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 Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)

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vanessa may caneda

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PostSubject: barriers..   Tue Aug 18, 2009 12:15 am

Barriers in IT/IS Implementation

Our world today has changed a great deal with the aid of information technology. Things that were once done manually or by hand have now become computerized operating systems, which simply require a single click of a mouse to get a task completed. With the aid of IT we are not only able to streamline our business processes but we are also able to get constant information up to the minute and up to date.

The significance of IT can be seen from the fact that it has penetrated almost every aspect of our daily lives from business to leisure and even the society. Today personal computers, cell phones, fax machines, email and internet have all not only become an integral part of our very culture but also play an essential role in our day to day activities as well.

Today information technology involves more than just computer literacy; it also takes into account how computers work and how these computers can further be used not just for information processing but also for communications and problem solving tasks as well.

As we all know, all business processing units nowadays make use of the so-called technology we had now. It brings a lot of advantages for the company since it is an aid in achieving the company’s goal and to become globally competitive in so many ways. With information technology,
computerize business process helped those companies in streamlining businesses to make them extremely cost effective money making machines. This in turn increases productivity that ultimately gives rise to profits that means better pay and less tough working conditions. IT has made it possible for businesses to be open 24 x7 all over the globe. This means that a business can be open anytime anywhere, making purchases from different countries easier and more
convenient. It simply means money is always coming. Probably the best advantage of information technology is the creation of new and interesting jobs. Computer programmers, Systems analyzers, Hardware and Software developers and Web designers are just some of the many new employment opportunities created with the help of IT.

There are some barriers encountered when Information Technology or Information Systems is involved. Certain companies do have some systems that they use for the overall operation of the business. If we say computerized systems it means work is done easily but how about its disadvantages.

In our adopted company, which is the Davao International Airport, the barrier they stated is described as “Garbage in, Garbage out”. What does it mean? It is used primarily to call attention to the fact that computers will automatically process the most nonsensical of input data and produce nonsensical output. It was most popular in the early days of computing, but applies even more today, when powerful computers can spew out mountains of erroneous information in a short time.

Another barrier stated by the manager is the Budget Constraints and Ignorance.
We all know that Davao International Airport is a big company but then in terms of the maintainance of their facilities they do lack of budget. They cannot come up to have a good information system since
money is barely involved. Ignorance on the other hand in a way that they dont have good facilities that are on the trend since they used the old versions of computer.

Reference:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garbage_In,_Garbage_Out


Last edited by vanessa may caneda on Sat Sep 19, 2009 10:53 pm; edited 3 times in total
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PostSubject: Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barrier in their IS/IT implementation.   Tue Aug 18, 2009 11:40 am


Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barrier in their IS/IT implementation.

My adopted organization was Marco Polo Davao. Marco Polo Hotel Group operates hotels in the Asia-Pacific region. It offers rooms and suites, meeting and event facilities, restaurants, and other facilities. The company was founded in 1986 and is based in Harbour City, Hong Kong with additional locations in Beijing and Xiamen in China; Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; and Cebu and Davao in Philippines. The Marco Polo, Davao, is a true world-class hotel that stands for elegance and warm Filipino hospitality. With 18 floors, The Marco Polo, Davao, is the tallest hotel in Mindanao and the city's new landmark. Marco Polo Davao also serves as an ideal venue for meetings and functions. It has ten function rooms and one ballroom, which provide the ideal balance of versatility, technology and design. Our event planners are always at your service to help you organise events. The Marco Polo, Davao, is situated in the heart of the city's bustling business and commercial district, a mere 20 minutes' drive from Davao International Airport. The Marco Polo, Davao is located at C. M. Recto Street, Davao City.

The company Marco Polo Davao creates and maintains their email server. They use Norton anti virus before but the switch to NOD32 Free ESSET and worm Blaster. The software they were using was bought from the biggest company that provides hotel software that was based internationally on Singapore, Hong Kong, Australia. Information System ran all of department of the company. The company back-up their files daily. They are using biometrics. Their operating system (clients) was Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP and their operating system (server) was windows 2003. Their computer models were HPDX 7400, HPDC 7700 with 2 Gigabytes memory and 160 hardisk.

I interviewed one of the personnel in their Management Information System (MIS) department. The personnel that I interviewed told me that the company must have complete trust to the Management Information System (MIS) department because they were the lifeblood of the company. He told me that the company give what they need but not what they want. Their Management Information System (MIS) department was the partner of the administration with regards to the imnplementation of the Information System/ Information Technology (IS/ IT) implementation. He also told me that as long as the system, hardware and software meet the demands of the company, the company would not upgrade into higher versions.

During my interview at my adopted company, he told me that before an implementation of an Information System/ Information Technology (IS/ IT), it must be approved by the company administration. Of course a proposal must be submitted first then the Management Information System (MIS) department will take a look at it and analyze it benefits and also the bad effect if it will be implemented soon. After the Management Information System (MIS) department analyzed the proposal, the Management Information System (MIS) department will agree or disagree on the proposal and submit it to the administration, then again the admistration will take a look at it and discuss and analyze its benefits, disadvantages and all the things that can concern the submitted proposal. After the administration analyze the submitted proposal, the administration will decide if they will agree or not on the submitted proposal.

Why there are barrier in implementing a company Information System/ Information Technology (IS/ IT)? There are always barriers in every implementation because all aspects must be examine to check if the implementation can help to do well in the company or it will only help in making it worst.

Why there are proposed implementations in a company? There are proposal that needs to be implemented by a company to solve some of the problems of the company. It can make the service better and faster.

Why there are IS/ IT implementations? There is Information System/ Information Technology (IS/ IT) to combine technology with business to get people the information they need to do their jobs better/faster/smarter. Information is the lifeblood of all organizations - now more than ever. is a planned system of the collecting, processing, storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. In a way it is a documented report of the activities those were planned and executed. According to Philip Kotler "A marketing information system consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers." Information System/ Information Technology (IS/ IT) implementation helps ensures that business systems deliver value and that the risks inherent in using technology are managed. Information Technology (IT) performance is continually changes business

There are major concerns that the company will base their decision. It must be user friendly, how it cost, how accessible the maintenance and support, and also the security. The system must be a user friendly so that the users will not have a hard time on how to manipulate the Information System (IS). An organization should know the current cost in Information System/ Information Technology (IS/ IT) implementation. The system must be maintain well and have a 24/ 7 support. And the system must have security for the intruders.

The concerns in implementing their Information System/ Information Technology (IS/ IT) were about the costs and security of the system. These concerns were on the administration side. They examine first if the Information System/ Information Technology (IS/ IT) implementation is cost effective or very expensive. An organization should know the current cost in Information System/ Information Technology (IS/ IT) implementation. The old security adage says that you should not spend more to protect something than it is actually worth. Administration of the company should ensure that efforts spent on security give cost-effective benefits. This issue may be noticeable, but it is possible that the company will spend much in the intruders on computer systems and securing the system.

Next is the security, in developing and managing information systems, the company’s primary concern is acquiring new weapons to fight and win the battle for system security. According to Laudon’s MIS 8th edition manual “Knowledge is the best first line of defense against the army of hackers, frauds, tricksters, saboteurs, and thieves who threaten the organization’s precious information resources”. The personnel that I interviewed told me that they secure their server by using their own domain names and separating the users from the administration. In Marco Polo Davao they use different provider and different switch to separate the users from them.

I’ve mentioned that cost and security were on the administration side, now another concern was regarding the ease of use, this concern was on the members/ users side. Is the Information System/ Information Technology (IS/ IT) implemented a user friendly or not. The personnel that I interviewed told me that they struggle more on the users because some of the users don’t know or not so familiar on the system. He told me that they already conducted seminars and trainings to inform and teach the users, but after a month the users forget what they learn during the training. He also told me that we are now in generation of the four (4) dimension technologies.

Another concern was the accessibility of maintenance and support. The personnel that I interviewed told me that if you outsource or bought a system, it must have 24- hour support. So that if there is something wrong in the system you know where to contact to, what to do, and you can easily solve the problem.


Since Marco Polo Hotel Group operates hotels in the Asia-Pacific region. The company id affected in the cultural barrier. Cultural barriers and misunderstanding mean that some nations movements within a country will not share the global shared value. According to the book I’ve read (Management Information System, 8th edition (Laudon)), “the resistance of some Islamic groups to Westernization is an example. The unwillingness, for cultural and political reasons, of China, Singapore, and Malaysia to allow unfettered intercommunication and Internet access are examples of the problems. Even in the European Union, there is resistance to transnational data flows, particularly outside the Union. While there has been some deregulation of the national telephone systems, it is still more difficult to hook up phones, use modems, or set up data and telecommunication systems than in the U.S. Further, some nations have local content rules that make it more costly or difficult to inter-network. The kinds of barriers may be laws, cultural hostility to foreigners or businesses, government regulation or ownership of telecommunications, tax laws, unionization, laws and taxes that make it difficult to reduce the workforce or consolidate plants. Currently, the U.S. is technologically superior in networking and internetworking, which creates resentment or hostility”. Boards and senior executives recognize the importance of technology, but can struggle to understand and manage it effectively. Often, business executives and Information Technology (IT) professionals don't speak the same language. This communications gap can lead to misunderstandings and misaligned expectations and outcomes.

The personnel that I interviewed told me that if ever the Management Information System (MIS) department will agree on the proposal and also the admistration will agree on it, the proposal is approved and will be implemented soon. In some instances that the Management Information System (MIS) department will agree on the proposal and the admistration will not agree, the proposal will be rejected therefore it will not be implemented, but the Management Information System (MIS) department will have a chance to discuss together with the admistration the things that made the Management Information System (MIS) department agree on the proposal, if the administration will be convinced then the proposal is approved and will soon be implemented. And if ever the Management Information System (MIS) will not agree on the submitted proposal, and then the administration agree on the proposal so therefore the proposal is approved and will soon be implemented. The personnel that I interview told me that in the end it is up to the admistration if they will implement a proposal or not. The administration in their company will decide but of course they need to consult and look the both side to know and find out if he proposed implementation is good or bad.


References:

Management Information System, 8th edition (Laudon)

www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/auditing/an_introduction_to_information_system_risk_management_1204%3Fshow%3D1204.php%26cat%3Dauditing+risk+in+information+technology,+business,+information+system+changes&hl=en&gl=ph" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v&q=cache:SQWRAGanyTIJ:www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/auditing/an_introduction_to_information_system_risk_management_1204%3Fshow%3D1204.php%26cat%3Dauditing+risk+in+information+technology,+business,+information+system+changes&hl=en&gl=ph

http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=8DVcV9Smk3oC&pg=PA1162&lpg=PA1162&dq=risk+in+information+technology,+business,+information+system+changes&source=bl&ots=qFZbj36kxQ&sig=ZHq2QvFMfVwNQ1JnP7a58rBYP8w&hl=en&ei=QbpSSoWwBIeQsgORpJD3Bg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5

http://businesschangeforum.com/cat/topics/information-system-implementation/

http://www.google.com.ph/search?hl=en&q=risk+in+information+technology%2C+business%2C+information+system+changes&meta=
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alma cabase

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Aug 18, 2009 8:05 pm

bounce bounce
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Aug 18, 2009 8:45 pm

ASSIGNMENT 5 IN MIS

Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IT/IS implementation


Organization like human beings, are unique. They have their own strategies and programs that would benefit them. Also, they have their own strengths, weaknesses and idiosyncrasies. Upon the implementation of the programs and/ or systems, individuals which consists the organization meet different barriers. these individuals must anticipate the barriers and develop strategies to minimize the impact or avoid them. The lists of these barriers are a good starting point for planning session that will be most effective if it also takes into account the organization's uniqueness. (Institute for Health Improvements)

COMMON BARRIERS:

* Studying the problem too long without acting

* Trying to get everyone's agreement first

*Educating without changing structures or expectations

* Tackling everything at once

* Measuring nothing or everything

* Failing to build support for replication

* Assuming that the status quo is OK



MORE BARRIERS TO CHANGE:

* Lack of such resources as time and commitment

* Resistance to change

* Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion

* Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities

* Ineffective teams

* Burdensome data collection


SPECIFIC BARRIERS TO IT/IS IMPLEMENTATION:


* Lack of Information

* Lack of awareness of avaliable software apabilities,, benefits, and return on investment
* Technology selection, adoption, implementation, organizatonal development, strategic planning etc.

* Lack of Expertise

* Managers typically have a high-level understanding of their business operational processes but they lack employees with the experiences and skills necessary to software technologies.

* Perceptions that technologies are unaffordable

* Managers often view advanced technology as an expense rather than a strategic investment
* Managers are also apprehensive on adopting the wrong hardware and software
* Managers also fear that technology adoption can be a never-ending proces; one that causes expenses to spiral nut of controls

* Pressure to be productive

* Managers may feel tat they do not have time to experiment with the systems or to wait for the system to pay itself.

*Lack of Fit

* Commercial off-the-shelf softaware (OTS) requires companies to modify their process and procedures to fit the software.


IN THE CASE OF EMCOR:

(adopted company)

When we interviewed the Mr. Nilo Ricafort, the EDP/MIS Department Head of the said company last July 2009, we had touched a little about IT/IS Implementation. We had found some of the barriers in the company's IT/IS Implementation.

One instance he cited is: EMCOR is planning to change their system into a centralized one presumably at the end of the year. In this concept, the stores of EMCOR can have access toi the transactions to the other stores. One of the benefits in the system would be; the customer from one place could pay his accounts through the nearest EMCOR store.

However, some of the barriers they were able to meet are the following:

*Possible data loss and errors
*More preparations
* More time consumption
* Establishment of accuracy
* Possible discrepancies
*Trainings of the employees
* Cost
*Depends on the user's acceptance

* When the user reject their proposed system,they'll not be motivated to implement the system.


REFERENCES:

http://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/22/4481.html
http://is2.lse.ac.uk/asp/aspecis/19940017.pdf
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PostSubject: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 12:13 am

IS/IT BARRIERS


Change is inevitable - except from a vending machine. ~Robert C. Gallagher

In a general sense , the term Information System (IS) refers to a system of people, data records and activities that process the data and information in an organization, and it includes the organization's manual and automated processes. In a narrow sense, the term information system (or computer-based information system) refers to the specific application software that is used to store data records in a computer system and automates some of the information-processing activities of the organization. Computer-based information systems are in the field of information technology. The discipline of business process modelling describes the business processes supported by information systems.


