there will come a point where the system will not be implemented perfectly because it will tend to change over and over depending on the change in demand. That is why it is a good idea to develop a system that is capable to cope on a case to case basis in terms of the situations that may occur in the work area.





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ailaine adaptar

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PostSubject: ..the barriers>>   Fri Oct 02, 2009 8:06 pm

Please see my post above.

Shocked thread cannot be deleted.. Shocked


Last edited by ailaine adaptar on Wed Oct 14, 2009 9:25 am; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Assignment#5- Barriers on IT/IS implementation   Sat Oct 03, 2009 3:02 pm

Barriers on IS/IT implementation


A barrier is an obstacle that prevents the coming-into-force of a particular measure, or causes delays in its implementation. Barriers can be rigid or flexible, the latter being able to be overcome given sufficient time or resources. Land use measures tend to face more rigid barriers than, say, management or information measures.
Barriers can be either positive or negative. A positive barrier arises when one of the objectives of the strategy restricts the ability of a measure to achieve other objectives. Environmental constraints are examples, and their imposition could well improve the measure or its performance. By contrast, a negative barrier, such as inadequate legislation, may cause delays and excess costs in the implementation of the measure.

In NekenFab Incorporated, as our adopted Company, since they are in construction field, they are not totally focus on their information system. In fact, the one who made the company’s system is the owner of the company which is not a programmer graduate or any related programming course. The one who made their system is a civil engineer. But, our interviewee said that the system they used now is useful in the company even it’s not so good in performance. I can tell that that their system is not so good in performance because there back-up files in case there system will crash is still on the print out paper. They need to re-encode all the data that the company’s file. Aside from that, when they send their data or files to other offices, they used flash through mailing address, or there is a person who bring those flash drive to the other office. In this case, there is a big possibility that they lost the data that they need, in just a blink. Or maybe the person who bring those things, change all the data that encoded on the file.

The following are the barriers on implementing information system.


Arrow Implementing IS/IT costs money and is expensive.
When implementing new Information system, the company needs to buy the software and also need to hire someone who can manage the system.

Arrow Organizational Culture Barriers
• Culture of physical/paper records
    Workflow is designed for paper.
    Paper provides provider a sense of security.
    Paper provides proof of action.
    Paper provides proof of ownership.
    Paper is readily available (cheap).

• Culture of ownership of data and not sharing it
    Exchange of information between organizations is not universally accepted as appropriate.
    Negative repercussions are feared if organization becomes more transparent by sharing information.
    A negative impact on “bottom line” is feared if organization shares information.
    Data of patients from underrepresented facilities/groups may be used inappropriately.

• Culture of actions based on risk aversion/comfort rather than standards
    Exchange of information between organizations is not universally accepted as appropriate.
    A negative impact on “bottom line” is feared if organizations shares information based on network standards rather than internal risk assessment.

• Culture of market competition
    A negative impact on “bottom line” is feared if organization shares information based on network standards rather than market analysis.
    An open exchange of information may reduce competitive edge between providers and/or facilities.

• Culture of organization type, with variations due to public vs. private.
    Protections to sensitive situations and information vary from organization type to organization type.
    Protections against stigmas or other negative repercussions on patients vary from organization type to organization type.
    Populations served vary from organization type to organization type.

• Culture of diminished value of staff continuing education
    Staff education lacks priority in organizational plans.
    Cheaper staff can be hired (recent grads); reduces organization obligation.

Arrow Technology and Standards Barriers
• There is a technical challenge to assure user authentication and successful use of system
    There are many different technical methods available to authenticate users. A universal standard would have to be adopted in order to ensure interoperability between sites and users.
    The different technical methods that exist to handle user authentication can be difficult to implement for health care providers with limited IT resources.
    Current methods for strong authentication are difficult for consumers to use. Strong passwords are difficult for consumers but encryption keys are even more challenging.
    The interface for retrieving records would have to be standardized so that providers would not be trying to learn each individual system.
    The electronic signature for an information system can be a problem.
    There are far more users of information system than there are technical assistants available to address technical issues.
    Technical documentation for information system is usually long and not user friendly.
    Staff may occasionally use other log-on ID’s for information system.
    Staff may not sign out of information system properly.
    Staff may not receive proper training in user authentication and system use.

•There are no national requirements for information system interoperability
    This lack of an enforced standard has driven the complexity of creating and maintaining interfaces up. Most providers do not have the IT resources available and rely solely on the vendors for this service. This has driven the cost of interfaces up substantially and can render them financially impractical.
    The electronic health record is still new.
    Technology advancements are much greater than the speed of learners for many of the users.
    New systems will be as disconnected as current systems.

