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 Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)

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PostSubject: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Aug 09, 2009 9:16 pm

Based on your adopted orgnaization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation ..(2000words)
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Marren Pequiro



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PostSubject: Barriers on IT/IS implementation..   Sun Aug 16, 2009 8:57 pm

BARRIERS on IT/IS implementation



Organizations are as alike and unique as human beings. Similarly, group processes can be as straightforward or as complex as the individuals who make up the organization. It is vital to successfully launching a new program that the leaders understand the strengths, weaknesses, and eccentricity of the organization or system in which they operate. So in an organization, it is always a must to anticipate barriers to implementation so that you can develop strategies to minimize their impact or avoid them altogether.
We already had visit number of companies for our previous assignments. Thus, giving us many opportunities to learned not just for the sake of subject compliance but also for our personal knowledge that we could acquire towards company visitation. Previously, our group have already a personal encounter with the Columbia Computer Center Davao and Davao Light Power Company. During our appointment with them, a lot of questions have been raised for them to answer. So let me identify and discuss some of their barriers on IT/IS implementation. From the prior interview we had made, the barriers for IT/IS implementation was not directly converse among us but since the risk about IS/IT change have talked about, I guess it relates to the barriers with IT/IS implementation. Since we are talking about the barriers, I would like to classify those things to several sectors that could be consider as a barrier. As what I observed, the following are the classifications of barriers during the IS/IT implementation of every company. The human resource quandary, communication problems, operational, technical, environmental, financial, hardware and software difficulties. These are just few of the barriers for IT/IS implementation that I would be discussing.

We could never deny the fact that when new innovations are being presented to every the employees of certain organizations, it would give a hard time for those employee to adjust and adopt with the latest technology that they will be using. They are all reluctant to accept the reality of changes. This is what we called the Human and Organizational resistance. It could really be a great barrier because as part of the organization, human resource is one thing that every company should consider. If you could not cooperate with these particular changes or innovations, you would only bring your organization to a great failure or even yourself a barrier for a successful IT/IS implementation. Basically, if you belong to an organization, communication with each other is solely significant. You should work as one team and always establish a team work in order to address the needs with IT/IS implementation. So if you lack of communication and interaction, this would become a barrier towards a great plan for IT/IS implementation. In technical point of view, the need for modern information systems resources are one thing that an organization should consider in IT/IS implementation. So if an organization have limited resources this would result to a failure of IT/IS implementation, developing and the implementation of the system may be inefficient than expected. Lack of expertise between the people in your organization with the information being process could also be a barrier. A general lack of education and information about both technology and programs is such a problem. Considering that the people have limited organizational intelligence toward the IT/IS implementation, a lot of obstacle would be an outcome. Also in developing systems, data collection and data management is the most complex part in the entire process of IT/IS implementation, leaving an impression that this could be a barrier. It is the most complicated yet important piece for an IT/IS implementation because it let us know about the whole system, what it is all about and what is it scope and limitations. Since we are talking about limitations, the problem about time could be an issue. The situation of having a limited time for IT/IS implementation could affect the developing process and the output of the system itself. Also the time factor for limited collection and updating of the information for the method of completion. This sometimes indicates the unrealistic time frames that every system is considering.

Talking about this whole thing of IT/IS implementation, we would always consider the financial aspect that we would be encountering in the entire process. These include budget restrictions limiting the overall expenditure on the strategy, financial restrictions on specific hardware and software, and limitations on the flexibility with which revenues can be used to finance the full range of IT/IS implementation. It is always a barrier for it gives us a channel to acquire certain resources that an organization needs. If we would have a limited resources as what I have discussed a while ago, the monetary capabilities of an organization would become a barrier. If the organization could not secure a sufficient funding for such project implementation, it would closely end up to a very regretting decision for the organization to develop a new system. When we are talking about the funds and cost of the implementation, the strategic planning would also be a factor. If certain organization lacks of current information for planning and developing these technology, it would be just waste of time and effort for them to come up with new ideas in IT/IS implementation. Since planning have been mentioned, all organizations have always a goal and purpose for setting up the idea of presenting a new system to be develop and implemented. Then, if in the first place their goals are too ambitious for the resources that are available within them, the planning is still useless. In an organization, the conflict between employees are always present. Especially if you have a partnership with other companies. Unclear goals and purposes would always be a barrier. The overlapping missions among the involved organizations is such a difficult thing to mull over. So far the public or private partnerships between organization have proved to be unsuccessful. Lets discuss about the hardware and software difficulties that we could encounter during IT/IS implementation. If the availability of the said hardware and software doesn’t meet the desire equipments, it would directly came up with an idea of failure of implementation and development of the system. The lack of step by step procedure within the organization is such a problem that would always been taking care of so that it would not be a barrier for the preparation of the enhancement of their IS.
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Aug 16, 2009 9:01 pm

What are the barriers in IS/IT implementation in a company or organization?

Arrow As we all know, IS/IT is very important in a certain company or organization. It is the heart of all operations. As from the meaning given by the wikipedia, the term Information System (IS) refers to a system of people, data records and activities that process the data and information in an organization, and it includes the organization's manual and automated processes. In a narrow sense, the term information system (or computer-based information system) refers to the specific application software that is used to store data records in a computer system and automates some of the information-processing activities of the organization. Computer-based information systems are in the field of information technology. The discipline of business process modeling describes the business processes supported by information systems. And in implementing such system, there could be some negative output and also positive as well. Such barriers that can either be give benefits to the company or not.
Arrow As I browse the internet, I found some site that talk about the barriers in information sharing and their management. There’s a lot of different problems occurred in implementing system which are Human resource problems, Technical resource problems, Physical resource problems, Financial problems, Communication problems, Operational problems, Psychological and other problems.

Arrow Human resource become one of the problem because you can determine here the insufficient skilled management in information-gathering and retrieving information,insufficient trained personnel at all levels and insufficient communication skills. When creating a system, people ware plays a big important role here. They are the one who plans what will be the system to be created for the company, the one who made the decisions of the system to be used, the one who code it, study it and make it. There should be understanding and cooperation between them to reach their goal for the company.