Nevertheless, whenever there is an implementation of IS/IT in an organization, expect a resistance in an organization. This is a recall topic in MIS module 3 entitled, The Role of Information Systems on Organizations, and Management Efficiencies with specific points of how IS/IT affects organization...

BARRIERS

○ Is defined as something material that blocks or is intended to block passage.
○ a natural formation or structure that prevents or hinders movement or action.
○ something immaterial that impedes or separates : obstacle.




With regards to my adopted company, here are some changes and barriers they encountered along the implementation of their respective systems.

Phoenix Philippines Inc

Today, Phoenix Petroleum is engaged in the business of trading refined petroleum products, lubricants and other chemical products, operation of oil depots and storage facilities, and allied services, mainly in Southern Philippines.



Arrow way back with our interview, the system administrator haven't mention a lot of barriers with their new implemented IS though their company using it only for two years of time.

anyways, for some time, before a firewall in their system was not installed yet, there are this inevitable issues with some of their personnel.
He had mention this surfing in restricted areas by few of their personnel who have the access.
But not until they implemented the firewall on their system.

(the company's firewall structure is best explained in my assignment 1)

Arrow the company is using an outsource program.
○ therefore it is highly cost.
○"mahal man ang program, naa juy i-risk,pero selected lang." -system administrator

Arrow the company who purchased their program knows their database.
○ Security risk.Anyway, it is a contacted transaction, there is an agreement between both parties.

Arrow changes brings resistance.
○ technology to people.
○decreased in numbers of selected clerical workers.


bounce bounce bounce


Wink Ansuico, Inc. Redball Express



ANSUICO, INC. is a trucking company based in Davao City, Philippines. From its humble
beginning in 1953, servicing only the cities of Davao and Cagayan de Oro, ANSUICO INC.
has expanded significantly into a nationwide network and has in fact been awarded as
the Most Outstanding Trucker in Mindanao, Philippines.

company's barriers:

Arrow the company is having on site hiring, staff are task to visit sites where they conduct immediate hiring. For such, they are not capable of bringing their IS systems so they are force to operate ○manually. And they find it quite delaying.

Arrow Viruses
○ we are all familiar to this, right?
○ in my own perspective, A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without the permission or knowledge of the owner.
○ this has been a primary barrier mention by the OIC in HRM department of the said company who is available during our visit.

Arrow Hackers

according to my surfed, is classified according to respective tasks:

○ Hacker (computer security), someone involved in computer security
○ Hacker (programmer subculture), a programmer subculture originating in the US academia in the 1960s, now primarily notable for its involvement in the free software/open source movement
○ Hacker (hobbyist), an enthusiastic home computer hobbyist
Similar meanings in other fields are:

○ Media hacker, someone who uses the media in new ways
○ Reality hacking, similar to a computer hacker, but hacks the "real world"
○ Wetware hacker, one who experiments with biological materials

but, based on the above company, she is referring to those unrecognized or unauthorized hackers. but, the MIS department had been working with this issue.

Arrow Power Failure

○ during the interview, she emphasized about their problem about lose of current which had been a big problem in support to their company's IS system.
○ without their current supply, their access to the system is paralyzed. therefore, their company's operation is partly nonfunctional.




_FIN_
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Jezreel Jyl P. Hilado

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 1:48 pm

Based on your adopted orgnaization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation ..(2000words)

BARRIERS ON IT/IS IMPLEMENTATION

NCCC. It’s is all about people: Their associates, customers, business partners and community. Since starting out as a textile store in 1952 they continue to grow, expanding to different retail businesses and locations to serve more people.They strive to offer Service from the Heart first of all to their associates.They also maintain solid relationships with their business partners to provide a wide assortment of basic and unique merchandise.They are proud of journey and we continue to pay tribute to o founders and history by living up to core values of humility, caring, hard work, excellence and fun. They live for theiraa vision to be A Leader Who Cares. "
Based on our adopted company, the NCCC, these are the barriers in there IS/IT implementation:


VULNERABLE ISSUES
Viruses are designed to spread into other programs and can wreak havoc in a system, crashes and program malfunctions. This is the most common problem in IS/IT implementation in an organization.

COST
In adopting an updated version of any information system no one could deny the fact that the cost of each step in a program development, analysis and loading is not that super affordable specially if it’s providing those features that would boost your company’s progress in line with information system / information technology implementation. These are the examples of cost to be critically discussed in their so-called “business case”.
Installation Cost – the cost of physical linking the sites in the system (usually involves the installation de novo of such a backbone, which includes the wiring, transmission facility and connectivity equipment)
Communication Cost – the cost in time and money to send a message from
Availability Cost – the extent to which data can be accessed despite the failure of some links or sites
o because of the high cost and complexity, usually requires the participation of the telephone company and other service providers in its design, deployment, maintenance
o is seldom free and requires a fee for participation (line charges) and additional fees for services (not just Internet access but fees for maintenance and value-added services); the higher financial outlays for capital (equipment and lines) and monthly service charges and for operating expenses (such as staff) make such networks relatively more expensive for participants,


KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge barriers to technology adoption:
1. networks are more pricey to participate in, potential participants have a challenging job convincing their management, and the institutions they may want to link to, to play
2. potential participants have to be sensitive to interoperability issues because the new technology may or may not work seamlessly with existing technology
3. potential participants, especially those in the government sector, will need to worry about how the new technology will impact the institutions bid process for technology acquisition
4. potential participants will have to worry about how the new technology will affect the process by which they currently deliver services, and what kinds of retooling would be required on their part (new staff recruitment, new ways of working, new technology capabilities, relationships with new vendors and service providers)
5. usually requires maintenance and monitoring both on the backbone and user ends, and may span several layers: physical, Internet and value-added services, and applications layers; the telephone company and other service provider (such as the ISP) or providers may all have to cooperate to provide monitoring at these layers.
6. usually require a highly-skilled, dedicated, paid staff (and volunteer help) who provide these services; volunteer help alone is not sufficient

BUSINESS CASE
This could be considered as a barrier due to these reasons:
* Studying the problem too long without acting
* Trying to get everyone's agreement first
* Educating without changing structures or expectations
* Tackling everything at once
* Measuring nothing or everything
* Failing to build support for replication




Many have been arguing that using information technology within an organization can bring substantial gains. These gains initiallly arose through increased efficiency as back-off operations, such as accounting, controlling of stock and wage processing were computerized but as organizations became more sophisticated in their information systems then operations transferred to front-office aplications. The strategic use of information technology, as compared to transaction processing or operational control, has gained the most attention. The initial enthusiasm for the strategic use of IT has been reduced by evidence that information technologycan be a competitive burden instead of giving competitive advantege, and that the advantage might not be sustainable.


Common Barriers
• Studying the problem too long without acting
• Trying to get everyone's agreement first
• Educating without changing structures or expectations
• Tackling everything at once
• Measuring nothing or everything
• Failing to build support for replication
• Assuming that the status quo is OK
More Barriers to Change
• Lack of such resources as time and commitment
• Resistance to change
• Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion
• Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities
• Ineffective teams
• Burdensome data collection
Essential Elements for Change Effort
• Define the problem
• Define the target population
• Define effective treatment strategies and establish procedural guidelines
• Establish performance measures; set goals
• Define effective system changes and interventions
• Develop leadership and system change strategy


Last edited by Jezreel Jyl P. Hilado on Mon Oct 12, 2009 8:31 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Based on your adopted orgnaization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation ..   Wed Aug 19, 2009 1:57 pm

Before proceeding to the point of view, do we know that barriers also serve as one of the important elements in the organization?

This so called barrier is a hindrance which prevents a given strategy tool being applied, or limits the technique in which it can be implemented. In the extreme, such barriers may lead to certain policy instruments being overlooked, and the resulting strategies being much less effective. For example, demand management measures are likely to be important in larger cities as ways of controlling the growth of congestion and improving the environment. But at the same time they are often unpopular, and cities may be tempted to reject them simply because they will be unpopular. If that decision leads in turn to greater congestion and a worse environment, the strategy will be less successful. The importance should therefore be on how to overcome these barriers, rather than simply how to avoid them. ECOCITY provides a functional illustration of the ways in which such barriers take place, and of how obstacles have been overcome, in case study cities.

Facing this barriers, there are also implementations that would probably help the organizations to overcome such mentioned. And these are what they called the principal barriers. Within our work in PROSPECTS, we grouped barriers into the four categories listed below. More recent work in TIPP has demonstrated that failure to adopt a logical approach to the process of strategy development can also impose a barrier to effective planning. This Guidebook is designed to help cities avoid this happening. TIPP also provides a set of recommendations.

The first one is the Legal and institutional barriers
-These include lack of legal powers to implement a particular instrument, and legal responsibilities which are split between agencies, limiting the ability of the city authority to implement the affected instrument (Section 3). The survey of European cities in PROSPECTS indicates that land-use, road building and pricing are the policy areas most commonly subject to legal and institutional constraints. Information measures are substantially less constrained than other measures.

The second is the Financial barriers
-These include budget restrictions limiting the overall expenditure on the strategy, financial restrictions on specific instruments, and limitations on the flexibility with which revenues can be used to finance the full range of instruments. PROSPECTS found that road building and public transport infrastructure are the two policy areas which are most commonly subject to financial constraints, with 80% of European cities stating that finance was a major barrier. Information provision is the least affected.

The third one is the Political and cultural barriers
-These involve lack of political or public acceptance of an instrument, restrictions imposed by pressure groups, and cultural attributes, such as attitudes to enforcement, which influence the effectiveness of instruments. The surveys in PROSPECTS show that road building and pricing are the two policy areas which are most commonly subject to constraints on political acceptability. Public transport operations and information provision are generally the least affected by acceptability constraints.

And the fourth one is the Practical and technological barriers
-While cities view legal, financial and political barriers as the most serious which they face in implementing land use and transport policy instruments, there may also be practical limitations. For land use and infrastructure these may well include land acquisition. For management and pricing, enforcement and administration are key issues. For infrastructure, management and information systems, engineering design and availability of technology may limit progress. Generally, lack of key skills and expertise can be a significant barrier to progress, and is aggravated by the rapid changes in the types of policy being considered.

Barriers are considered to have a short and long term. Here, we discussed how we should deal with barriers in the short term. It is important not to reject a particular policy instrument simply because there are barriers to its introduction. One of the key elements in a successful strategy is the use of groups of policy instrument which help overcome these barriers. This is most easily done with the financial and political and cultural barriers, where one policy instrument can generate revenue to help finance another (as, for example, fares policy and service improvements), or one can make another more publicly acceptable (for example rail investment making road pricing more popular). A second important element is effective participation which can help reduce the severity of institutional and political barriers, and encourage joint action to overcome them. Finally, effective approaches to implementation can reduce the severity of many barriers.
While the other discussion talks about how can we overcome barriers in the longer term while enrolled in an organization since it is really difficult. It is often harder to overcome legal, institutional and technological barriers in the short term. There is also the danger that some institutional and political barriers may get worse over time. However, strategies should ideally be developed for implementation over a 15-20 year timescale. Many of these barriers will not still apply twenty years hence, and action can be taken to remove others. For example, if new legislation would enable more effective instruments such as pricing to be implemented, it can be provided. If split responsibilities make achieving consensus impossible, new structures can be put in place. If finance for investment in new infrastructure is justified, the financial rules can be adjusted. TIPP makes a number of recommendations for longer term institutional change. Barriers should thus be treated as challenges to be overcome, not simply impediments to progress. A key element in a long term strategy should be the identification of ways of resolving these longer term barriers.

Some of the information above has been supported by these link:
http://www.konsult.leeds.ac.uk/public/level1/sec10/index.htm

Barriers has lots of characteristics too, and these will be discussed here:
*Technological/ Non-technological
*Affect evaluation process and program implementation
*In general, Non- technological barriers are more difficult to overcome than technological barriers
There were also another examples of barriers. The lack of understanding of preservice teachereducation requirements, need for technical support for web survey, lack of clear goals and objectives, and Connecting Leading Edge Technology to education.

Since an institute are as comparable and only one of its kind as human beings. Similarly, group processes can be as straightforward or as complex as the individuals who make up the organization. It is vital to successfully launching a new program that the leaders understand the strengths, weaknesses, and idiosyncrasies of the organization or system in which they operate. Try to anticipate barriers to implementation so that you can develop strategies to minimize their impact or avoid them altogether. The following list of common barriers can be used to help your leadership team identify potential obstacles. The list of essential elements for change can help the team brainstorm possible solutions. The lists are a good starting point for a planning session that will be most effective if it also takes into account the organization's unique characteristics (Institute for Health Improvement).
Some common barriers are studying the problem too long without acting, trying to get everyone's agreement first, educating without changing structures or expectations, tackling everything at once, measuring nothing or everything, failing to build support for replication, and even assuming that the status quo is OK.

There were also more barriers to change in implementing IS/IT which are the lack of such resources as time and commitment, resistance to change, lack of senior leadership support or physician champion, lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities, ineffective teams, and the burdensome data collection.

And being tagged are about the essential elements for change effort perhaps in an organization. These are to, define the problem, define the target population, define effective treatment strategies and establish procedural guidelines, establish performance measures; set goals, define effective system changes and interventions, and even to develop leadership and system change strategy to support the barriers being overcome by an institute. Some information tackled above has been supported by this link:
http://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/22/4481.html


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Jan Neil Enanoria Gador

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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Wed Aug 19, 2009 5:20 pm

In every organization, company or business it always aims to grow and improve the operation of their business or trade by means of optimization or requiring the aid of technology like computers. Now, in every innovation or improvement there is always what we call “barriers”. Barriers by definition is something that obstructs or separates, in the business or rather corporate world, barriers are the hindrance to their business growth.

I did not actually go to my adopted company, Concentrix, and interviewed them about the barriers that they went through in implementing their information systems and the barriers that they are currently going through. I recalled what I posted about the risks associated with business and IS/IT change and started thinking about the barriers. If I was the one to say about barriers in a company I think it would be the money or budget, the people in the business (the personnel and staff), the processes and the management, and awareness.

When it comes to business innovation or improvement the issue of money or budget will always come to play. It is one of the very important factors to settle with. Take the example of our school, the University of Southeastern Philippines, it is evident that the school lacks the budget to fund the improvement on the infrastructure, technology, etc. because every transaction involves money. Also, in a company, when someone proposes to implement something that could improve their operations like an information system, it would be hard to implement something like that if the company or organization lacks the budget to fund it and because it would surely cost a lot of money to be able to implement it.