•There are insufficient standards for data elements
    There are currently multiple standard sets, with some variation in definitions.
    There are emerging data elements (new items needed).

•There is no standardization in security protocols and interfaces
    There are numerous standards for secure communication but one will need to be selected for the specific purpose of security protocols and interfaces.
    There are delays from security/standards groups.
    There is competition among software vendors.
    There is massive data in huge legacy systems that must be considered.

•Organizations lack adequate infrastructure and role delineation for the development and enforcement of security, privacy, and information management policies and
procedures.
    Security, Privacy, Policy, and Procedures are interrelated.
    There is no consistency of how security and privacy management should be handled in an institution (power issue).

Arrow Knowledge about the new IS/IT
•There is a lack of ways to share educational materials
    Some educational materials may be proprietary.
    There are ways of sharing educational material, but a lack of information/leadership to execute.

•There is a lack of standardized educational materials that have been developed for sufficient evaluation of effectiveness
    Educational needs vary by organization, individuals, geographic, and available resources.
    No specific group has been identified as the industry authority to consult regarding educational material for health information management.
    Those who have developed educational material for health information management have not been asked to share information with others.
    There is resistance to use information for education in health information management that is developed by others.

Arrow In-house Resources for Information Management Barriers
•There are variations between shifts in both practices and available resources
    Shift variation in practice is related to the educational barrier listed previously. All staff needs to be educated on appropriateness of information, procedures for access and security of the records.
    The majority of healthcare resources are on the first shift, consistent with normal business hours.

•There are insufficient resources for language diversity to assure provision of information, and comprehension of information given
•There are variations in resource availability from organization to organization
    Providers without the appropriate resources will not be able to participate in the shared record. These resources could be defined as monetary or technical.
    There is a lack of funds and/or resources in some organizations.
    Resources are limited in rural areas.
    Resources are limited in poor communities.

•There are variations in information technology development from organization to organization
    Some organizations do not have any form of electronic data in which to interface.
    There is a lack of funds for across the board information technology development.
    Some organizations lack the ability to attract professional resources due to geographic.

Arrow Global Market Barriers
•Competitive market forces in software development complicate standardized information exchange solutions
    Competitive market forces in software development will add costs to the participation of the provider in the electronic record.




reference
www.idph.state.il.us/hispc2/resources/Appendix8-Barriers.pdf
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felix a. sumalinog jr.

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Thu Oct 08, 2009 10:27 am

Barriers in IS/IT Implementation in SSS Davao


Barrier in Information Systems/Information Technology means a factor that had a direct or indirect negative impact on the implementation processes. Based on my adopted company SSS, the barriers in their IS/IT implementations are:

1. Exceeded budget – This barrier is based on the interviews with the SSS IT personnel that the buys any IT hardware assets that is popular in the market like the Cisco Router. The regional offices of SSS have limited recommendation power in the purchasing of IT equipment due to the centralized management of information systems. I would suggest that the regional offices of SSS must have price and cost monitoring program and department of the hardware purchasing. I believe that this department will save the public money and this savings will go to the benefits its members.

2. Lack of specialized personnel. This barrier is come up from of the interviewee that he trained only once in his 5-year work residency is SSS as an IT Support Staff. I recommend that SSS must have a regular training program for their IT personnel. No technology implementation can be successful without proper training, and many people in today’s workforce are very adept at using the technology at hand and seem to derive much more value from the training they receive because of their high comfort level. Yet there are still those who experience high anxiety at the thought of learning a new application or system, but given the necessary encouragement and support, SSS Information Systems end-users can become productive end-users

3. Use of inexperienced staff.- This barrier is risen from the conversations with the SSS IT personnel that there are information systems end-users who are old enough and ready to retire from the service. These people are difficult to teach the new technology and new innovations of information systems of SSS. I would suggest to SSS to hire young professionals to use the functions and features of its information systems. I would also recommend to extend IT education to current SSS employees and Information Systems end-users. To adapt the competence of the personnel to changing demands, two alternative strategies may be applied. One strategy implies that the existing personnel may receive additional training and education in order to improve their own competence and skills. The other strategy means that new personnel categories are hired, complementing the competence profile of the existing personnel.

4. Opposition from leftist group to the new information particularly to the unified ID system – This barrier is taken from the excerpts of journals of interviews with the IT staff from SSS. The unified ID system aims to consolidate the different ID system of SSS, Pag-ibig, LTO and Philhealth. The leftist group opposes to this information system proposal because they believe that this project can interfere with the privacy of individual members of these government institutions. And they also think that this government project points to the surveillance of activities of leftist group. I would suggest to SSS officials to conduct a public forum for them to explain the advantages of the unified id system. Also, the public will know that this project has a great purpose in their transactions with these institutions and to avoid bad humors to this unified id system.