Arrow Technical resource is one of the major problems encountered by some personnel within the system. It has the need for modern information systems, difficulties in setting up information programmed, have problems in data processing, technical constraints to reproducing or copying documents, decoding statistics collected and the structure of statistical reporting, time factor in the collection and updating of information, need for qualitative aspects of information. In creating certain system, the very most difficult is the data collection and especially management. It is because it has something to do with the system. It is where you can examine and evaluate datas collected that will help make a deep and not regrettable decision for each company. Data processing takes a long time to process for it requires a step by step formula to make it effective and can satisfy the needs of end-users.

Arrow For physical resource, it has something to do with need for publishing houses and need for documentation centres .The very main problem we all know in management is the financial problem. In the real world, we can say that all business are rolled by the money. To have a small business, one needs capital to go with it. Just like in a well grown business, even though it was successful, changing in technology is what the company should have to consider especially in the company that has something to do with the software and hardware. It includes need for funds for processing, printing and dissemination of information so that everything is flowing through and through and just go with the flow. In many cases, the initial purchase and associated implementation costs for these advanced technologies are known to be significant. Administrative and clinical executives at health care facilities cite the lack of financial support as the biggest barrier to implementing information technology. Only organizations with the financial resources and strategic vision to undertake such an investment purchase these systems especially when competition for capital dollars is high.

Arrow Another problem exist in implementing such system is the communication problems. There maybe insufficient understanding of the objectives, goals and aims of programmers that lead to unnnecessities expectations that may occur. One of the requirements in creating a certain system is having a purpose or purposes for a better development. If in that case, people who are involved are having misunderstanding or have conflict even in knowing the objectives of their proposal project, this could be lead to unsuccessful work. This also due to the production of incomprehensible information, top-down approach, languages which is the media of communication, information-filtering, untargeted information and insufficient understanding among interest groups. One of the key to successful in making it is the better understanding of each of the personnel involved in the project.

Arrow Operational takes also a big role in the company or organization specifically in the information system side. Such co-ordination and networking among professionals and educational institutions is needed. Need for supportive policy to release information, insufficient access to information source is recognize, of course confidentiality is needed here for security, redundancy of information makes the operations takes a long process and can be trouble minded to the personnel, nature of policy directives, it also needed in identifying sources of information for a better one, centralization of activities to make effective and competitive, and need for systematic documentation.

Arrow Psychological can also be a hindrance of course because it is in here where every person whom making the system is involved and they should be comfortable with each other. It is in here where mutual trust between professionals and administrators is needed to make it reliable, also need trust in information sharing to each individual to avoid conflict and to have an understanding, need of goodwill also plays a big role here. As we are in the real world, we can’t deny the fact that each know that each organizations are having competitions in their products. And it is natural for them because we are now in that situation. It is also one of the psychological problems. Another is censorship and war.

Arrow And of course, in every problem, there should be solutions. There are some of the things to consider in order making it effectively managed. For the development of human resource, training and other capacity building can be helpful to help individual involved in the process more gain knowledge and skills to have an effective and reliable system. On the other hand, for the development of technical resource, establishing documentation centre (independent non-governmental institution for processing and disseminating information), installing modern technology, creating database and encouraging small-scale publishing can be very useful and helpful for the particular problem to be solved. Furthermore, for the development of physical resource, improving infrastructure and building documentation centre are those things to consider that can be helpful to such problem. And for the improvement of the operations, some helpful and useful things to do are setting clear policy guidelines in information dissemination, encouraging government to have depository laws and enforce them, introducing information system, using mass media, following a bottom-up approach, developing grassroots level inventory of information, creating awareness of the value of information, identifying user information needs, consulting target groups, developing target-oriented and useable information, developing effective system of information management and dissemination; information should be simple, understandable and manageable, institute efficient and effective co-ordination and networking and encouraging a free flow of information — horizontally and vertically.

Ref: http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/erd/english/wgesa/doc/ethiopia/appendice_2.htm

Arrow As I further browse the internet, another site I found is from the study in University of New Mexico Electrical and Computer Engineering Department in Latin America. Study revealed the obstacles in science and technology information (S&T) sharing and information technology (IT) developments in the region. These are lack of current information for planning and developing technology, lack of expertise in the use of information, lack of international cooperation in developing the critical mass needed for projects and joint efforts and lack of interaction (lack of confidence and sometimes lack of information) between universities and industries. For the first obstacle above mentioned, it simply signifies that since we are in modern technology or high tech world, we should be updated to something new in able to have a fast software and hardware. The second one determine about the skills in which not sufficient to make an effective and reliable one. The third obstacle emphasizes that in order to communicate to the other areas; we should be cooperative and an active individual as part of the fast of growing world of technology. The fourth one also signifies of having no cooperation between parties that lead them to lack of information needed.

Ref: http://www.unm.edu/~jreenen/dlbook/chapter9.html

Arrow Other barriers I found as I searched the net that is related to this assignment are the barriers ideal intergovernmental systems. These are:
A general lack of education and information about both technology and programs. Technology has rapidly permeated our society and most of our institutions, but government organizations often lag behind others. Government staff are often ill-informed and poorly trained in how to use information technology effectively. This is particularly true of the newest technical tools and platforms. Public employees, both users and technicians, seldom have ready access to skills training or professional development that continuously upgrades their knowledge and skills. Conversely, technical staff typically have few opportunities or incentives to learn the goals and operational realities of service programs and therefore tend to focus too sharply on the technical tools and too little on the programmatic reasons for new systems.

Arrow Lack of a shared, reliable computing and network infrastructure. Existing state-local systems suffer from the lack of a ubiquitous, consistent computing and communications infrastructure. This makes it difficult or impossible to operate technology supported programs in a consistent way from place to place and organization to organization. It also slows and complicates communication among state and local staff involved in joint programs. New York State is currently embarking on a statewide networking strategy called the NYT that will help solve this problem for future systems.
Goals that are too ambitious for the resources available to achieve them. Project goals are often laudably comprehensive, but the staff, equipment, and dollars allotted to achieve them are often underestimated. Projects that could succeed on a smaller or incremental scale, fail to achieve success when their goals and resources are played out on different scales.