There are many factors that should be taken into account when it comes to implementing and innovation in a company. For instance, the creation of the system, if they want to tap in-house personnel to make their system, or turning to outsource if they want to purchase a system that is already running and tested (creation means money). Not only that, they would need to consider the installation, maintenance, repair, training of staff and simulation to check for anomalies and these factors really involves a lot of money to be able to come up with a system. Looking at my adopted company which is Concentrix, I think that they are stable enough to be able to implement there IS/IT because they have been in the business for a long time and considering that they do have networks and other companies that are linked into their company, Synnex for instance.

When it comes to implementing IS/IT, the people who are going to use it are the personnel and staff of the company or organization. To make them knowledgeable and accustomed to the system they need to be trained. Now the one of the barriers in the implementation of the IS/IT are the inept skills or inexperienced personnel and staff of the company, maybe because they lack the training and seminars. Training and seminars are needed to keep the knowledge of the staff updated. We all know that technology advances are so fast that we need to keep ourselves updated in order not to be left behind.
Inexperienced personnel and staff usually are not acquainted to the existing softwares and development process and sometimes they do not understand it at all. They should be made aware or given the necessary skill and given a thorough understanding of the process to be able to perform well because personnel and staff are the workforce of the company thus, they are the ones who are always working with the system.
Without these trainings and seminars the successful implementation of the new system could not be achieved because of the inexperienced staff of the company which becomes one of the barriers in the implementation process.

Trainings and seminars should be given importance and should be made part of the policy whenever there are new employees to be hired or there are seminars and trainings regarding new innovations. In my adopted company, Concentrix, they regularly train their staff and it is part of their hiring process to give trainings before they hire employees. They make sure that they have experienced personnel and staffs to make sure that their business are run by capable and not inept staff. Concentrix is known to give their customers the best customer support which also suggests that they do have experienced staff to do their business.

Another barrier or hindrance in the implementation is lack of awareness of the management about IS/IT programs. How could the management think or provide the best solution to the needs of the company if they do not know anything about IS/IT? It would surely give a feeling like you’re company are being managed by unaware people or people who has not yet encountered new technology.
There should be a need to make the people, especially the management to be aware of the IS/IT programs in order to fully understand IS/IT and to be able to provide the best fit solutions to the needs and problems that the company are facing. IS/IT implementation is the process of adopting new organizational practices to address the problems of the company and the fact that IS/IT is an expensive and long term approach in addressing problem in the company and it usually takes a long time to realize the benefits of it. It would not be healthy to the company if the management is not aware of IS/IT because of the fact that the management are the ones who are in charge of giving the decisions or final verdicts regarding implementations. Another barrier that could be identified if the management is not aware of IS/IT is the lack of support of the management in the implementation of IS/IT. Because they are not aware of IS/IT, the effect is that the management would most likely undermine or neglect initiatives or proposals regarding IS/IT. They would rather think that it is expensive and would give that proposal a low priority and eventually replace that proposal with something that is not even good enough rather than looking at the other side of things which is the benefit or benefits of IS/IT. Come to think of it, if you are going to propose for an innovation and you know that the management in your company is not aware of IS/IT, there would be an infantismal chance that your proposal would be approved.

Unaware management would most likely resist change in an organization, especially in the field of technology (we tackled about this ‘resistance’ during one of our sharing in the subject) because they think that they are already not capable of learning and that they are accustomed to their traditional ways. Resistance can be considered as a barrier in the implementation of IS/IT. Not to be offensive but most people in the management that most likely resist technology are those management composed of old people, but take note that not all old people are like this, just most old people (I’m not being rude). People who resist change feel threatened about change because they feel that they are considered obsolete and they would be replaced by machines, they do not know that change in technology or adopting the aid of machines does not mean neglecting the capabilities of a human being.

Another issue linking to the issue of resistance which could also be considered as a barrier in the implementation of IS/IT is the divisions in the company. Divisions, meaning organizations, groups, peers, people with the same insights, etc. it does not simply imply divisions like accounting division, etc. Groups are usually composed of people having the same values, goals, insights and interests. Some people call it unions in a company. When there are divisions and eventually there are conflicts between these divisions, the effect would be that these divisions would most likely resist each other’s proposal to change because their ideas contradict each other. It is just like the saying “What is moral to you may not be moral to me” the ideas and goals of the other group may not fit into the ideas and goals of the other groups, this issue can be labeled, in my opinion, organizational politics.

In my adopted company I do not know if there are divisions or unions in their company but I think that their management is fully aware about IS/IT because their business is made up of it. I certainly would not think that their management is not aware and does not understand IS/IT to be thinking that their company is one of the top call centers and customer support company.

Lack of time, this is also example of a barrier in the implementation of IS/IT. Lack of time or in other words, time pressure, is the process of meeting projects, demands on time and getting something that would not exceed the allotted budget. If a company does not consider financing as a problem then they certainly would have encountered time problems. There are projects that do not meet the given deadline for it because of unforeseen circumstances or for instance, other barriers. Happenings do not always come as how you planned it, there will always be anomalies. That is why a company must have a good plan as to the pre implementation process because it is a vital part of the implementation process. There should be ample time for the staff to work on a project, time which is workable and that is humanly possible and that before establishing time frames it should be agreed by the management and the people working on the project. Another way of avoiding time pressures is providing correct and optimized procedures so that the one working on the project will have a basis or a guide on finishing the project.

There many factors in the business that can be considered as barriers which I am not yet aware of. Maybe attitudes of the personnel and staff can also be taken into account. I would update this post if I would find something that can be added to this.



You could also visit my blog to see this post. It’s Musikero: http://musikero-mus.blogspot.com. I’d appreciate your reviews and comments if you find something that you want to comment on.




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mayraflordurango

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PostSubject: MIS_ASSIGNMENT5   Wed Aug 19, 2009 9:50 pm

Assignment 5
Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementations....

Within the systems development cycle, there is always
Two one sided faces to be considered…

*Implementing and adoption of an Information System is a good catch for it offer a new features for the organizations development.
* But through this implementation, it is not deniable that there are some barriers exist as one of its cause and impacts.

Now let me share to you some important typical views and factual information regarding with the issue of the barriers in IT/IS which is considered as apart of hierarchical learning and development process in our chosen field of
specialization.

bounce Short live discussions…..bounce


The following discussions and deliberations are intactly detailed the barriers of IT/IS implementations exclusive within the NCCC and Ansuico Company.[/b]


bounce 1.)NCCC Department store bounce


Barriers are……….

1.) Delay/Slow (time-consuming) Connection

-According to the NCCC’s Hardware and Software Security Supervisor. This kind o barrier was a common reported issue that their company deals with. The existence of delay slow connection is usually occurring specially in the networking.

Subjective to this kind of barrier(problem). How the company’s management working in to it?

Relating to the Assignment 1, it had been mentioned the departments in NCCC Company that responsible for the company’s operations and transactions. This are:

*ICT- acts as the first handler of the management.

*Operation Group- concern within the business operations including the system implementation.

*Applications Group- liable for the maintenance of the management applied systems.

*Hardware and Software Security Group- responsible for implementing a suitable infrastructures within the company’s usage.

In correlation, the HS supervisor mentioned that the responsible for this kind of barrier is the Applications Group and the rest will serve as the supporting teams.


2.) Security in the applied system

Concerning in this another type of barrier, the task was given now to the HS Group.

Security in the systems means…..

is to devise ways to prevent the weaknesses from being exploited. To understand what preventive measures make the most sense, we consider what we mean when we say that a system is "secure."

When we talk about computer security, we mean that we are addressing three important aspects of any computer-related system: confidentiality, integrity, and availability.

Confidentiality ensures that computer-related assets are accessed only by authorized parties. That is, only those who should have access to something will actually get that access. By "access," we mean not only reading but also viewing, printing, or simply knowing that a particular asset exists. Confidentiality is sometimes called secrecy or privacy.
Integrity means that assets can be modified only by authorized parties or only in authorized ways. In this context, modification includes writing, changing, changing status, deleting, and creating.

Availability means that assets are accessible to authorized parties at appropriate times. In other words, if some person or system has legitimate access to a particular set of objects, that access should not be prevented. For this reason, availability is sometimes known by its opposite, denial of service.


The security problem occurs, if there’s a new system to be applied and implemented in the management. Why?
Because, applying a new OS is not a simple thing. It needs a higher level of awareness, enough knowledge and preparations to ride in a right track.


bounce Sanctions are…….

*It’s really a need to upgrade everything in the new OS, because if not, the security in their systems will be affected.
*There are possible features that cannot be adopt and applied.

bounce Other effects on the system:

*Record Record Loss
*Software Vulnerabilities
*Software Deletion
*Software Theft
*Data Vulnerabilities
*Trojan horse: a program that overtly does one thing while covertly doing another
*virus: a specific type of Trojan horse that can be used to spread its "infection" from one computer to another
*trapdoor: a program that has a secret entry point
*information leaks in a program: code that makes information accessible to unauthorized people or programs

So pertaining in this things, it much better to have a higher level of learnings and knowledge for the company’s benefits and advantages.

bounce ANSUICO COMPANY bounce

Common barriers that the company deal with are…..

1.) Brownout

Well, this kind of barrier is not a big deal issue, because it normally in unexpected time or place. But then it cause some harm, especially in manipulating and updating the companies record from time to time.

Brownout..............

is a drop in voltage in an electrical power supply, so named because it typically causes lights to dim. Systems supplied with three-phase electric power also suffer brownouts if one or more phases are absent, at reduced voltage, or incorrectly phased. Such malfunctions are particularly damaging to electric motors.[/center]

Effects of a brownout


Different types of electric devices respond in different ways to an undervoltage condition. Some are severely impacted while other devices may not be affected at all.
Resistive devices vary their heat output based on the supplied voltage. An incandescent lamp will dim due to the lower heat emission from the filament. No damage occurs but functionality is reduced. (Over voltage results in a much brighter lamp and rapid failure due to increased heat emission.)
Commutated electric motors (also called universal motors) vary their speed in response to voltage changes, so they will slow down during a brownout. This does not harm the motor but will reduce the speed of the device operated by the motor.
AC induction motors and three-phase motors will draw more current to compensate for the decreased voltage, which may lead to overheating and damage of the insulation on the motor's field windings.
A linear power supply (consisting of a transformer and diodes) will produce a lower voltage for electronic circuits, resulting in slower oscillation and frequency rates. In a CRT television, this can be seen as the screen image shrinking in size and becoming dim and fuzzy. The device will also attempt to draw more current, potentially resulting in overheating.
A switching power supply may be minimally affected if it was designed to compensate for over/under-voltage. However this is highly design-dependent, and it can malfunction and destroy itself if operated outside its normal voltage range.

2.)Virus

bounce What is a computer virus?bounce

A computer virus is a small software program that spreads from one computer to another computer and that interferes with computer operation. A computer virus may corrupt or delete data on a computer, use an e-mail program to spread the virus to other computers, or even delete everything on the hard disk.

Computer viruses are most easily spread by attachments in e-mail messages or by instant messaging messages. Therefore, you must never open an e-mail attachment unless you know who sent the message or unless you are expecting the e-mail attachment. Computer viruses can be disguised as attachments of funny images, greeting cards, or audio and video files. Computer viruses also spread by using downloads on the Internet. Computer viruses can be hidden in pirated software or in other files or programs that you may download.

According to the Hr manager, they also deal with this kind of barrier in their systems and the one who is responsible in this problem is the MIS department.

The MIS dept will now generate some possible solutions to overcome this problem. Then whatever the MIS dept had been mandated and implemented, all we can do is to follow for our department and companies benefits as well as to the employees.

Damaging effects of virus:

* Restriction among data tracking
* Disabled the functions in the current system use.
*Restriction among stored records, data and valuable informations.

Note :
These are common signs of infection. However, these signs may also be caused by hardware or software problems that have nothing to do with a computer virus. Unless you run the Microsoft Malicious Software Removal Tool, and then you install industry-standard, up-to-date anti virus software on your computer, you cannot be certain whether a computer is infected with a computer virus or not.

To remove a computer virus, follow these steps:

1.Install the latest updates from Microsoft Update on the computer.
2.Update the anti virus software on the computer. Then, perform a thorough scan of the computer by using the anti virus software.
3.Download, install, and then run the Microsoft Malicious Software Removal Tool to remove existing viruses on the computer.
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Gabrielle Anne Rae Deseo

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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Thu Aug 20, 2009 12:00 am

Barriers in IS/IT Implementation

In my own perspective if we talk about barrier it is the one that blocks something of its purpose or goal. For this assignment I will discuss what could be the possible barriers in implementing Information System and Information Technology in our adopted company.
We all know that in this era, computers are very essential and so as technological advancement. And as what I have said on my previous assignments IS and IT are very essential for every company’s growth. IS/IT are like brains of the company that without it an organization could not function well. Implementation of IS/IT should be a main concern of every organization specially the large ones in order achieve success. But in every action taken there comes its barriers. So I’ll discuss what would be the possible barriers on GH Office Depot as well as Davao Light and Power Company which are the companies I have adopted.

Here are some Articles I found on the net talking about barriers and problem in IS/IT Implementation

Information system planning often only plans system implementation
Enterprises make large investments to implement all kinds of resource planning, human resource, accounting, customer, logistics, manufacturing, and other information systems. The objective of many of our business change projects is information system implementation that converts existing business operations and data. When you ask anyone involved what they are doing they answer “implementing a new system” or what is their objective they answer “to get he system into operation”. Management consultants have methodologies to implement information systems. The information system implementation objective prevents the needed benefit from business change.
System implementation converts existing business problems to the new system
Is system implementation the proper objective? Does system implementation make existing business problems converted to the new system easier or harder to solve? What is the benefit of system implementation? System specification, acquisition, development, implementation, and operation are all costs and provide no benefit, per se. So we are always implementing costs with no attention to developing benefits.
We make high cost capital investments and then fail to manage the capital in operation to manage costs and the benefits and return from the utilization on the capital. Benefits from new information systems tend to be incidental in completing some work faster, gaining more accurate information, etc, rather than planning and implementing real business change and the benefits possible.
http://businesschangeforum.com/archives/43/

The Information Technology Problem
Enterprise information systems include a wide variety of systems that are laid over the business

Since the business is not organized, different management structures must by laid over the business to manage the enterprise. Information systems are another set of overlaid structures that process and report the system structure, plus overlaid organization, business process, account, administrative, cost, quality, performance, and other structures, instead of directly managing the business.
Enterprise information systems include material control, production control and manufacturing resource planning systems, supply chain and customer relationship management systems, cost and quality management, operational management information, and other systems that support revenue result management. Capital result management systems include human resource management, financial management, general ledger, accounts payable and receivable, asset management, IT architecture management, inventory, purchasing, strategic planning, executive information, and other administration systems. Investment result management systems include investment analysis and planning, project management, portfolio management, shareholder management, etc. Each system is laid over the business, rather that being utilized as a solution by the business to produce the managed revenue, capital, or investment results.