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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Oct 09, 2009 1:37 pm

The first company that I took reference about this assignment was the DOLE Philippines where my group mates in the “sharing activity” interviewed one of their MIS programmers. Ford Davao was also one the companies that I considered as my reference where we interviewed their IT supervisor about this topic. I also interviewed the MIS officer of the Wilcon Builder’s Supply ( our adopted company for the major paper ) about this assignment.

According to Encarta dictionary, a barrier is something that obstructs or separates, often by emphasizing differences. Basically, as I understand it, the barriers in the implementation of IS/IT are factors that inhibit or causing the stoppage of the implementation process.

Based on all the interviews that I had with the companies that I visited, here are barriers in IS/IT implementation that I identified.

Insufficient Financial resource to support implementation

It is quite obvious why this barrier is common to all the answers that were given by the IT personnel of all the companies that I visited. In any organization, implementation cost is always one of the parameters that should be considered to identify whether the company can afford the implementation or not and as we all know, an IS/IT implementation can be very costly in most cases. Financial resource can be insufficient for a lot of reasons. One of the reasons can be because there are some other priorities that should be completed first rather than implementing IT/IS. Finances can be very difficult to produce especially if your company is just starting or your company is considered a small to medium enterprise that doesn’t have a good financial foundation. It is a fact that money is needed in order to implement any drastic change in a company whether it is on the IS/IT sector or others. Without the proper financial support, the needed resource/materials in the implementation of IS/IT will not be generated thus inhibiting the implementation of IS/IT in a company.


End User Resistance


One cliché tells us that the only constant thing in this world is change. But for some people, change can be very difficult if not frightening. Some people tend to be reluctant to go out of their comfort zones which would make them refuse to accept change. If there is an implementation of IS/IT, it should be expected that there can be resistance by some traditionalist who are not comfortable with the change. This resistance can be a problem especially if your company spends a considerable amount of financial resource for the implementation but the end users are not utilizing it making the implementation ineffective. In this case, the implementation of IT/IS will be considered a liability instead of an asset for the company.

This barrier can be avoided by proper planning, education and communication in order for end users to appreciate the new system.

Inadequate time for implementation


Time constriction is considered a barrier in IS implementation in cases where an information system takes considerably longer time to be planned and set up before it can be used for actual operation. Most of the proposed information system especially if it is made by an in-house department, would require a certain amount of time to be made and would consume ample time for rigorous testing to make sure that it is properly done and to lessen the margin of error as much as possible. If the system would be needed much earlier than expected, then time constriction would be a barrier for the implementation. The lack of enough time to make an information system would result in the failure of implementation and thus making it a barrier. It is safe to say, that time is also considered to be a factor in the implementation of IS/IT.







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Lynneth C. Llemit

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Oct 11, 2009 10:19 pm

Based on your adopted orgnaization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation ..(2000words)

NekenFab, Inc. concentrates on thier provision of providing appropriate and adequate housing for all Filipinos. Giving proper and affordable home for every FAmily. That is their goal.
NekenFab, Inc. has been using their own INformation System since the birth of their organization. With the aide of Microsoft access,the company manages to boosts as one of the leading Contruction Company in the country specialized in housing.


I saw the ff. as barrier in their IT implementation:

*Time
*Financial Capability
*Resistance
*Staff

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Time- implementing an information system takes time. It wont be implemented with just a blink in the eye. Implementing it would take much time and effort not by just the developer but also for the part of the employees to learn the system and how it works.
Aside from that, processes in the work of employees would be stop to accommodate implementing System. The company would of course consider educating staff how to use the system and that would mean spending time with it instead of doing their work and sometimes make their project left behind the deadline. in the part of Nekenfab, they spend most of their time in the field work so much that they don't mind their IS.

Financial stability- outsoursing or insourcing, any company could not implement an Is without sparing a penny for it. But some companies try to cut their budget in implementing IS,and focuses on their main business. NekenFab is ang example, though the company could spend every penny to develop their system, instead the choose to concentrate to their business works and manage to operate with simple IS using microsoft access. Every process to implement IS involves with money. If the company wont at least spare any to improve it,nothing would be implemented.

Resistance- lack of information of the system would cause not just delay on implementing it but also resistance from employees. Employees were one of the end-user of the IS so it is much important to educate them about it. NekenFab's employees were Engineers, Architects,Designers and professionals in the field of construction. It is not just they are not intellegent, of course they were professionals.


Staff- staff is the main end user of the IS. once they lack on the information about the IS, the Is wont work that properly. NekenFab's employees were competent enough in their field of work in construction field.
But not that they are not good enough but they do not mind about their IS that much.


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