Arrow Human and organizational resistance to change. In some cases, new state-local initiatives threaten a comfortable status quo. They promise big changes that not every participant is eager to see. Fear and resistance to change exist even in the best planned and managed projects. A new way of doing business threatens existing personal, organizational, programmatic, and political conditions by rearranging authority, influence, power, resources, and information. This natural resistance is exacerbated when new programs arrive with too little advance information, weak leadership support, inadequate user participation, too little funding, and less than comprehensive training and orientation.
Unrealistic time frames. Many information systems projects take considerably longer than originally planned. State-local projects, with their added layers of legal and organizational complexity are especially vulnerable to this problem. Since so many different organizations are affected by them, time delays lead to serious difficulties in planning for and adjusting to changes in operations.

Arrow Organizational, programmatic, technological, and legal complexity. The state-local environment is extraordinarily complex on a number of dimensions: organizational size, number of organizations, number and skills of staff, size of budget, financial practices, legal authority, programmatic focus, and geographic dispersion. Existing systems are an important complicating factor. Only so much change is possible in an environment that depends on information systems already in place — especially ones that were designed and implemented using older technologies. There is little that can be done to simplify this environment, making it essential that project participants have a good understanding of how it will affect their activities.
Changing priorities. Any project that lasts more than a few months is subject to changing priorities for time, money, and attention. This problem is multiplied in state-local projects since each participating organization is likely to be working in circumstances and with responsibilities and priorities that are unique to its own situation.

Arrow Overlapping or conflicting missions among the participating organizations. Government organizations at both the state and local level have public service and public accountability goals that can overlap or conflict, even when they are engaged in a joint project. For example, a state agency manager may have the role of project leader which implies facilitation, collaboration, and support for other participants. At the same time, that person’s agency may have oversight responsibility and financial and other regulatory means of compelling local compliance with state requirements. In other projects, non-profit service providers may be project participants sitting at the same table with state or local officials who license and inspect their programs. These roles are all legitimate but can conflict and become a source of difficulty in sorting out the working relationships within the project team.
The barriers are undeniable. But the potential benefits of successful systems are compelling reasons to go forward with well-designed state-local initiatives.

Ref: http://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/guides/tying?chapter=3&section=4
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Aug 16, 2009 9:04 pm

Arrow Additional barriers: The healthcare industry provides a unique vantage point to examine IT implementations considering the rapid infusion and diffusion of technological innovations in a highly legislated environment. It is further complicated where the primary focus centers not only on delivering quality patient care but also on facilitating continuous billing and reimbursement activities. There is uncertainty surrounding many healthcare organizations’ future technological resource and capital requirements because of the enormous scope of the necessary compliance activities, which have been brought
about by legislation such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). This indecision serves to emphasize the need for a higher level of efficiency within the management of IT processes, especially as it relates to the success of technology implementation projects. The idea that successful IT implementation projects can be hindered by factors beyond those that are technology-based is not a new concept within project management education and research initiatives. Organizational factors do affect the success of information systems implementations, but the measure of success “must be individualized to the organization and to the various system users.” Fortunately, most non-technical factors can be controlled — or at least mitigated — within the project process if they are proactively recognized, properly understood, and ultimately expected.

Ref: http://www.ehrscope.com/downloads/may_articles/barriers_ehr_implementation.pdf

Arrow Barriers to successful in information technology are one of the studies done by Keith Fletcher and George Wright. In discussing the problems and issues in the use of IT, many different factors are usually mentioned. Schultz and Dewar (1984) referred to the technological challenge to Marketing Management, which they detailed as the way technology was changing the market place and the need to change organizational structures to meet the challenge. Indeed, these two elements, technology and organization are frequently mentioned when impediments to successful implementation or use of IT initiatives are discussed. Rucks and Ginter(1982) reflected on the previous decade and argued that the promise of strategic MIS was largely unfulfilled and that this was due to organizational structure deficiencies, communication problems between users and IS staff, and deficiencies in strategic planning models which did not reflect reality. There are lots of people identify the barriers whom are experts and in overall, researched into the barriers to organizations’ adopting IT intervention are consistent with a general conclusion that organizational barriers are more important than technical barriers, but that is frequently not recognized by the adopting firms. Organizational barriers relate to structural issues, such as fragmentation and poor relations between functional departments and an acceptance, by senior management of the strategic benefits of IT intervention and a clear strategy for its implementation. We all know that database is one of the way in which system is being made into functional and reliable one. And some of the barriers to implementing database management are: high cost of development, high fragmented system, data quality, account-based customer records, no clear DBM strategy, lack of company-wide marketing orientation, lack of direct marketing specialists, fragmented sales and marketing organization, lack of board level backing, agency relations and poor relations between marketing and IT.

Arrow And now based to our adopted company, barriers are as follows:

Arrow Lack of feelings of "ownership" of a project or execution plans among key employees. - Key employees tend to depend so much on the IT group in the execution of the project. They feel that the project is owned by the IT and they are just participants.

People are not measured or rewarded for executing the plan. – The success of the project greatly depends on the people implementing it. To inspire them, they need to be recognized for a good job, Tying up incentive and reward systems to success is a better way of doing it.

Competing activities distracted attention from implementing this decision. – In implementing projects, focus is vital. Each member in the team including management has to be involved and maintain focus during the implementation processes.

Major problems surfaced which had not been identified earlier. – Project plans that were not thoroughly discussed/reviewed/analyzed will create more problems during implementation. To minimize them, more time and analysis on identification of problems in implementation has to be done. Likewise delineation of work and role clarification should be addressed.

Took more time than originally allocated. – Controllable and uncontrollable factors can influence the time table of the project. The team must develop and evaluate strategies and plans that will expedite implementation.

Training and instruction given to lower level employees were inadequate. – Lack of training creates problem during implementation. Errors will be created, man hours wasted, project timeline exceeded. To address this, staff employees should be provided the needed training & instructions during implementation phase. Likewise, they should have higher involvement in strategic planning inputs and feedback.

Insufficient financial resources to execute the strategy. – Money to fund the project should be readily available at all times.

Information systems used to monitor implementation were inadequate. – Each member of the team has to be regularly updated on the status of the project. There should be tracking and dissemination of information on implementation of major tasks and activities. A development of better information and communication systems and feedback mechanisms is needed. Employees need to be updated on implementation tasks.
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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Sun Aug 16, 2009 9:23 pm

Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation (2000words)

On the companies we interviewed we identified some barriers that always happens during the implementation of the new system.