Overlaid information systems define the enterprise with different entities that must be integrated
Each of the systems defines the enterprise with different information entities creating a large information cross-referencing and integration problem. Systems manage such enterprise entities as department, center, station, responsibility, unit, function, process, object, activity, etc, instead of specific business results. The enterprise is left with a large problem to sort out the information, integrate like information, and relate information to the business. The problem is addressed to some degree by implementing an enterprise application architecture from a single vendor. Most enterprises still must make additional investments in information integration and data reconciliation systems for performance management, management and executive reporting, and strategic enterprise management. Even with all this such actual business data as result value and quality, performance costs and effectiveness, capital worth and utilization, investment utilization and return, etc cannot be captured and processed.
Business process re-engineering often creates a gap between information systems and the business
Business process re-engineering tended to create a gap between business processing and information processing. Instead of integrating the processing, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems were overlaid on the business process. The selling point was that best practices incorporated in the ERP system would automatically solve the problem. But this proved difficult to do in practice, since best practices need to integrate all the solutions utilized in the complete business.

Enterprises have difficulty defining business requirements for information systems
Since the business is not managed, it is difficult for the enterprise to identify how to gain specific benefit from information systems. Most enterprise information systems are sold by vendors who promise many benefits. Few enterprises really understand how to gain from the system. Enterprise system implementation is a large undertaking. Invariably, system implementation is restricted to putting the system into operation as a monolithic structure laid over the existing business. Even if the objective of system acquisition was business improvement, the objective usually gets redefined to “implement the system”. The enterprise is left on its own to make changes to gain benefits from the system.

Information system implementation consultants usually employ a methodology to implement systems over the existing business
Most implementation consultants employ a methodology that allows them to implement systems with staff that do not need to understand the enterprise business. The emphasis is on “doing what the customer wants” and satisfying “user requirements”, which is difficult to argue against. The administrative department is defined as the user, rather than result users, who use the system to produce results or face the customer. Usually, the main requirement of the administrative department is “no change”. These users often benefit from existing methods, and cannot visualize advanced ways to utilize systems to benefit other users. To minimize problems and delays in implementation, methodologies convert existing practices and utilities convert existing data. Utilization to achieve benefit is “up to the users” meaning result users. Training covers system operation rather than using the system for business benefit.

Information systems are managed by Information Technology that does not take responsibility for business benefit
Many enterprises view system business performance as a responsibility of Information Technology. But, IT will take responsibility only for the internal operational performance of the system as it is set up. Problems exist because neither IT, nor anyone else, was ever made responsible for the business benefit provided by the system. Enterprises often try to solve the lack-of-business-benefit problem with new more-complicated systems, rather than solving the IT and business problems and improving the utilization of existing systems.
Most information system implementations are cost projects that provide marginal benefit
Most enterprise system implementations are “cost projects”. Implementation itself provides little benefit to the real users and limited return on the investment. Enterprise performance problems are converted to the new system, in effect casting the problems in concrete, making change much more difficult, and escalating the cost of future performance improvement. IT investments are lumped, rather than defining and implementing the specific business, human, facility, and management solutions that must be utilized by the business to provide the return. The business that utilizes IT is not defined to enable measurement of the value added to the business by IT investments.
http://businesschangeforum.com/archives/133

In my own opinion the most common or the primary barrier of implementing IS/IT is still human being itself. Why? Because in implementing IS/IT we are talking about system or machines to make work easier but then if we look on organizations in the past there are only people to do all the work. My point is technology can never replace people because there are still things that computers cannot do that humans can. Human have the sense of judgment and critical analysis that not all computers can. That is why I think people are a barrier in IS/IT implementation.
In GH Office Depot, there are still some works done manually because they have not yet fully developed their systems. Still human works manually but with the help of computer and machines off course same as DLPC.

Another barrier in implementing IS/IT is on financial or budget matters. An obvious issue that is I think common to every company. Money drives every business because businesses are for the purpose of having profit. An organization could definitely not implement IS/IT without the right budget. The budget could be used for purchasing such machines and other stuffs. Money is very important for every organization; it is involved in many different transactions in an organization. So budgeting is important to implement new technologies.

“The problem is the lack of a framework to plan and manage costs and benefits of business change
The fundamental problem is the inability to plan and manage business change. This is because the business itself is not organized or managed. The output results of value produced by the business that provide the benefits of change and the capital solutions that incur the costs to produce the results are not defined and managed as sets. Without an organized business there is limited understanding of the actual business and difficulty in analyzing information system implementation related to the business.”
http://businesschangeforum.com/archives/43/

In the case of DLPC, they don’t have much of this problem because they never make any decision or plan without a budget. They point out that they have a 5-year plan budget for their company so they would not fail in whatever they will have to do. Same as GH, budgeting is always essential for every transaction in a company.

Workforce - In an organization, the work force or the staff and employee are important too. They are the one to operate the system and other machineries. If a company doesn’t have good and efficient employees then there would be a problem in the implementation of IS/IT. Looking for effective and efficient employees is not easy because an organization should choose those who could manipulate well their systems and computer.

In the case of the companies we had adopted, both do not have a problem in the workforce, for they have their HR department to deal with it. In DLPC, they had experienced having 150 lost of jobs during 1991 because of deadlock and this caused some problems in the company.

Another barrier in implementing IS/IT is the security. As I’ve said a while ago implementing IS/IT in an organization has a big role in the company and implementing such comes with the problem of security. Every system in an organization definitely contains private data and such should have good security. Good database security is needed for such problems.

In the GH and DLPC both have good security measures for their system. They have passwords control and other stuff to secure their data and information.

I guess that is all I could say for now.. Hehe This post is still subject for editing.




Wink Sleep


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Stihl Lhyn Samonte

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PostSubject: MIS Assignment 5   Thu Aug 20, 2009 10:53 am

Based on our adopted company, we are tasked to identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation.


What is Barrier??

• a structure or object that impedes free movement
• any condition that makes it difficult to make progress or to achieve an objective; "intolerance is a barrier to understanding"
• anything serving to maintain separation by obstructing vision or access


A coordinated series of obstacles designed or employed to channel, direct, restrict, delay, or stop the movement of an opposing force and to impose additional losses in personnel, time, and equipment on the opposing force. Barriers can exist naturally, be manmade, or a combination of both.

One of the most effective things that you can do for your startup is to build barriers to entry, strengthening your competitiveness and making it more difficult for your competition to encroach on your opportunities.

Successfully growing a business is much more than just selling more stuff. You must also prepare yourself and your business for a larger more complex world. Through our work with small business owners during the last 25 years we have identified seven key barriers that stop business growth in its tracks.

Our world today has changed a great deal with the aid of information technology. Things that were once done manually or by hand have now become computerized operating systems, which simply require a single click of a mouse to get a task completed. With the aid of IT we are not only able to stream line our business processes but we are also able to get constant information in 'real time' that is up to the minute and up to date.

The significance of IT can be seen from the fact that it has penetrated almost every aspect of our daily lives from business to leisure and even society. Today personal PCs, cell phones, fax machines, pagers, email and internet have all not only become an integral part of our very culture but also play an essential role in our day to day activities. With such a wide scope for the purpose of this article we shall focus on the impact of the internet in information technology.

Although Information System takes care for all input and output in a computer system but they have some barriers, such as:

These are the barriers in our adopted company:

Lack of job security

Industry experts believe that the internet has made job security a big issue as since technology keeps on changing with each day. This means that one has to be in a constant learning mode, if he or she wishes for their job to be secure.

Hacker

A person who breaks into computers, usually by gaining access to administrative controls. The subculture that has evolved around hackers is often referred to as the computer underground. Proponents claim to be motivated by artistic and political ends, and are often unconcerned about the use of illegal means to achieve them.

Viruses

a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without the permission or knowledge of the owner. The term "virus" is also commonly but erroneously used to refer to other types of malware, adware, and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability.

Cost

In business, retail, and accounting, a cost is the value of money that has been used up to produce something, and hence is not available for use anymore. In economics, a cost is an alternative that is given up as a result of a decision.[1] In business, the cost may be one of acquisition, in which case the amount of money expended to acquire it is counted as cost. In this case, money is the input that is gone in order to acquire the thing. This acquisition cost may be the sum of the cost of production as incurred by the original producer, and further costs of transaction as incurred by the acquirer over and above the price paid to the producer. Usually, the price also includes a mark-up for profit over the cost of production.

Trainings for employees

They need to equip our employees to handle their employee relations responsibilities competently.The right employee training, development and education at the right time provides big payoffs for the employer in increased productivity, knowledge, loyalty, and contribution. Learn the approaches that will guarantee a return on your investment in training.

Rolling Eyes Thank You !!!!Razz
Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/
http://humanresources.about.com/od/training/
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/barrie





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PostSubject: Barriers in IT/IS in company   Fri Aug 21, 2009 1:08 am


The technology which surrounds almost everyone in the modern society, affects both work and leisure activities. Technology contains information that many would rather it did not have. It influences minds in good and bad ways, and it allows people to share information which they would otherwise not be able to attain. Even if a person does not own a computer or have credit cards, there is information on a computer somewhere about everyone. The technology which is just now beginning to be manipulated and harnessed is affecting the minds of small children and adolescents in ways that could be harmful. It is affecting our immediate future. It also gives another form of communication and exchange of information which was not available before, information that is both good and bad.

Technology is one of the principal driving forces of the future; it is transforming our lives and shaping our future at rates unprecedented in history, with profound implications which we can't even begin to see or understand. Many different elements affect how satisfied we are with our lives. The impact of technology on these elements can change how safe, healthy and happy people feel.

How to overcome Barriers to Information Technology/ Information System? Here are some examples states hot to overcome these barriers.

Overcoming barriers to information
Brian Martin, The University of Wollongong

What stops timely public access to information that people need and want to know? The answer is relatively easy: a range of barriers to information access, such as bureaucratic secrecy, defamation law and corporate pressure on the media. What is the best way to remove these barriers? The answer to this question is much harder.
An information strategy is an organised way of moving towards a desirable information future, taking into account the current reality, available resources, opponents and obstacles. There aren’t many people acting on the basis of explicit grand strategies, but there are quite a few making valuable contributions. The sum total of efforts in the same general direction can be thought of as a de facto strategy.
So let’s look at some de facto strategies in the information sphere, to see what can be learned. To begin, it’s useful to spell out some specific obstacles to information access. I focus on five particular ones (Martin, 1998).

• Government and corporate influences on mass media range from heavy-handed attempts to stop stories to the subtle self-censorship deriving from a fear of offending advertisers or sources. Typical things covered up include embarrassing policy failures and corporate malfeasance. Pressure is normally applied to editors and journalists behind the scenes; this pressure is seldom justified publicly.

• Defamation law is used to stop publication of critical material about individuals and organisations. For example, politicians and entrepreneurs may threaten to sue, and seeing the costs of actual suits scares potential targets, leading to excessive caution even when defamation suits are unlikely. The stated rationale for defamation is protection of reputation, but it is far more effective as a form of censorship. Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation (SLAPPs) most commonly use defamation law (Pring and Canan, 1996).

• Intellectual property is used to restrict access to cheap copies of information and to inhibit innovation building on proprietary materials. The cost of intellectual property reduces access to databases, scientific articles, photographs and music, while worries about legal action inhibit efforts to create improved or creatively modified versions of existing works. Intellectual property is supposed to promote innovation but often slows it by creating intellectual monopolies and by reducing the "intellectual commons"—the public domain—which is the foundation for inspiration and innovation.

• Bureaucratic controls, especially in government and corporate organisations, are used to prevent disclosure of inside information. Employees know an enormous amount about corruption and bad policy but are subject to serious reprisals if they speak out. The usual rationale for organisational secrecy is efficiency; routine leaks by senior bureaucrats reveal a double standard. The power of the bureaucratic hierarchy induces conformity in most employees.

• Misleading information is produced in vast quantities by advertisers, governments and other vested interests, overloading people and making it hard to recognise what is really important. The constant diet of biased and inadequate information leads to confusion and cynicism, while independent sources of information are relegated to the sidelines. Production of misleading information is justified as freedom of speech.

Lack of adequate financial support is top IT implementation barrier.

Financial pressures are a powerful limitation on capital investment in information technology. The top three IT implementation barriers cited by 2001 survey respondents are lack of adequate financial support for IT (21%), difficulty proving IT quantifiable benefits/ROI (15%), and vendors’ inability to effectively deliver product or service to respondents’ satisfaction (14%). Although it is still a top concern, difficulty in proving ROI has decreased in significance from 22% last year.

Accessing capital and demonstrating return-on-investment are not the only challenges. While recruiting and retaining high-quality IT staff was mentioned, staffing concerns dropped for the second year in a row; only 6% of respondents cited it as a barrier, compared to 15% in 2000, and 23% in 1999.



Sources:

http://www.australianreview.net/digest/2002/04/martin.html
http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/erd/english/wgesa/doc/ethiopia/appendice_2.htm


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Ariel Serenado

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Aug 21, 2009 3:26 am

Assignment 5:

Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementations....

Barriers are actually circumstances particular to a given industry that create disadvantages for new competitors attempting to enter the market. These may include government regulations, economic factors, and marketing conditions.

As I review over the internet I have come to this list of common IT/IS barriers:

  • Studying the problem too long without acting
  • Trying to get everyone's agreement first
  • Educating without changing structures or expectations
  • Tackling everything at once
  • Measuring nothing or everything
  • Failing to build support for replication
More Barriers to Change

  • Lack of such resources as time and commitment
  • Resistance to change
  • Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion
  • Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities
  • Ineffective teams
  • Burdensome data collection
In our adopted company there were also barriers of IT/IS implementation that has been identified by Hubport Interactive. Two of these barriers are:

  • Risk of loosing records
Since Hubport cater services related to Information System, within the organization they can implement systems as the case may be. Since implementing systems needs migration from the older system to the newest system there is a risk on loosing data, thus record retention of the organization is greatly affected.


  • Personnel problems
By the time the organization will implement new systems, they have to take into account the task personnel being designated to the implemente system, and they consider expertise of the personnel. Meaning to say, by the time the company changes another system another person will be designated considering the expertise of the person. With this problem also it associates rejection of the employees which generates labor relations problems.

  • Cost
Since implementing company is cost generating, it is therefore a barrier to the company on implementing information systems.


In some other sources barriers are divided into four principal barriers:


1) Legal and institutional barriers

These include lack of legal powers to implement a particular instrument, and legal responsibilities which are split between agencies, limiting the ability of the city authority to implement the affected instrument.


2) Financial barriers
These include budget restrictions limiting the overall expenditure on the strategy, financial restrictions on specific instruments, and limitations on the flexibility with which revenues can be used to finance the full range of instruments.

3) Political and cultural barriers

These involve lack of political or public acceptance of an instrument,restriction imposed bypressure groups, and cultural attributes, such as attitudes to enforcement, which influence the effectiveness of instruments.

4) Practical and technological barriers

While cities view legal, financial and political barriers as the most serious which they face in implementing land use and transport policy instruments, there may also be practical limitations. For land use and infrastructure these may well include land acquisition. For management and pricing, enforcement and administration are key issues. For infrastructure, management and information systems, engineering design and availability of technology may limit progress. Generally, lack of key skills and expertise can be a significant barrier to progress, and is aggravated by the rapid changes in the types of policy being considered.

sources:

http://www.konsult.leeds.ac.uk/public/level1/sec10/index.htm
http://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/22/4481.html

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Aug 21, 2009 5:33 am


For the following months, we focused on how IS/IT is very important to the operations of a company. This time, we are going to point out the barriers and challenges in IS/IT Implementation. With the same company we visited for the first assignment, I would like to share about the case at EMCOR.

EMCOR, like any other companies used a computer-based information system which means that information during any transactions that will take place and data records of the company is stored in a specific application software in a computer system and being used when automates some of the information-processing activities of the company. This is where Information System has taken its place to make their work easier, accurate and faster than its traditional way of keeping records. While Information Technology serves as a help of their company in terms of general ledger to financial report because it is well structured and properly documented. Internal reporting was made manually and only periodically, as a by-product of the accounting system and with some additional statistics, and gave limited and delayed information on management performance long before the spark of new technology.

When we say barriers, most probably it is any condition that makes it difficult to achieve a certain objective or to make any progress in a certain goal.

Say for example a case such having a perspective to implement successfully. In a situation such like, there are critical perspectives that must be managed properly. And these perspectives must be addressed in parallel to ensure that all aspects are dealt with and that the project is completed in time. See the following:

1. Project Management
- on time and within budget

2. Process Management
- ensure that business system supports the customer’s business processes

3. Solution Management
- Designing and configuring the right solution to support customer processes

4. Data Management
- Optimal management of data in the new system and migration of data from the old system.

5. Technology Management
- Configuring and installing the right technical platform and environment.


These are some of the critical areas to be considered and be managed properly to achieve its goal to implement successfully. Now, let’s try to consider some phases in implementing a project/system. According to what I have surf through the internet, the following are the three distinct phases in a typical project implementation:

1. Implementation Study

In the Implementation Study, we specify the solution and focus on what has to be done. Match the best-practice business processes with customer-critical business processes.

Project Management
• Scope & formation
• Planning
• Organization
• Staffing
• Site readiness assessment
• Appoint steering committee
• Documentation
• Audits & reviews

Process Management
• Definition of business-critical processes
• Core team training
• Solution Management
• Variance analysis (modifications, integrations, etc.)
• Package planning

Data Management
• Data migration strategy
• Data identification

Technology Management
• Implementation environment definition
• Infrastructure and system architecture
• Definition & strategy
• Training environment installation


2. Implementation

During implementation, there should be configuration and adapting the system that was specified during the Implementation Study. The business processes and the solution are validated, and the technical infrastructure is installed and configured. And if necessary, develop customizations such as integrations with other systems.

Project Management
• Goals and delimitations
• Planning
• Organization
• Staffing
• Implementation kickoff
• Steering committee
• Documentation
• Audits & reviews

Process Management
• Work routine development
• Process model validation
• Core team training
• Preparation of end-user training
Solution Management
• Package development and delivery
• Training material
• Core team training
• Application solution validation

Data Management
• Data collection
• Data cleansing
• Data migration module configuration
• Data migration (trial)
• Data validation

Technology Management
• Implementation environment installations
• Infrastructure and system architecture implementation
• Technical training

3. Go Live

The new enterprise system is now put into operation. End-user training is completed, data from the old system are migrated to the new, and users start working according to work routines that have been developed. The entire customer solution is validated in an extensive test by end-users using full-scale production data in order to confirm that the system meets the targets that were set when the project started. Together with the customer, it should be confirmed that customer expectations are fulfilled.

If the customer has facilities at different sites, go live first at the pilot site, and, after evaluation, at the other sites, according to the site rollout plan.

Project Management
• Goals and delimitations
• Planning
• Organization
• Staffing
• Steering committee
• Documentation
• Audits & reviews

Process Management
• Work routine validation
• End-user training

Solution Management
• End-user training
• Customer solution validation
• Customer support routines fully operational

Data Management
• Data migration (full-scale)
• Data validation

Technology Management
• Implementation environment validation & fine-tuning
• Infrastructure and system architecture validation & fine-tuning
• Technical training


Now, we had ideas on how to obtain our goal which is to implement a successful project. But of course, it is not easy to be done without an expected barriers and hindrances. Let’s go back to the adopted company.

As a recap during our interview with the interviewee, last July 2009 we tackled little about IT/IS Implementation. See for instance, the interviewee said that during a time that EMCOR is planning to change their system into a centralized connection where each branches can access the transactions happened any time in every other stores. One of the benefits in the system would be; the customer from one place could pay his accounts through the nearest EMCOR store.

But the said changes happened to meet some challenges and barriers that they would have to consider in implementing the new system. The following are to be evaluated:

Project management
- Planning
- Audits & reviews (Cost)
- Implementation kickoff

Process Management
- Variance analysis
- Process model validation
- Preparation of end-user training

Solution Management
- Application solution validation
- End-user training
- Customer solution validation
- Customer support routines fully operational

Data Management
- Data validation
- Data migration (full-scale)
- Data identification

Technology Management
- Training environment installation
- Technical training


And they find the following as the barriers in their IT/IS implementation:

- Data loss and errors
- Possible discrepancies
- Employees to be trained
- Time preparations
- Time consumption
- Establishing accuracy after the implementation
- User’s usage and acceptance


Also, if it happens that the consumer/users don’t like the usage of the new system, it might be a wrong option to shift into a new system.


Source:
http://www.ifsworld.com/uk/services/implementation/default.asp

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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Fri Aug 21, 2009 1:38 pm

Barriers on IT Implemetation


Organizations are as alike and unique as human beings. Similarly, group processes can be as straightforward or as complex as the individuals who make up the organization. It is vital to successfully launching a new program that the leaders understand the strengths, weaknesses, and idiosyncrasies of the organization or system in which they operate. Try to anticipate barriers to implementation so that you can develop strategies to minimize their impact or avoid them altogether. The following list of common barriers can be used to help your leadership team identify potential obstacles. The list of essential elements for change can help the team brainstorm possible solutions. The lists are a good starting point for a planning session that will be most effective if it also takes into account the organization's unique characteristics (Institute for Health Improvement).

Common Barriers
• Studying the problem too long without acting
• Trying to get everyone's agreement first
• Educating without changing structures or expectations
• Tackling everything at once
• Measuring nothing or everything
• Failing to build support for replication
• Assuming that the status quo is OK
More Barriers to Change
• Lack of such resources as time and commitment
• Resistance to change
• Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion
• Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities
• Ineffective teams
• Burdensome data collection
Essential Elements for Change Effort
• Define the problem
• Define the target population
• Define effective treatment strategies and establish procedural guidelines
• Establish performance measures; set goals
• Define effective system changes and interventions
• Develop leadership and system change strategy

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Why are barriers important?

A barrier is an obstacle which prevents a given policy instrument being implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented. In the extreme, such barriers may lead to certain policy instruments being overlooked, and the resulting strategies being much less effective. For example, demand management measures are likely to be important in larger cities as ways of controlling the growth of congestion and improving the environment. But at the same time they are often unpopular, and cities may be tempted to reject them simply because they will be unpopular. If that decision leads in turn to greater congestion and a worse environment, the strategy will be less successful. The emphasis should therefore be on how to overcome these barriers, rather than simply how to avoid them. ECOCITY provides a useful illustration of the ways in which such barriers arise, and of how obstacles have been overcome, in case study cities.

We could never deny the fact that when new innovations are being presented to every the employees of certain organizations, it would give a hard time for those employee to adjust and adopt with the latest technology that they will be using. They are all reluctant to accept the reality of changes. This is what we called the Human and Organizational resistance. It could really be a great barrier because as part of the organization, human resource is one thing that every company should consider. If you could not cooperate with these particular changes or innovations, you would only bring your organization to a great failure or even yourself a barrier for a successful IT/IS implementation. Basically, if you belong to an organization, communication with each other is solely significant. You should work as one team and always establish a team work in order to address the needs with IT/IS implementation. So if you lack of communication and interaction, this would become a barrier towards a great plan for IT/IS implementation. In technical point of view, the need for modern information systems resources are one thing that an organization should consider in IT/IS implementation. So if an organization have limited resources this would result to a failure of IT/IS implementation, developing and the implementation of the system may be inefficient than expected. Lack of expertise between the people in your organization with the information being process could also be a barrier. A general lack of education and information about both technology and programs is such a problem. Considering that the people have limited organizational intelligence toward the IT/IS implementation, a lot of obstacle would be an outcome. Also in developing systems, data collection and data management is the most complex part in the entire process of IT/IS implementation, leaving an impression that this could be a barrier. It is the most complicated yet important piece for an IT/IS implementation because it let us know about the whole system, what it is all about and what is it scope and limitations. Since we are talking about limitations, the problem about time could be an issue. The situation of having a limited time for IT/IS implementation could affect the developing process and the output of the system itself. Also the time factor for limited collection and updating of the information for the method of completion. This sometimes indicates the unrealistic time frames that every system is considering.
Talking about this whole thing of IT/IS implementation, we would always consider the financial aspect that we would be encountering in the entire process. These include budget restrictions limiting the overall expenditure on the strategy, financial restrictions on specific hardware and software, and limitations on the flexibility with which revenues can be used to finance the full range of IT/IS implementation. It is always a barrier for it gives us a channel to acquire certain resources that an organization needs. If we would have a limited resources as what I have discussed a while ago, the monetary capabilities of an organization would become a barrier. If the organization could not secure a sufficient funding for such project implementation, it would closely end up to a very regretting decision for the organization to develop a new system. When we are talking about the funds and cost of the implementation, the strategic planning would also be a factor. If certain organization lacks of current information for planning and developing these technology, it would be just waste of time and effort for them to come up with new ideas in IT/IS implementation. Since planning have been mentioned, all organizations have always a goal and purpose for setting up the idea of presenting a new system to be develop and implemented. Then, if in the first place their goals are too ambitious for the resources that are available within them, the planning is still useless. In an organization, the conflict between employees are always present. Especially if you have a partnership with other companies. Unclear goals and purposes would always be a barrier. The overlapping missions among the involved organizations is such a difficult thing to mull over. So far the public or private partnerships between organization have proved to be unsuccessful. Lets discuss about the hardware and software difficulties that we could encounter during IT/IS implementation. If the availability of the said hardware and software doesn’t meet the desire equipments, it would directly came up with an idea of failure of implementation and development of the system. The lack of step by step procedure within the organization is such a problem that would always been taking care of so that it would not be a barrier for the preparation of the enhancement of their IS.



What are the principal barriers?
In our work in PROSPECTS, we grouped barriers into the four categories listed below. More recent work in TIPP has demonstrated that failure to adopt a logical approach to the process of strategy development can also impose a barrier to effective planning. This Guidebook is designed to help cities avoid this happening. TIPP also provides a set of recommendations.
1) Legal and institutional barriers
These include lack of legal powers to implement a particular instrument, and legal responsibilities which are split between agencies, limiting the ability of the city authority to implement the affected instrument (Section 3). The survey of European cities in PROSPECTS indicates that land-use, road building and pricing are the policy areas most commonly subject to legal and institutional constraints. Information measures are substantially less constrained than other measures.
2) Financial barriers
These include budget restrictions limiting the overall expenditure on the strategy, financial restrictions on specific instruments, and limitations on the flexibility with which revenues can be used to finance the full range of instruments. PROSPECTS found that road building and public transport infrastructure are the two policy areas which are most commonly subject to financial constraints, with 80% of European cities stating that finance was a major barrier. Information provision is the least affected.
3) Political and cultural barriers
These involve lack of political or public acceptance of an instrument, restrictions imposed by pressure groups, and cultural attributes, such as attitudes to enforcement, which influence the effectiveness of instruments. The surveys in PROSPECTS show that road building and pricing are the two policy areas which are most commonly subject to constraints on political acceptability. Public transport operations and information provision are generally the least affected by acceptability constraints.
4) Practical and technological barriers
While cities view legal, financial and political barriers as the most serious which they face in implementing land use and transport policy instruments, there may also be practical limitations. For land use and infrastructure these may well include land acquisition. For management and pricing, enforcement and administration are key issues. For infrastructure, management and information systems, engineering design and availability of technology may limit progress. Generally, lack of key skills and expertise can be a significant barrier to progress, and is aggravated by the rapid changes in the types of policy being considered.
How should we deal with barriers in the short term?
It is important not to reject a particular policy instrument simply because there are barriers to its introduction. One of the key elements in a successful strategy is the use of groups of policy instrument which help overcome these barriers. This is most easily done with the financial and political and cultural barriers, where one policy instrument can generate revenue to help finance another (as, for example, fares policy and service improvements), or one can make another more publicly acceptable (for example rail investment making road pricing more popular). These principles are discussed more fully in Section 11. A second important element is effective participation, as outlined in Section 5, which can help reduce the severity of institutional and political barriers, and encourage joint action to overcome them. Finally, effective approaches to implementation can reduce the severity of many barriers, as discussed in Section 15.
How can we overcome barriers in the longer term?
It is often harder to overcome legal, institutional and technological barriers in the short term. There is also the danger that some institutional and political barriers may get worse over time. However, strategies should ideally be developed for implementation over a 15-20 year timescale (Section 3). Many of these barriers will not still apply twenty years hence, and action can be taken to remove others. For example, if new legislation would enable more effective instruments such as pricing to be implemented, it can be provided. If split responsibilities make achieving consensus impossible, new structures can be put in place. If finance for investment in new infrastructure is justified, the financial rules can be adjusted. TIPP makes a number of recommendations for longer term institutional change. Barriers should thus be treated as challenges to be overcome, not simply impediments to progress. A key element in a long term strategy should be the identification of ways of resolving these longer term barriers.

http://www.konsult.leeds.ac.uk/public/level1/sec10/index.htm




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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Aug 21, 2009 1:40 pm

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sat Aug 22, 2009 6:18 pm

Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation ..(2000words)


When we say barriers of IT/IS implementation it mainly refers to hindrances that an individual or group may face while trying to gain proper adaptation of making use of modernized world. IT implementation most likely affects business firms especially in adaptation of IS/IT. For me, adaptation and implementation of IS/IT is a risky task to do because it may change the mode of business. Meaning to say, if the group/organization can easily adopt, implement, and adjust to the changes that they will undergo then it is a plus factor to them and it will surely contributes a lot to the growth of the organization. But if the organization takes a hard time or cannot adopt to the changes it would be a big burden to them. It could be the source of conflict and problems within the organization.