In DOLE Philippines, one the largest manufacturing company of packaged foods, Ms. Galindo an internal MIS programmer in Davao Remote office during our last interview with her, she mentioned users in the company should be involved in the project to identify problem that may arise ahead. This means that users in the company should have awareness of the ongoing operation and if possible from time to time they are involved in the prototyping.

Barriers were identified that can affect IS/IT implementation initiatives: inexperienced staff, lack of defined IS/IT implementation methodology, lack of IS/IT implementation awareness, lack of support, lack of resources, organizational politics, and time pressure. The following are critical barriers described.

Barriers are severe, unexpected and not planned for problems in Business Reengineering projects. Barriers increase the impact of project risk factors. For example increases middle management resistance against the objective of introducing self-directed work teams the political project risk.

Barriers hinder implementation efforts such that without intervention the project falters or may even fail altogether. There are other problems which are not considered barriers, because their impact on the project is not as dramatic. They may present obstacles to overcome on a day-to-day basis. These problems may surface in most other organizational projects as well. Among them are illnesses of project members, malfunction of computer equipment, etc. These problems are not further considered in this report.

Inexperienced Staff:
According to Ms. Galindo Trainings and Seminars is important for them to upgrade their knowledge and improve their performance to the company, without these implementation of the new system could not be achieved and inexperienced staff is a barrier for IS/IT implementation:

Why implementation of IS/IT was not successful in one company:

The staff and technical director had no prior experience with IS/IT and its potential benefits. The quality and process improvement people are often quite theoretical—they themselves do not understand quite well the existing software development processes and the context in which they are used.

Experienced staff should be involved in IS/IT initiative because they have detailed knowledge of, and first-hand experience with, IS/IT implementation. With experienced staff, less rework of the documentation items is required and real issues can be resolved. IS/IT initiatives can only be successful if staff members have a thorough understanding of the entire IS/IT process and related business. For inexperienced staff, emphasized training in IS/IT skills in order to achieve mastery of its use. People should be selected for IS/IT activities who have a track record of different IS/IT projects.

The organization should develop a written training policy for IS/IT to meet its training needs. Responsibilities should be assigned to each staff member regarding IS/IT implementation activities (e.g., process design, process testing, and process deployment). A mechanism should be established to monitor the IS/IT progress of each staff member (e.g., staff members are meeting the deadlines). A mechanism should be established to collect and analyze the feedback data from each staff member and to extract the main lessons learned (e.g., data generated during process testing and results of pilot implementation).

Lack of Defined IS/IT Implementation Methodology:
There must be a need to design an implementation methodology that contains an IS/IT implementation plan as well as IS/IT activities, practices, responsibilities, and procedures to be used during the implementation process. Often, the IS/IT projects have no specified requirements, project plan, or schedule

Lack of defined IS/IT implementation methodology has emerged as a critical barriers for successful IS/IT implementation. This is because little attention has been paid to the creation of an effective IS/IT implementation methodology. Studies show that some of IS/IT managers want guidance on how to implement IS/IT activities, rather than on what IS/IT activities to actually implement.

IS/IT implementation methodology should be developed using current technologies (e.g., software tools for planning, tracking, and reporting projects). IS/IT implementation methodology should be tried and tested in pilot projects. Staff members should be satisfied with the performance of the methodology in the pilot projects. Training should be provided for developing the skills and knowledge needed to successfully use a methodology. Work should be done to continuously improve a methodology with the aim of using it in the whole organization.

Lack of IS/IT Awareness:
According to Ms. Galindo involving the user is very important when there is a development or a change or system in the company or organization. In this way it will help both the IT people and the staff or the users to be aware of the other matters and the best solutions.

The need for awareness of IS/IT programs (i.e., return on investment and impact) in order to fully understand the benefits of IS/IT. Since IS/IT implementation is the process of adoption of new organizational practices, it is very important to promote IS/IT awareness activities and share knowledge among different stakeholders. In addition, IS/IT is an expensive and long-term approach and it takes a long time to realize the real benefits. Hence, in order to get the support of management and practitioners and to successfully continue IS/IT initiatives, it is extremely important to provide sufficient awareness at the very beginning. IS/IT implementation is not as beneficial without sufficient awareness of its benefits.

The benefits of IS/IT should be promoted among the staff members of the organization before implementation. Higher management should be aware of the investment required and long-term benefits of the approach before implementation. Staff members should be aware of their roles and responsibilities (e.g., through training and coaching) during the implementation of IS/IT within their unit of work. Planning should be done to organize and continue IS/IT awareness events within the organization. Planning should be done to make the IS/IT a part of the organization’s culture.

Lack of Support:
Lack of support is one of the barriers that can undermine IS/IT implementation initiatives. Often, IS/IT initiatives are not treated as real projects, get low priority, and are easily replaced. As well, management often doesn’t support IS/IT because they do not understand how IS/IT initiatives can help in their daily work.

Management should show strong leadership and support for IS/IT. Management should be committed to provide all of the required resources. A procedure should be established to facilitate staff members during implementation. Staff members and higher management should be aware of the benefits of implementation. A mechanism should be established to monitor the IS/IT progress of each staff member.

Lack of Resources:
Management often agrees to IS/IT without sufficient knowledge of the investment required. In some organizations, management assumes that an IS/IT initiative will occur with very little investment. In others, management does not consider an IS/IT initiative as a real project and hesitate to allocate resources.

In addition to the findings from the interviews, the following studies have identified lack of resources as one of the barriers for IS/IT implementation:

Why implementation of IS/IT was not successful because: The project managers were hesitant to use resources from their own projects on any improvement activity.

Planning should be done to provide all the required resources (funds, tools, and people) for IS/IT implementation (e.g., a typical project management activity in which a project manager does cost estimation and allocates required resources for a project). Staff members should be allocated time for IS/IT efforts. Staff members should agree to the allocated time (i.e., extra time should be allocated for IS/IT activities). A procedure should be established to avoid time pressure (staff members having very little time to complete their tasks). A mechanism should be established so that IS/IT will not get in the way of day-to-day

Organizational Politics:
Organizational politics is one of the major barriers in IS/IT implementation. This is because the IS/IT is considered a change in the organization and often people resist this change.