In implementation of IS/IT should under take the most effective strategies on how the individuals can cope-up with the changes in the organization. These strategic business goals are important to the success of a certain organization, specifically to the administration so that they can analyzed and understand the strength and weaknesses of their organization. It would also help them avoid the consequences and barriers that they may deal with in the implementation of IS/IT in their firm and through identifying these barriers they can formulate solutions to aid their dilemma regarding the changes of the organization.



Based on our adopted organization, these are the barriers regarding in their IS/IT implementation:



COST

IS/IT implementations typically requires incremental funding that must be raised from somewhere else in the organization. And, getting those monies allocated
is the number one challenge of the business managers that they are facing.

Most of the problems is the incapacity to show business value or return on investment (ROI) from modernization initiatives. For example, arguments related to technical capabilities of the employees and addressing the shrinking pool of staff skills are viewed as purely IT problems.

All they need are gateways to correspond the current business value of the supporting applications and infrastructure, the future business value of modern, agile systems, and the implications of delaying modernization work. IT executives need ways to make a stronger connection between modernization and operational concerns, such as lost competitive advantage, declining revenue, and poor regulatory compliance, to get the needed funds.





RISK

An organizational change is a risky and critical decision, i a sense that it mainly affects the whole operation of the business firm. It can push upward the organization's performance or it can pull backward that may result to a organizational breakdown. However, they need to ensure that their political capital is spent on projects that deliver maximum benefit in the shortest time possible and with minimal risk. A clearer understanding of the risks from inaction is necessary to
make a good case for modernization.



SOFTWARE

It is important for the organization to find IS/IT SOFTWARE that they will adapt in which it will provide the needs of the whole operation and transactions of the business. The software should fit on what approach does the organization needs, these involves the efficiency, user friendly, data security, reliabilty and etc.



MAINTENANCE

Maintenance allocates large funds and budgets as the organization implements their IS/IT. It is needed to ensure that the day-to-day transactions/operations of the system would run smoothly. It is a necessity because if the system will collapse due to lack of maintenance it would surely be a deep problem in the organization because we all know nowadays that IS/IT is now the heart and soul of a large business firms.

TRAINING

As the organization implements their IS/IT it is necessary for the employees to undergo trainings as they adapt the changes of their working environment. Proper educating of the employees on what is the new system helps them in coping-up, especially in working with it
.





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PostSubject: Assignment 5 ::MIS::   Sat Aug 22, 2009 10:10 pm


Arrow For the company we conducted studies
which is the Ansuico, Inc. they mentioned some barriers that affect to their
company, which is HACK, COMPUTER VIRUS
and Electrical Problem like Brown Out.

Exclamation Hack Case, they are looking forward what would be the possibilities
to counter if in case they will encounter some Hacking Problem. Hackers most
having to do with technical adeptness and a delight in solving problems and
overcoming limits.


Exclamation Actually Hackers are not simple
or easy problem. A lot of skills to be consider as a Hackers Learn
how to program, Get one of the open-source Unixes and learn to use and run it,
and If you don’t have functional English, learn it.

@ For now on
Ansuico, Inc. is making their move towards a better corporation and competitive
trucking company.


Exclamation COMPUTER VIRUS Case, time
to time Viruses are updated. We can’t escape to reality, having a high
technology advantages there are also corresponding disadvantages one of it is
the VIRUS.


Exclamation COMPUTER VIRUS is a Computer Program that can copy itself and infect a computer
without the permission or knowledge of the owner. Ansuico, Inc is more on Data File,
Transactions
Records, Employee Record Keeping, Company Records and etc. If there will be a
VIRUS will infect the system of the Ansuico, Inc. it is a big problem in their
side, so to prevent VIRUSES they are always having their maintenance for each
of their system in order to avoid some system failure and viruses. It may cost
a lot of expenses but it helps a lot for the company benefits not only for the
company but also for the employee, staff, and customer.


Exclamation BROWN OUT Case, wew in their company technology helps a lot of
things one good example of it that helps a lot for them is, it makes their work
faster and easier. If in case there will be BROWN OUT will happen the tendency
is they go to the MANUAL MODE which is it takes a lot of time and more effort
for them to work, and it may effect also for the transaction in their
customers.


Idea Barriers that exist to successful
introduction of IT:

Like a Star @ heaven Three Categories:

Arrow Structural Barriers


-Structural Barriers are those factors
inherent in the organizations structure or systems that are not compatible with
the new technology. This can include communication, authority flows and
planning systems, and reflect how the organization has traditionally done
things. A failure to perceive the strategic benefits of the investment, a lack
of co-ordination and co-operation due to organizational fragmentation, and a
perception of high risk are all symptoms of organizational problems.


Arrow Human Barriers

-Human Barriers include
psychological problems that arise in most periods of change, such as
uncertainly avoidance, and resistance to loss of power or status.


Arrow Technical Barriers

-Technical Barriers, they noted,
were factors in the technology itself, such as lack of system compatibility.
Technical factors relate to the need for flexibility and information handling
capacity, with the dangers of disjointed islands of automation being created
which limit information flow.
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+


cyclops Other have confirmed that the key
barriers to IT implementation tend to be organizational, and rather than
technical, and these barriers are often understated. For instance, focused on
general management problems in successful planning of strategic information
systems and concluded that the key factors were the attitude, commitment and involvement
of management: the current sophistication of IS (Information System) within the
company: the ability to measure and justify the benefits of strategic IS (Information
System): and the integration of IS (Information System) into business strategy.



cyclops Overall, research into the
barriers to organizations adopting IT intervention are consistent with a
general conclusion that organizational barriers
are more important than technical barriers, but that this is frequently
not recognized by the adopting firms. Organizational Barriers relate to structural
issues, such as fragmentation and poor relations between functional
departments, and an acceptance, by senior management, of the strategic benefits
of IT intervention and a clear strategy for its implementation.


cyclops It is therefore not clear
whether, in practice, organizations have yet learn that the adoption of new technologies
which lead to fundamental change require a much greater focus on the strategic
and organizational implications of the technological intervention, as well as
the immediate technical problems of incompatibility fragmentation and cost
containment.


afro http://is2.lse.ac.uk/asp/aspecis/19940017.pdf

bounce
cheers


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Chris Romarate



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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Sun Aug 23, 2009 7:28 pm

Before we are going to tackle about the barriers of IS/IT implementation for my visited organization, let's define first what barrier is. According to a common online dictionary, it is anything that restrains or obstructs progress, access or in other word, it is a barrier. Barrier is not new to us anymore. Even in our personal lives, there are barriers also. These barriers hinder so that we will not become successful in life.

As I surf over the internet, I found these seven barriers in IT modernization. These are:

1. Cost: Finding the funds to pay for modernization projects

Modernization is rarely an IT budget item and typically requires incremental funding that must be raised from somewhere else in the organization. And, getting those monies allocated is the number one challenge facing IT managers. In fact, many executives express frustration at their inability to show business value or return on investment (ROI) from modernization initiatives. For example, arguments related to technical capabilities and toolsets or addressing the shrinking pool of staff skills are viewed as purely IT problems, and therefore, fall on deaf ears. What’s more, in the eyes of financial types, legacy applications are “paid for” with ongoing maintenance (which is a standard IT budget line item) their only cost. Couple that with the perception that modernization projects simply maintain the status quo – and don’t deliver new functionality – and it’s easy to see why there’s little enthusiasm for projects to upgrade legacy systems. What’s lacking are vehicles to communicate the current business value of the supporting applications and infrastructure, the future business value of modern, agile systems, and the implications of delaying modernization work. IT executives need ways to make a stronger connection between modernization and operational concerns, such as lost competitive advantage, declining revenue, and poor regulatory compliance, to get the needed funds.

2. Risk: Changes to core business applications must be carefully considered
Frequently, the very systems that are in the most need of modernization are essential to the business and, as such, are very likely running quite well. And because downtime isn’t an option with such software, IT has the additional challenge of trying to modernize without jeopardizing current operations. Moreover, any change to core capabilities introduces significant business risk that can be very hard to justify. Without a sound business case for modernization, there’s little reward for that risk, particularly when compared to doing nothing at all. But, IT executives also worry that “leaving well enough alone” when it comes to core business applications simply delays the inevitable – and puts them in the uncomfortable position of having to be reactive rather than proactive. However, they need to ensure that their political capital is spent on projects that deliver maximum benefit in the shortest time possible and with minimal risk. A clearer understanding of the risks from inaction is necessary to make a good case for modernization.

3. Inertia: Why modernize when everything is working fine?
For many IT executives today, there’s no clear personal reward for modernization. And, that’s particularly true in situations where the end result simply maintains the status quo functionality, albeit on a more current technology platform. In fact, there’s a strong disincentive to take on projects to update legacy applications and development tools. Horror stories abound of career-killing, big-bang modernization projects that go over budget and fail to go live. This, combined with the fact that all IT departments have more than enough urgent work on their to-do lists, creates yet another barrier to modernization.

4. Time: Modernization projects take too long
Another common impediment to modernization is the perception that timelines for such projects are inordinately long. Of course, they are complex and require considerable planning and validation time, in addition to performing the actual upgrade work. However, as with any project, the longer the timeline, the more time it takes to realize the benefit – and the greater the likelihood that it will be interrupted, suspended, or even cancelled. IT organizations need to find ways to define an overall modernization roadmap, deliver in smaller, incremental steps, update the plans as business and IT needs change, and show progress along the way.

5. Information: Where to start; what the best practices are; when to use what approach

Another common concern for IT executives is how to make the right decision about modernization tools and techniques. There are many vendors promoting many products and services – and little independent information to help organizations make the smart investment for their particular environments. There’s a real fear of being locked into an approach and technologies that don’t easily adapt as the industry changes. And, that’s understandable because modernization projects are hard enough to get off the ground without having to worry that they are going down the wrong path.

6. Balance: Modernize and maintain – how do you do both?
Seventy percent or more of IT budgets is devoted to the maintenance and support activities needed to ensure that day-to-day operations run smoothly. Shifting focus and funding to modernization is a difficult balancing act and a significant barrier. With pressing business and IT issues always front and center, modernization projects quickly fall to the bottom of the list. Many IT executives find it difficult to “keep the lights on” while simultaneously updating legacy systems. They report feeling like they need ways to change the tires on the car while it’s speeding down the road at 85 miles per hour.

7. Quality of Service: Organizations are leery of changes that could compromise service levels
One significant advantage enjoyed by legacy applications is the years of careful, iterative tuning to ensure enterprise-class reliability, security, scalability, and availability. And, IT managers worry that adopting newer technologies, such as Java and .NET, may pose serious service quality problems once deployed. Even upgrades to the latest operating system levels and hardware technology can degrade the performance of aging applications, which were not designed to run in these environments or which exploit long forgotten features of the old one.

Incremental modernization approaches are needed that:
• Consider quality of service requirements
• Can model the production environment before deployment
• Help to ensure a seamless transition

Now, let's go to my adopted company for this task. My adopted company for this task is the Rhine Marketing-Computer Division in San Pedro St., Davao City. As we interview the MIS Manager of the Rhine Marketing-Computer Division, he gave us four barriers in which they found too tough in order for them to implement their IT/IS. These are:

1. Cost
2. Adoption in New System
3. Downsizing of Manpower
4. Feedbacks

According to him, the most barrier of these barriers which he enumerated for their organization is the Cost. Why cost? It is because when they want to change their IS in their organization, cost is the main reason why sometimes there are delays in implementing new IS. He also stated that, it is too difficult also to change new systems if the user of it is older and doesn't have any background in computer.

We all know that Rhine Marketing has many branches in the Philippines, they made their own programs and systems so that it is easy for them to implement within the organization. Mr. MIS Manager shared that when they're going to have their maintenance on their programs and systems, they usually made some back-ups of the data for some security reasons. Because they have their own systems, Rhine Marketing experienced also downsizing of the HR. But the bottom line of that is, if you have your own program within your company, be assure that it is user friendly.

Sources:
http://www1.unisys.com:8081/eprise/main/admin/micro/doc/Seven_Barriers_to_Modernization_White_Paper.pdf


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kate karen rasonable

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Aug 24, 2009 10:49 am

Before identifying and discussing the barriers in Information Technology/Information Systems implementation, let’s first define what a barrier means. According to a website I visited, a barrier is an obstacle that prevents the coming-into-force of a particular measure, or causes delays in its implementation. Barriers can be rigid or flexible, the latter being able to be overcome given sufficient time or resources. Land use measures tend to face more rigid barriers than, say, management or information measures.

Barriers can be either positive or negative. A positive barrier arises when one of the objectives of the strategy restricts the ability of a measure to achieve other objectives. Environmental constraints are examples, and their imposition could well improve the measure or its performance. By contrast, a negative barrier, such as inadequate legislation, may cause delays and excess costs in the implementation of the measure.

In these present-days, the use of technology is fast as easy. Information Technology plays a vital role in the field of business. It ruled around the world or even influenced the industry-level of the business. The spring of new information technologies nowadays certainly help in promoting the automated workforce of any organization to provide cost-effective services and quality products. But even with great implementation of Information Systems in an organization, still, there would be barriers that would arise. Among the barriers in Information System/ Information Technology implementation are the following:

A general lack of education and information about both technology and programs.

Technology has rapidly permeated our society and most of our institutions. But even with this fact, in some organizations, staffs are often ill-informed and poorly trained in how to use information technology effectively. This is particularly true of the newest technical tools and platforms. There are still employees that seldom have ready access to skills training or professional development that continuously upgrades their knowledge and skills. Conversely, technical staff typically have few opportunities or incentives to learn the goals and operational realities of service programs and therefore tend to focus too sharply on the technical tools and too little on the programmatic reasons for new systems.

• Lack of a shared, reliable computing and network infrastructure.

This barrier happens when a particular organization has the lack of a ubiquitous, consistent computing and communications infrastructure. This makes it difficult or impossible to operate technology supported programs in a consistent way from place to place and organization to organization. It also slows and complicates communication inside an institution.

• Goals are too ambitious for the resources available to achieve them.

The goal of having IS/IT implementations are often laudably comprehensive, but the staff, equipment, and the funds allotted to achieve them are often underestimated. Projects that could succeed on a smaller or incremental scale, fail to achieve success when their goals and resources are played out on different scales.

• Unrealistic time frames.

Many information systems projects take considerably longer than originally planned. Time delays lead to serious difficulties in planning for and adjusting to changes in operations.

• Organizational, programmatic, technological, and legal complexity.

Institutional environment is extraordinarily complex on a number of dimensions: organizational size, number of organizations, number and skills of staff, size of budget, financial practices, legal authority, programmatic focus, and geographic dispersion. Existing systems are an important complicating factor. Only so much change is possible in an environment that depends on information systems already in place — especially ones that were designed and implemented using older technologies. There is little that can be done to simplify this environment, making it essential that project participants have a good understanding of how it will affect their activities.

• Changing priorities.


Any project that lasts more than a few months is subject to changing priorities for time, money, and attention.

The barriers are undeniable. But the potential benefits of successful systems are compelling reasons for an organization to go forward.

Well, having our adopted company as the basis for this assignment, the main barrier that they shared to us regarding the Information System/ Information Technology implementation is the budget constraints and ignorance. Anyways, our adopted company is the Francisco Bangoy International Airport, popularly known as the Davao International Airport. The Davao International Airport is the main airport serving Davao City in the Philippines. It is the busiest airport in the Mindanao. This institution is government owned, thus, is funded by the government. As what they’ve told us, the barrier that they encounter in IT/IS implementation is the budget constraints. They keep on asking additional funds from the government for them to avail of more modern equipments and additional systems for more easy and convenient work but is disregarded. With regards to the another barrier which is the ignorance, this problem arises because with their equipments that are not that updated, they might have difficulty in implementing new technologies since they are not engaged in such facilities for a long time.

Implementation of modern facilities and information systems would definitely help not only the employees but the organization itself as well, thus, this shouldn’t be taken for granted.

References:
http://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/guides/tying?chapter=2&PrintVersion=2
http://www.elseviersocialsciences.com/transport/konsult/public/level1/l1_barr.htm


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katherine eng lajom

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Aug 24, 2009 12:38 pm

I hope this assignment will be considered…

We are so unfortunate that until now, for the number of companies we have visited for inquiries and adoption for our study, not even one replied for approval.

For the compliance of assignment no. 5, I have browsed from the net some organizations that have discussed with them the barriers regarding their implementation of IS/IT. A barrier could mean something that separates one thing from another. It either give good or bad feedback in effect.


I have found many and majority of them belongs from the medical organizations. I have retrieved this article from iHealthBeat. Com, Reporting Technology’s Impact on Health Care. A service of the California HealthCare Foundation. This article was dated April 27, 2004 – Tuesday.


Technological, Organizational Barriers Complicate CPOE Implementation


Successful implementation of information systems depends on changing technology and work practices, according to a case study in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. Researchers looked at the planning, use and aborted implementation of a computerized physician order entry system at a large Dutch university medical center.

The researchers based their findings on observations, interviews and document analysis at the medical center between 1998 and January 2003. The hospital in 1988 decided to buy a new system to replace the current information system that it had developed. After evaluating several systems, the hospital in 1993 proposed to implement a CPOE and results reporting system from TDS Healthcare Systems, and signed a contract with the company in 1995.

The system went live in December 1997, but only patient admission, procedure registration and patient scheduling were running throughout the hospital. In 1999, following several improvements and corrections to the system, the hospital introduced the CPOE and reporting functions with a few small pilots in certain departments. But physician complaints over the new system led the hospital to hire a consulting firm to evaluate the implementation in October 1999. In February 2000, the firm recommended that the system be discontinued. In December 2000, the hospital ended further deployment of the system, decided not to implement CPOE and is now looking for a replacement system.

The choice to install a particular CPOE system was constrained by the existing IBM infrastructure at the hospital and past investments in nonclinical IBM mainframe systems, which had to be integrated with the new clinical systems. Implementing any new system on a different infrastructure or with different nonclinical systems would have been too costly, according to the study.

The CPOE system also was initially intended for a U.S. hospital—the screens had to be translated into Dutch, and translating the clerical workflows into the new system required many new screens. Adapting the system to the Dutch hospital environment, which has a heavy ambulatory clinic component, was more difficult than for U.S. hospitals, which are focused mostly on inpatient functions.

Soon after implementing CPOE, clerical users spent more time on the new system than the previous systems. The extra time spent on the system required more clerical staff, \"quite contrary to the expectation that the introduction of the new system would save on personnel,\" according to the study.

The medical center also had problems connecting the CPOE system to the laboratory system, so the old information system had to remain running for physicians to access lab data. The technical features of the system were \"restrictive and cumbersome\" to users, the study found. In the time between the decision to implement the system and the actual implementation, users became familiar with Windows-based PCs; researchers found that the interface of the new system looked primitive in comparison.

\"There is no simple formula for success because of the complexity of the sociotechnical networks and the inherent unpredictability of information system implementation within complex organizations such as the university medical center,\" the researchers concluded (Aarts et al., JAMIA, May/June 2004).


The term healthcare embodies a complex array of clinical, business, management, and service operations, as well as outputs and processes from a diverse set of entities that make up the entire healthcare supply chain. Many of these disaggregated entities that comprise the healthcare supply chain have been or will be linked through IS and the telecommunications infrastructure. The problems and many of the issues that have emerged or been caused by the IT revolution in healthcare observed in the above article has been related to some of the problems listed below:


1.
For a variety of very complex reasons, the healthcare industry has been reluctant or late adopters modern IT approaches to addressing its needs. In a 1997 article in Communications of the ACM, Raghupathi stated that \"it is generally perceived that the health care industry’s use of information technology (IT) is 10-15 years behind other sectors\" (Raghupathi, 1997).


2.
The data in many healthcare systems is still not linked, updated, or converted from the legacy systems or disaggregated data repositories. Moreover, little progress has been made in several key areas including; establishing electronic patient records, operationalizing electronic clinical procedures, best practices, and evidence-based guideline databases and expert systems, developing point-of-care processing and tracking systems, and deploying decision support systems for a range of tasks that are essential for managing highly-complex and fully integrated healthcare entities.


3.
Medical errors are the third critical problem area. For instance, the 1999 Institute of Medicine report \"To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System\" concluded that 98,000 individuals die in hospitals each year because of medical errors that are due in large part to the lack of automated information systems, the outdated procedures, inadequate tracking and monitoring technologies, and the lack of consistent guidelines that would prevent undo harm to patients.


4.
Privacy, confidentiality, and security that is a highly charged issue for many, especially for those individuals who are concerned about their personal medical information and the physicians and healthcare practitioners who are charged with maintaining the sanctity of the doctor-patient relationship.


5.
The poor performance by many parts of the healthcare system. Several governmental agencies, expert panels, and consumer and watchdog groups have given healthcare entities poor grades on many of the report card evaluation projects that have been conducted. The reports conclude that the healthcare system is not meeting the needs of the stakeholders and consumers at an acceptable level or in an efficient way. All of the reports reach the conclusion that well-designed and widely-deployed information systems could improve the performance ratings of these institutions.


6.
Cost has become a significant barrier because the industry is already so far behind, the amount needed to purchase and sustain systems is so great, and the ROI (return on investment) data is often unavailable or is equivocal. Moreover, many of those who made the early efforts to move toward modern integrated information systems were burdened with solutions that were poorly designed, overly expensive, that did not have adequate support and evaluation systems, and that did not meet the needs or match culture of healthcare organizations.


7.
There are many reasons why change comes much more slowly to the healthcare industry than other sectors of the economy. Yet, change is fundamental to the industry\'s efforts to migrate from paper based and manual processes to automated and electronic IT-based solutions. The relentless pace of change that is characteristic of the IT industry is very unsettling to an industry that has had very limited available resources, has been very conservative, and because of the many \"life or death\" situations has been slow to change.



Resources: (Websites)

iHealthBeat http://www.iHealthBeat.com/
MD Computing Magazine http://www.mdcomputing.com/
Healthcare Informatics Magazine - http://www.healthcare-informatics.com/

Cheers Cappuccino drunken


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Aug 24, 2009 12:52 pm

In every person have different characteristics, behavior, Idea, strength, weaknesses. Same with the organization, if the organization wants to adopt the world of technology it must be flexible to all consequences that may happen because as we all know the evolution of technology is so fast. Regarding on the adaptation of the Information System for the organization or business groups we must anticipate the barrier of implementing an Information System before we start to implement it.

I have been already Introduced our company in the previous topic. I will discuss the barrier on implementing an Information System to their company including the barrier of adopting the SAP software for their Information System.

1.) Cost
2.) Employee
3.) Problem in E-commerce
2.2.) Maintaining their backend server
4.) Transferring of data.
5.) Interconnection of entire branch

1.) COST

Implementing a new information technology is generally seen as a means for reducing the transaction costs of an organization. However, in practice, implementing new Information Technology often results in higher transaction costs. This is because the amount of information that needs to be processed by the organization increases. his can result in information overload.

In every organization were experienced this kind of barrier, Of course, It same with our adopted company the EMCOR Inc. they have a lot of plan for their electronically base of transaction during the year 1990’s but this barrier was been trying to told them that their system is too expensive and their company can’t afford for the budget of their system but the guts and the advantages of using it was the one who convince the owner of EMCOR to implement this system. Before, they just started for a simple server and they just implement it in their main branch until such time that they slowly expand their business function and after long years they can now provide faster and expensive server that can almost accommodate the entire branch of EMCOR here in the Philippines.


2.) EMPLOYEE

For the EMCOR Inc. they experienced the difficulties regarding to their employee. Why?
Actually looking for a new programmer or system analyst or any related position to maintain their Information system is easy for them to hire but the company want to hire first their accountant as a programmer or to maintain their Information system because the accountant are the one who can understand the data and the person responsible to manipulate their data. Therefore the company offer a scholarship to the employee to study a programming language so that they are the one who will provide the system to their company. Some of them don't know how to use computer.

3.) Problem in e-commerce
The Lack of a Highly Available and Highly Scalable Operational Infrastructure
Many e-commerce enterprises fail to properly construct an inherently scalable, redundant. Forever Web enterprise system architecture. E-commerce enterprises must have speedy and highly available systems, including at least the Web server/call center frontend systems and the backend order-entry and fulfillment systems. If any of the required systems are not continuously available, nor able to gracefully handle unpredictable spikes in site activity, then the user sees this immediately and the site risks the extremely negative business impact of wandering eyeballs. Wandering eyeballs lead users to competing sites that are at most a few clicks away. These wayward forays by users can lead to a permanent loss of time spent at the site. This causes a reduction in lifetime user value that can range from a significant percentage for existing users, to a potential total loss of the lifetime user value of a sales prospect or visitor who may vow to never return again.
The Lack of a Clickstream/Callstream Data Warehouse
Many e-commerce enterprises fail to undertake the difficult design and implementation of a highly scalable clickstream/callstream data warehouse, which records the activities of all users of a particular Web site and its associated call centers. The knowledge derived from the analysis of the information in the clickstream/callstream data warehouse is the key to long-term competitive advantage of an e-commerce enterprise, making the implementation of an effective clickstream/callstream data warehouse an early priority in the life of an e-commerce enterprise.
The Alignment of Information Technology Vendor and E-Commerce Enterprise Business Goals
E-commerce enterprise employees have a natural tendency to try to become e-commerce knowledge and management superhuman, attempting to orchestrate a hodge-podge of information technology vendors, including hardware, software, and services, none of who have any real stake in the success of the overall solution. Often, a better approach is to carefully choose a single overall solution vendor, with contractually guaranteed responsibility over the multiple solution component suppliers. Such an arrangement orients the responsible vendor’s business interests and the success of the total e-commerce solution, with that of the e-commerce enterprise, creating natural, synergistic incentives for e-commerce enterprise success.
It is easy to lay blame and identify problems, but how does one construct a viable solution model that conquers these three fundamental e-commerce enterprise dilemmas?
2.2.) Maintaining their backend server

Many e-commerce start-ups are expert-heavy in front-end Web servers and business domain knowledge. This is good, but they often lack corresponding expertise in the details of the backend information systems that enable critical functions, such as order entry and fulfillment, financial management, and the analysis of user behavior on their Web sites.

4.) Transferring from manual to computerized system

What is manual system? A manual filing system is one done by hand the traditional way using folders in a cabinet. This is contrasted with a filing system that is computer based. For better understanding about this problem we must know first the difference between this two, A manual system will do what it does only with human involvement. An automated system will do what it does without human involvement.
A manual system must have a human interface; an automated system may not have one. A manual system should be designed for operator safety and comfort; an automated system may not have any such design. A manual system must be responsive at human speeds; an automated system may work much faster or slower than the speed range tolerable to humans. After knowing the difference between this two now we can understand it well the explanation that I want to explain. Actually the case of EMCOR they experienced this problem because the EMCOR are dealing with the kind of business who are giving a chance to the costumer to own appliances in an installment basis. So therefore some pending balance for the previous customer are difficult to trace or difficulties of any retrieval of data regarding the information of their customer. That’s why it’s been a long time for them to implement their Information system.

Root Causes to Information Technology Barriers

Information Technology is an important enabler of Business Reengineering. Only through the introduction of Information Technology, innovative business processes become available. Consider the case of a virtual bookstore. Customer related processes would not be possible without using the capabilities of the world-wide-web. On the other hand, Information Technology can has the potential to evolve as a barrier to Business Reengineering implementation. Information Technology barriers represent severe problems with the Information Technology infrastructure (hardware, software and networking). These problems typically emerge in the implementation phase of Business Reengineering projects. Table 3.5.1./1 shows typical Information Technology barriers and root causes.