Organizations are made up of groups and individuals who have differing values, goals, and interests. The IS/IT initiative may fit into one group’s goals but not into another’s. There are many factors that can trigger organizational politics, such as reallocation of resources, promotion opportunities, low trust, time pressures, and role ambiguity.

Management and staff members should provide strong support for IS/IT. Planning should be done to make the IS/IT a part of the organization’s culture (e.g., awareness training). The benefits of IS/IT should be promoted among the management and staff members of the organization. All of the key stakeholders should be involved in IS/IT implementation initiatives. A conflict resolution plan should be established.

Time Pressure:
Time pressure is often in the form of meeting project deadlines and getting the product within budget. Avoid time pressure of staff members during IS/IT implementation is very important in pre-implementing process.
There are several studies that describe time pressure as a barrier for IS/IT implementation. A few of the key studies observed the following:

Time pressure is identified as one of the obstacles to IS/IT: “ ... operational management feel that in the absence of all other obstacles, lack of time seems to be the overriding obstacle to IS/IT success in companies.”

Staff members should be allocated time for IS/IT efforts and staff members should agree to the allocated time. A procedure should be established to avoid staff from having time pressure (i.e., inadequate time to complete tasks). A mechanism should be established so that IS/IT will not get in the way of day-to-day work (i.e., IS/IT should be added to daily activities). The IS/IT implementation effort should be staffed by people who indicated interest and commitment in the effort. A procedure should be established to facilitate (e.g., to avoid time pressure) staff members during IS/IT implementation.


Aside from the barriers discussed above these are also possible barriers that may arise from the article “The implementation of information system strategies in UK companies - aims and barriers to success” such as: Measuring benefits, Nature of business, Difficulty in recruiting, Existing IT investment, User-education resources, Doubts about benefits, Telecommunications issues, Middle management attitudes, senior management attitudes, and Technology lagging behind needs.

Barriers can also be categorized as Hard Implementation Barriers and Soft Implementation Barriers.

Hard Implementation barriers are those, which have to do with things and regulations. Soft barriers are people problems. Hard barriers can be further broken into Information Technology problems, resource problems and legal obstacles. Information Technology software and hardware, which are not suited to support a process based organization can evolve as a barrier. This barrier is typical for organizations that want to keep their high investments in hardware and software, hoping that the existing legacy systems will serve the process requirements as well. The Information Technology suppliers on the other hand where overwhelmed by the run for process oriented solution and have only just recently directed their research and product development towards process based Information Technology solutions. A number of vendors though have not been able to protect their investments and faltered.

Soft Implementation barriers are people problems. People resist organizational changes. Resistance to Business Reengineering change can be further differentiated into internal individual resistance, internal group resistance and external resistance.

People affected by the organizational change are the richest source of potential barriers. This is true for people on all levels in an organization. Managers may resist a change, which jeopardizes their job; workers may fear unemployment by being replaced through a computer system, etc. People's behavior is based on their personality and norms of the groups they belong to.

Some top-managers/owners believe that operative people are the worst resisters, yet this is mostly not the case. Managers often resist change more intensively, because sometimes having sacrificed their lives (and that of their family) to their jobs; they have a lot to loose. Thus, many managers in Business Reengineering situations pay lip service to the change, but behave in old autocratic ways, to not suffer any personal drawbacks from the change. Workers in contrast, mostly want to be told, what is exactly expected from them. They typically do not play with words, and do not engage in micro politics, as opposed to many managers.

The organizational structure may cause barriers by being inflexible towards a drastic change in operations. In particular large bureaucratic organizations tend to wither changes which potentially destroy the existing structure. The embedded culture of the organization is another reservoir for potential barriers, in that culture unconsciously influences the thinking, decisions and actions of people working in a given company. Thus culture may dictate inability to escape the past, and inability to invent the future (Hamel/Prahalad, 1994).
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fatima paclibar



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Aug 16, 2009 10:01 pm

Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation.

Whew! 2000 words for this assignment and I find it quite difficult to find related articles in the internet to. According to the instruction above the input must be from our adopted company however to make my points clearer and to make this article more interesting and reliable I also include my research understanding via the internet regarding this topic. Let’s start the discussion of the said matter.

There are many identified barriers in the Information System or Information Technology implementation in an organization. For what I have read in some articles over the internet, I will categorized in into five (5) divisions in which I think the most important factors, these are the (1) Financial Problems, (2) Physical Problems, (3) Technical Problems, (4) Organizational Problems and (5) Social Problems.

As an elaboration of the division of the obstacle identified in the implementation of Information System, the following are the lists of more specific problems in each category.

1. Financial Problems
This should be considered in implementing an Information System in an organization. For this determined the resources needed in the processes, development and maintenance of an efficient system. If we have limited resources we may encounter insufficiency of funds to put into action the desired solution. This includes hardware replacement, software updates and maintenance and as well as funds for the specialized skills training for the company’s staff. With this, we can also determine if we can maximize the usage of Information System within the organization according to the company’s need and its users.
In the side of the investors, they may be hesitant to spend money for this project for will be very costly and requires ample time to complete the system yet the results or outcome is unsure. What I can say to the investors in this matter, if we want a changes or development we must take the risk, for business is a gamble, just makes sure that you have all the weapons not to lose in the game.

2. Physical Problems
When we are talking of the physical aspects of Information System we are pertaining to the hardware, software and network topology. Thus, this may involve redesigning the network, hardware replacement in order to have more improve speed and efficiency and as well as the determining the most appropriate software to used.

3. Technical Problems

Infrastructure. It is the very important framework of any information organization. Effective Information access and use depends on communication facilities such as telephones, Internet, fax, computers, as well as an adequate supply of electricity. Computer literacy is almost non-existent in primary and secondary education. It is very much limited in colleges and universities due to shortage of skilled human resources and computing infrastructure.

Lack of a shared, reliable computing and network infrastructure. When an institution lacks an IT infrastructure there will be a difficulty in operating technology supported programs with consistency from one office to the other or building to building. It also slows and complicates communication among the organization or other institutions

Unrealistic time frames. Some information systems take considerably longer than originally planned. Time delays lead to serious difficulties in planning for and adjusting to changes in operations. Since they consume more time than they expected, the deadline will become a pressure.

Difficulty of data collection and management. Data collection is considered to be the most critical and difficult part of implementing an Information System for it is the foundation of the entire system process. Thus, this convey what the system is all about, its scope and limitations. Proper management of the said data is essential.

4. Organizational Problems
The organization heads set too ambitious goals that require a lot of resources that may not be able to achieve. I suggest that in making the goals of the company they should focus on what are the necessities or focus on the needs of the organization that it must meet the business requirements of the party and it should be brief and accurate.

Unskilled Staff
As mention above, system must be maintained and monitor from time to time and the people who will handle this transaction must be well trained and have an expertise on maintaining the system. Not having this kind of people inside the organization will add up to the barriers to the success of the system.

5. Social Problems

. The resistance of the organization and its people to the technology is also a factor that I consider as one of the obstacle.

Human resources as the participants to the implementation of Information System should be able to meet or abide the requirements or standards of the company’s specific IS. In planning as well as in the development of the said system, the human resources should participate hand in hand in the process. We can consider the human resources as one of the Information System barriers with regards to its implementation for they are the one who gives the specifications, requirements and standards that help to develop the functionalities of the company. These people are also the one who will utilize, manage and control to be able to acquire the benefits of technology.

Communication is another factor that adds up to the impediments of technology. As what I mentioned above, every participant in the implementation must work together to make sure the success of the desired output is not impossible to attain. Without this there is no guarantee that the system will be a help to the organization or maybe it will just be add to its liabilities. Instead of gaining from what they have invested, they are more likely to lose or worsen the company’s situation.


Resources:
http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/erd/english/wgesa/doc/ethiopia/appendice_2.htm
http://www.unm.edu/~jreenen/dlbook/chapter9.html
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Jevelyn Labor



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Aug 17, 2009 5:11 am

Our adopted Company is "NCCC”. It’s is all about people: Their associates, customers, business partners and community. Since starting out as a textile store in 1952 they continue to grow, expanding to different retail businesses and locations to serve more people.They strive to offer Service from the Heart first of all to their associates.They also maintain solid relationships with their business partners to provide a wide assortment of basic and unique merchandise.They are proud of journey and we continue to pay tribute to o founders and history by living up to core values of humility, caring, hard work, excellence and fun. They live for their vision to be A Leader Who Cares. "
As what I had post in my assignment 2 , the HNS supervisor concluded that in IS/T change there are always risks and barriers involve. Those barriers may be good or bad for the company. Logically barriers are obstacles which prevents a given an instrument being implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented. In the extreme, such barriers may lead to certain policy instruments being overlooked, and the resulting strategies being much less effective. For example, demand management measures are likely to be important in larger cities as ways of controlling the growth of congestion and improving the environment. But at the same time they are often unpopular, and cities may be tempted to reject them simply because they will be unpopular. If that decision leads in turn to greater congestion and a worse environment, the strategy will be less successful. The emphasis should therefore be on how to overcome these barriers, rather than simply how to avoid them. *********
The HNS Supervisor also emphasized that in their company they call those barriers as “challenges” or “business challenge” or a “case analysis” on that particular system. It’s a must for a company or organization to be competitive with respect to its business operations which includes also the function of MMS (Merchandize Management System is an automated information system to keep track of the inventory in a warehouse or store. Usually the merchandise can be grouped into product lines. Thus, the MMS shows the exact number of products a business has in stock at any particular time.)
These good or bad barriers in a company are stressed as to two sections: a.)prior to IS/IT implementation and b.) not prior to IS/IT implementation. Prior to IS/IT implementation simply implies that if any hardware or system engaged to IS/IT implementation there would be a “business case” or a case analysis on that particular system. Not prior to IS/IT implementation implies that a particular system will be treated poorly if it will not be following the change of technology. Since technology believes that there’s nothing constant except change.

List of the company’s barriers to IS/IT implementation:


BUSINESS CASE
VULNERABLE ISSUES
COST
KNOWLEDGE




BUSINESS CASE
This could be considered as a barrier due to these reasons:
* Studying the problem too long without acting
* Trying to get everyone's agreement first
* Educating without changing structures or expectations
* Tackling everything at once
* Measuring nothing or everything
* Failing to build support for replication

These are supported by proper documentation which is in every system to be made, there would be probable procedures done with corresponding appropriate records. Used to reduce or eliminate incidents and major consequences, such as injury, loss of life, property damage, environmental harm, and business interruption.



VULNERABLE ISSUES
Concerning on the viruses
Viruses are designed to spread into other programs and can wreak havoc in a system, crashes and program malfunctions.
*****

COST
o In adopting an updated version of any information system no one could deny the fact that the cost of each step in a program development, analysis and loading is not that super affordable specially if it’s providing those features that would boost your company’s progress in line with information system / information technology implementation. These are the examples of cost to be critically discussed in their so-called “business case”.
Installation Cost – the cost of physical linking the sites in the system (usually involves the installation de novo of such a backbone, which includes the wiring, transmission facility and connectivity equipment)
Communication Cost – the cost in time and money to send a message from
Availability Cost – the extent to which data can be accessed despite the failure of some links or sites
o because of the high cost and complexity, usually requires the participation of the telephone company and other service providers in its design, deployment, maintenance
o is seldom free and requires a fee for participation (line charges) and additional fees for services (not just Internet access but fees for maintenance and value-added services); the higher financial outlays for capital (equipment and lines) and monthly service charges and for operating expenses (such as staff) make such networks relatively more expensive for participants,




KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge barriers to technology adoption:
1. networks are more pricey to participate in, potential participants have a challenging job convincing their management, and the institutions they may want to link to, to play
2. potential participants have to be sensitive to interoperability issues because the new technology may or may not work seamlessly with existing technology
3. potential participants, especially those in the government sector, will need to worry about how the new technology will impact the institutions bid process for technology acquisition
4. potential participants will have to worry about how the new technology will affect the process by which they currently deliver services, and what kinds of retooling would be required on their part (new staff recruitment, new ways of working, new technology capabilities, relationships with new vendors and service providers)
5. usually requires maintenance and monitoring both on the backbone and user ends, and may span several layers: physical, Internet and value-added services, and applications layers; the telephone company and other service provider (such as the ISP) or providers may all have to cooperate to provide monitoring at these layers.
6. usually require a highly-skilled, dedicated, paid staff (and volunteer help) who provide these services; volunteer help alone is not sufficient

SOME EXACT EXAMPLES PROVIDED BY HNS SUPERVISOR:

++due to the development and IS/IT changes NCCC is forced (or leaved with no other choice) to upgrade to latest and the more secured system.