Root Cause 1: Unsatisfactory Selection Process

The software selection process may involve errors of project content and project management. Content errors are given, if it had not been properly defined, what criteria the software should adhere to. Among the criteria for process oriented software are workgroup computing and database-integration requirements (Tapscott/Caston, 1993). A typical error in project management was, that the selection process was not properly performed. A proper selection would have required from the vendor to respond to the process related criteria. Instead the company purchased the software based on the recommendation of another company. This company's organization and requirements could have been different.

Root Cause 2: Delivery Problems

Depending on the correctness of the RFP (request for proposal) which the company send to the software supplier, the supplier eager to book a much needed new software order, could have promised software functionality which in reality was not there. The company lost time and money by concentrating on a software not suited to their process needs.













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PostSubject: BARRIERS IN IT/IS   Tue Aug 25, 2009 3:28 am

Based on your adopted orgnaization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation ..(2000words)

BARRIERS in IT/IS


We are really aware that nowadays in a certain companies/organization are mostly using IS/IT. It is important in an organization considering that MIS involves hardware and software components and peopleware that is an effective method to achieve optimum efficiency, productivity and quality which eventually will capable of producing high-end products or reliable services. Similarly, group processes can be as straightforward or as complex as the individuals who make up the organization. It is vital to successfully launching a new program that the leaders understand the strengths, weaknesses, and idiosyncrasies of the organization or system in which they operate. Our adopted company was Lapanday Foods Corporation. Lapanday Foods Corporation is known today as one of the leading fresh produce growers and exporters in the Philippines; but years ago, its beginnings were planted in a small seed. In 1981 Lapanday hired 2 programmers as regular employees to develop IS using mainframe computer of Davao Light and Power. Cash flow is the 1st application that was developed. In 1982 Lapanday purchase 4 Apple computers and developed the Payroll system. In 1986 Lapanday purchased 4 IBM compatible desktops to replace the ageing Apple computers. Networking was also introduced using Banyan Vines software. In 1988 Lapanday shifted to Novell software for networking, and added several more desktops. In 1989 SVG assisted Lapanday in the implementation of the Computerized General Ledger System. In 2000 Lapanday started using barcode for Daily Time Record. In 2001 Lapanday applied barcoding system at the port. In 2003 Lapanday upgraded in-house system, and bought SAP ERP system, new servers and gensets. To centralized data processing, Lapanday installed leased-line connections to all major farms. In 2005 Lapanday installed IP-based CCTV camera in the Box Plant and Main Office, bought AutoCAD software for Engineering Design, used Trend as anti-virus/spam. In 2009 Lapanday install IP-based CCTV camera at the port. From that time on, there were changes in the features of office equipments, human resource, and management systems which lead risk in implementing Information System (IS) project to their company.

Below are risks they had enumerated:
1. Lack of top management commitment to the project
2. Failure to gain user commitment
3. Misunderstanding the requirements
4. Lack of adequate user involvement
5. Failure to manage end user expectations
6. Changing scope/ objections
7. Lack of required knowledge or skills in the project personnel
8. Introduction of new technology
9. Insufficient or inappropriate staffing
10. Conflict between user departments.

In every changes and development, there is also what we call barriers. Barrier simply means boundary or something that separates, in the business or rather corporate world, barriers are the hindrance to their business growth. It is an obstacle which prevents a given policy instrument being implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented. In the extreme, such barriers may lead to certain policy instruments being overlooked, and the resulting strategies being much less effective. According to MIS manager we interviewed, these are the following barriers:
Lack of feelings of "ownership" of a project or execution plans among key employees. - Key employees tend to depend so much on the IT group in the execution of the project. They feel that the project is owned by the IT and they are just participants.
People are not measured or rewarded for executing the plan. – The success of the project greatly depends on the people implementing it. To inspire them, they need to be recognized for a good job, Tying up incentive and reward systems to success is a better way of doing it.
Competing activities distracted attention from implementing this decision. – In implementing projects, focus is vital. Each member in the team including management has to be involved and maintain focus during the implementation processes.
Major problems surfaced which had not been identified earlier. – Project plans that were not thoroughly discussed/reviewed/analyzed will create more problems during implementation. To minimize them, more time and analysis on identification of problems in implementation has to be done. Likewise delineation of work and role clarification should be addressed.
Took more time than originally allocated. – Controllable and uncontrollable factors can influence the time table of the project. The team must develop and evaluate strategies and plans that will expedite implementation.
Training and instruction given to lower level employees were inadequate. – Lack of training creates problem during implementation. Errors will be created, man hours wasted, project timeline exceeded. To address this, staff employees should be provided the needed training & instructions during implementation phase. Likewise, they should have higher involvement in strategic planning inputs and feedback.
Insufficient financial resources to execute the strategy. – Money to fund the project should be readily available at all times.
Information systems used to monitor implementation were inadequate. – Each member of the team has to be regularly updated on the status of the project. There should be tracking and dissemination of information on implementation of major tasks and activities. A development of better information and communication systems and feedback mechanisms is needed. Employees need to be updated on implementation tasks.

It could be Financial and budget, Technical resource problems, Lack of IS/IT Awareness, Trainings of the Employees, and Security.
Financial and budget:
The very main problem we all know in management is the budget. In the real world, we can say that all business is rolled by the money. To have a small business, one needs capital to go with it. Just like in a well grown business, even though it was successful, changing in technology is what the company should have to consider especially in the company that has something to do with the software and hardware. It includes need for funds for processing, printing and dissemination of information so that everything is flowing through and through and just go with the flow.

Technical Resource Problems:
Technical resource is one of the major problems encountered by some personnel within the system. It has the need for modern information systems, difficulties in setting up information programmed, have problems in data processing, technical constraints to reproducing or copying documents, decoding statistics collected and the structure of statistical reporting, time factor in the collection and updating of information, need for qualitative aspects of information. In creating certain system, the very most difficult is the data collection and especially management. It is because it has something to do with the system. It is where you can examine and evaluate data collected that will help make a deep and not regrettable decision for each company. Data processing takes a long time to process for it requires a step by step formula to make it effective and can satisfy the needs of end-users.

Lack of IS/IT Awareness:
It would not be good to the company if the management is not aware of IS/IT because of the fact that the management are the ones who are in charge of giving the decisions regarding implementations. If they are not aware of their Information System (IS)/ Information Technology (IT), the effect is that the management would most likely weaken or abandon initiatives or proposals regarding IS/IT. They would rather think that it is luxurious and would give that proposal a low priority and eventually replace that proposal with something that is not even good enough rather than looking at the other side of things which is the benefit or benefits of IS/IT. For example, if you are proposing advancement in the said company then the management is not aware of IT/IS, there could be a least chance that your proposal would be approved.

Trainings of the Employees
Training exerts time and effort. According to the article I’ve read in the internet noted that”it's easier to build a new technology than it is to get people to use it”. Proper educating of the employees on how to implement the new system is very important.

Security:
One of the most important things is security. In an organization definitely it contains some precious informati[/size]on resources and must have a good security against hackers, frauds, tricksters, saboteurs, and thieves.

MORE BARRIERS TO CHANGE

 Studying the problem too long without acting
 Trying to get everyone's agreement first
 Educating without changing structures or expectations
 Lack of such resources as time and commitment
 Resistance to change
 Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion
 Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities
 Ineffective teams
 Burdensome data collection
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Last edited by Tanya Clarissa G. Amancio on Wed Sep 30, 2009 12:33 am; edited 4 times in total
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PostSubject: Barriers in IS/IT Implementation   Tue Aug 25, 2009 12:30 pm

Based on your adopted orgnaization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation ..(2000words)


Identify barriers to implementation — and strategies to overcome them

Organizations are as alike and unique as human beings. Similarly, group processes can be as straightforward or as complex as the individuals who make up the organization. It is vital to successfully launching a new program that the leaders understand the strengths, weaknesses, and idiosyncrasies of the organization or system in which they operate. Try to anticipate barriers to implementation so that you can develop strategies to minimize their impact or avoid them altogether. The following list of common barriers can be used to help your leadership team identify potential obstacles. The list of essential elements for change can help the team brainstorm possible solutions. The lists are a good starting point for a planning session that will be most effective if it also takes into account the organization's unique characteristics (Institute for Health Improvement).
Common Barriers

* Studying the problem too long without acting
* Trying to get everyone's agreement first
* Educating without changing structures or expectations
* Tackling everything at once
* Measuring nothing or everything
* Failing to build support for replication
* Assuming that the status quo is OK

More Barriers to Change

* Lack of such resources as time and commitment
* Resistance to change
* Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion
* Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities
* Ineffective teams
* Burdensome data collection

Essential Elements for Change Effort

* Define the problem
* Define the target population
* Define effective treatment strategies and establish procedural guidelines
* Establish performance measures; set goals
* Define effective system changes and interventions
* Develop leadership and system change strategy


Why are barriers important?

A barrier is an obstacle which prevents a given policy instrument being implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented. In the extreme, such barriers may lead to certain policy instruments being overlooked, and the resulting strategies being much less effective. For example, demand management measures are likely to be important in larger cities as ways of controlling the growth of congestion and improving the environment. But at the same time they are often unpopular, and cities may be tempted to reject them simply because they will be unpopular. If that decision leads in turn to greater congestion and a worse environment, the strategy will be less successful. The emphasis should therefore be on how to overcome these barriers, rather than simply how to avoid them. ECOCITY provides a useful illustration of the ways in which such barriers arise, and of how obstacles have been overcome, in case study cities.


Financial barriers

These include budget restrictions limiting the overall expenditure on the strategy, financial restrictions on specific instruments, and limitations on the flexibility with which revenues can be used to finance the full range of instruments. PROSPECTS found that road building and public transport infrastructure are the two policy areas which are most commonly subject to financial constraints, with 80% of European cities stating that finance was a major barrier. Information provision is the least affected.


Craft a business plan

To "sell" your program idea to administrators and financial officers, you will need a business plan, which outlines the new program's prospects, identifying both potential risks and benefits. A business plan gives you a format for presenting the work you have accomplished in a professional manner that lends credibility to the project. Here is where you report the findings from your needs assessment, outline your program's goals, and describe its procedures and policies. Here is also where you discuss the implementation process, including strategies for overcoming potential obstacles. Information pertaining to finances, program evaluation, and quality management—topics addressed in chapters 5 and 6 of this toolkit—should also be presented in the business plan.

Before you start writing, gather all the information you want to report in the business plan and then draft an outline. This checklist will help get you started:

* Organizational description, including name, location, mission, patient population
* Management and organization, including organizational chart, key management, consultants, and advisors
* Justification for a palliative care program, including results from your needs assessment
* Services and implementation plan, including operations plan, policies and procedures, and program evaluation and quality management plan
* Marketing plan, including marketing materials
* Financial information, including budget, reimbursement streams, and other funding sources

It is best to wait and write the beginning of the business plan — the executive summary — after you have written all other parts. While a complete business plan may run 30-40 pages, the executive summary should be no more than two pages; it is the business plan in the most concise form possible. The primary purpose of the executive summary is to entice busy administrators to delve further into the details of the business plan.

The Center for the Advancement for Palliative Care (CAPC) offers additional tools for drafting business plans. Visit their Web site at www.capc.org.




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http://businesschangeforum.com/cat/topics/information-system-implementation/



to be continue sir!
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PostSubject: Assignment 5 -Barriers in Implementation of Information System or Information Technology in the Organization   Tue Aug 25, 2009 3:57 pm

Barriers in Implementation of Information System or Information Technology in the Organization

One of the biggest mistakes you can make in life is to accept
the known and resist the unknown. You should, in fact, do exactly
the opposite. Challenge the known and embrace the unknown.”

Guy Kawasaki, Co-Founder Apple Computer, Inc., 1996





In the organization that I had visited and interviewed, most of them mentioned some barriers in implementing to their Information System or technology. And some mentioned risks in having their Information System changed.
Barriers are severe, unexpected and not planned for problems in Business Reengineering projects. Barriers increase the impact of project risk factors. For example increases middle management resistance against the objective of introducing self-directed work teams the political project risk.

Barriers hinder implementation efforts such that without intervention the project falters or may even fail altogether. There are other problems which are not considered barriers, because their impact on the project is not as dramatic. They may present obstacles to overcome on a day-to-day basis. These problems may surface in most other organizational projects as well. Among them are illness of project members, malfunction of computer equipment, etc. These problems are not further considered in this report.

Barriers have to be eliminated, because they take away much needed energy from the project team and the people affected. The energy for and against the barrier is not injected into the project steps and thus is lost to the project`s outcome. It is the author´s experience that endless meetings, and associated frustrations detriment the potential positive results of a Business Reengineering project. Therefore it is highly recommendable not to pitch success factors hard against barriers, but rather to prevent the development of barriers right from the beginning of a project. It is not advisable to perform a Business Reengineering project on high pro and contra energy consumption basis.

If we have to discuss barriers, we may categorize those as hard barriers and soft barriers.


Hard barriers
are those, which have to do with things and regulations. Soft barriers are people problems. Hard barriers can be further broken into Information Technology problems, resource problems and legal obstacles.
Information Technology software and hardware, which are not suited to support a process based organization can evolve as a barrier. This barrier is typical for organizations that want to keep their high investments in hardware and software, hoping that the existing legacy systems will serve the process requirements as well. The Information Technology suppliers on the other hand where overwhelmed by the run for process oriented solution and have only just recently directed their research and product development towards process based Information Technology solutions. A number of vendors though have not been able to protect their investments and faltered.

One typical resource problem is missing space for a work team to get together on a regular basis. Team-members, that are physically separated should have easy access to electronic communication equipment, such as teleconferencing.
On the other hand, soft barriers are people problems. People resist organizational changes. Resistance to Business Reengineering change can be further differentiated into internal individual resistance, internal group resistance and external resistance.


They had also included the risk in implementing IS project to their company. Below are risks they had enumerated:

• Financial Risks
The project does not yield the high Return-of-Investment expected.
• Technical Risks
Business process oriented Information Technology solutions either are not available or not working.
• General Project Risks
The organization is looking for solutions outside its competence or the project team is not performing.
• Functional Risks
The organization is confronted with a reorganization plan, which is not applicable to the kind of business the company is in.
• Political Risks
People confront the project (resistance), or the project gradually loses commitment by upper management

------not yet finish---------
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