Definitions:
Firewall - Any of a number of security schemes that prevent unauthorized users from gaining access to a computer network or that monitor transfers of information to and from the network.
UTM Device - Unified Threat Management, a design concept, epitomized by a single computer device, usually referred to as a UTM appliance: used to provide firewall, spam filtering, gateway antivirus protection, intrusion detection or prevention
The risks not prior to the change of IT:
they are leaved without no choice because if they would stay at firewall, their system may collapse and the data might be manipulated. Because the firewall they used to make use of has its different stages developed around 2000, there is no anti-virus scanner propose to the network, compared to UTM device that has the higher capability of preventing collapse of data.
The Risks prior to the change of IT:
because of the “upgrade decision” of firewall the group in charged in the processing of data must make a “business case” within the process, technical training and compatibility issues. These would analyze the business case conducted and would create risks as what is said.


++ Operating Systems (from old to new: the names of OS are not specified)
The risks not prior to the change of IT:
If the Operating System will not be upgraded risks like less security would occur and its vulnerability issues. These vulnerability issues are hone to be used by the hacker to crack system and probably destroy the system. Resulting these to have lesser security. Therefore , they will be forced to upgrade in order to support the IT needs of their system.
The Risks prior to the change of IT:
==the risks in upgrading the Operating System is it would be an another challenge for the group to create another examination of the comparison between an old system to a new system.


Last edited by Jevelyn Labor on Wed Sep 30, 2009 2:23 am; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : tinanggal ko lang po yung -still working- na line)
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jerald jean pullos



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Aug 17, 2009 6:33 am

Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation.

In implementing information system the organization always looking forward the successful implementation but they didn’t close their mind to the barriers that they will be encounter in the implementation of their organization’s information system.

As I surf into the internet I found some barriers in the implementation of the information system in an organization.
These are the following:

• A general lack of education and information about both technology and programs. Technology has rapidly permeated our society and most of our institutions, but government organizations often lag behind others. Government staff are often ill-informed and poorly trained in how to use information technology effectively. This is particularly true of the newest technical tools and platforms. Public employees, both users and technicians, seldom have ready access to skills training or professional development that continuously upgrades their knowledge and skills. Conversely, technical staff typically have few opportunities or incentives to learn the goals and operational realities of service programs and therefore tend to focus too sharply on the technical tools and too little on the programmatic reasons for new systems.
• Lack of a shared, reliable computing and network infrastructure. Existing state-local systems suffer from the lack of a ubiquitous, consistent computing and communications infrastructure. This makes it difficult or impossible to operate technology supported programs in a consistent way from place to place and organization to organization. It also slows and complicates communication among state and local staff involved in joint programs. New York State is currently embarking on a statewide networking strategy called the NYT that will help solve this problem for future systems.
• Goals that are too ambitious for the resources available to achieve them. Project goals are often laudably comprehensive, but the staff, equipment, and dollars allotted to achieve them are often underestimated. Projects that could succeed on a smaller or incremental scale, fail to achieve success when their goals and resources are played out on different scales.
• Human and organizational resistance to change. In some cases, new state-local initiatives threaten a comfortable status quo. They promise big changes that not every participant is eager to see. Fear and resistance to change exist even in the best planned and managed projects. A new way of doing business threatens existing personal, organizational, programmatic, and political conditions by rearranging authority, influence, power, resources, and information. This natural resistance is exacerbated when new programs arrive with too little advance information, weak leadership support, inadequate user participation, too little funding, and less than comprehensive training and orientation.
• Unrealistic time frames. Many information systems projects take considerably longer than originally planned. State-local projects, with their added layers of legal and organizational complexity are especially vulnerable to this problem. Since so many different organizations are affected by them, time delays lead to serious difficulties in planning for and adjusting to changes in operations.
• Organizational, programmatic, technological, and legal complexity. The state-local environment is extraordinarily complex on a number of dimensions: organizational size, number of organizations, number and skills of staff, size of budget, financial practices, legal authority, programmatic focus, and geographic dispersion. Existing systems are an important complicating factor.Only so much change is possible in an environment that depends on information systems already in place — especially ones that were designed and implemented using older technologies. There is little that can be done to simplify this environment, making it essential that project participants have a good understanding of how it will affect their activities.
• Changing priorities. Any project that lasts more than a few months is subject to changing priorities for time, money, and attention. This problem is multiplied in state-local projects since each participating organization is likely to be working in circumstances and with responsibilities and priorities that are unique to its own situation.
• Overlapping or conflicting missions among the participating organizations. Government organizations at both the state and local level have public service and public accountability goals that can overlap or conflict, even when they are engaged in a joint project. For example, a state agency manager may have the role of project leader which implies facilitation, collaboration, and support for other participants. At the same time, that person’s agency may have oversight responsibility and financial and other regulatory means of compelling local compliance with state requirements. In other projects, non-profit service providers may be project participants sitting at the same table with state or local officials who license and inspect their programs.These roles are all legitimate but can conflict and become a source of difficulty in sorting out the working relationships within the project team.

http://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/guides/tying?chapter=3&section=4

study ……still working…. study
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florenzie_palma



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Aug 17, 2009 9:34 am

Barriers in IT/IS implementation


Organizational Culture Barriers

o Culture of physical/paper records
Workflow is designed for paper.
Paper provides provider a sense of security.
Paper provides proof of action.
Paper provides proof of ownership.
Paper is readily available (cheap).

o Culture of ownership of data and not sharing it
Exchange of information between organizations is not universally
accepted as appropriate.
Negative repercussions are feared if organization becomes more
transparent by sharing information.
A negative impact on “bottom line” is feared if organization shares
information.
Data of patients from underrepresented facilities/groups may be used
inappropriately.

o Culture of actions based on risk aversion/comfort rather than standards
Exchange of information between organizations is not universally
accepted as appropriate.
Negative repercussions are feared if organization shares information based
on network standards rather than internal risk assessment.
A negative impact on “bottom line” is feared if organizations shares
information based on network standards rather than internal risk
assessment.

o Culture of market competition
A negative impact on “bottom line” is feared if organization shares
information based on network standards rather than market analysis.
An open exchange of information may reduce competitive edge between
providers and/or facilities.

o Culture of organization type, with variations due to clinics vs. hospitals, public vs.
private, etc.
Protections to sensitive situations and information vary from organization
type to organization type.
Protections against stigmas or other negative repercussions on patients
vary from organization type to organization type.
Populations served vary from organization type to organization type.

o Culture of diminished value of staff continuing education
Staff education lacks priority in organizational plans.
Cheaper staff can be hired (recent grads); reduces organization obligation.


Technology and Standards Barriers

o There is a technical challenge to assure user authentication and successful use of
system
There are many different technical methods available to authenticate users.
A universal standard would have to be adopted in order to ensure
interoperability between sites and users.
The different technical methods that exist to handle user authentication
can be difficult to implement for health care providers with limited IT
resources.
Current methods for strong authentication are difficult for consumers to
use. Strong passwords are difficult for consumers but encryption keys are
even more challenging. The financial industry is leading the adoption of
strong authentication under FFIEC guidelines with limited success.
The interface for retrieving records would have to be standardized so that
providers would not be trying to learn each individual system.
The electronic signature for an information system can be a problem.
There are far more users of information system than there are technical
assistants available to address technical issues.
Technical documentation for information system is usually long and not
user friendly.
Staff may occasionally use other log-on ID’s for information system.
Staff may not sign out of information system properly.
Staff may not receive proper training in user authentication and system
use.


o There is a technical challenge to patient identification
Providers do not use the same identifiers for patients. This would require
the creation of these unique identifiers and a massive master patient index
associating them with the provider identifier.
Many patients have the same name. Some may have the same name and
address. Families use names interchangeably.
Staff do not always validate patient identification information.
A picture ID may not always be required for patient identification.
There are many issues around duplicate medical record numbers.
Some patients don’t have appropriate ID’s.
Some patient may use other ID because they don’t have the coverage.


o There are no national requirements for information system interoperability
HL7 is a health care interface protocol for transferring data between
disparate systems but has only be accepted as an ANSI standard. This
allows for many variations on the implementation of the standard by each
health care software vendor within their software.
This lack of an enforced standard has driven the complexity of creating
and maintaining interfaces up. Most providers do not have the IT
resources available and rely solely on the vendors for this service. This
has driven the cost of interfaces up substantially and can render them
financially impractical.

HL7 does not have sufficient security built into the system to be used on a
grand scale. The intention of this interface protocol was to provide means
for systems to transfer information on a network that was already secure.
There are no standards defined for encryption, authentication or message
integrity checking. This standard would have to be modified to add these
capabilities or third party security products would be needed to
supplement.

The electronic health record is still new.
Technology advancements are much greater than the speed of learners for
many of the users.
New systems will be as disconnected as current systems.
There are delays in congress concerning health care information
technology.


o There are insufficient standards for data elements

The patient record is usually made up of data from different specialized,
ancillary systems. These systems all have proprietary data structures and
elements to suite their specific applications. These elements would have
to be standardized across all health care software vendors to have support
for a combined record. Various data elements required for proper
treatment may not be available without standardized elements or worse
they could be in different formats creating a possibility of medical errors.
There are currently multiple standard sets, with some variation in
definitions.
There are emerging data elements (new items needed).

o There is no standardization in security protocols and interfaces
There are numerous standards for secure communication but one will need
to be selected for the specific purpose of security protocols and interfaces.
HL7 has no provisions for security or integrity and this should be added
for this implementation.
There are delays from security/standards groups.
There are delays in congress concerning health care information
technology.
There is competition among software vendors.
There is massive data in huge legacy systems that must be considered.

o There is a technical challenge for the national implementation of ICD-10

The health care software vendors have not all adopted ICD-10 codes as of
yet. Diagnosis codes based on previous ICD-9 codes will not match the
ICD-10 codes causing conflicting data between all of the systems.
There are delays in congress concerning the passage of ICD-10.
There is strong opposition from payors and vendors who have to pay for
changes to system software.


o Organizations lack adequate infrastructure and role delineation for the
development and enforcement of security, privacy, and information management
policies and procedures
There is an enormous gap in the security conscience of the health care
provider community. According to a HIMMS survey in 2005, only 53%
of providers were declaring their compliance with the HIPAA security
rules. There cannot be variations in compliance with security regulations
between providers or a shared record will create opportunities for massive
abuse and fraud.


HIPAA security has not created the motivation for providers to seek out
solutions to security problems. There have only been 3 HIPAA security
convictions in almost 3 years.

HIPAA security officers are typically selected from unwitting candidates
who happen to be familiar with a PC but not appropriate risk identification
and mitigation techniques.


Security, Privacy, Policy, and Procedures are interrelated.
There is competition among health care leaders that have skills in security,
privacy and health information management.
There is no consistency of how security and privacy management should
be handled in an institution (power issue).


o There is a lack of secured websites and use of secured e-mail
The underutilization of secured website and encrypted e-mail is a result of
implementations without appropriate security personnel or procedures.
Secure e-mail is more difficult for the provider to utilize so it is often
discarded as a solution.

There are many different standards for secure e-mail available and one
would have to be chosen as a standard. If a standard existed, it may
provide the motivation necessary for providers to utilize it.

There is a lack of ongoing education regarding the security of websites
and e-mail.
There are multiple choices for e-mail.
Firewalls do not exist in every organization.
There is insufficient training on how to send secure e-mail.
E-mail is so easy to share.


o There is no existing infrastructure in Illinois for the electronic exchange of
information, such as a RHIO
A RHIO would have to define the standards that are addressed in this
document. Defining these standards may be simplified by working in
smaller environments and developing feedback for further integration
projects.

There are no strong private groups that share information currently in a
regional health information exchange.
There is a lack of funding for regional exchange of health information.
There is a lack of trust for the development of RHIOs.
There is a lack of leadership for the development of RHIOs.


Staff Knowledge About Health Information Exchange Barriers


o There is a lack of ongoing education for staff to understand the
results/ramifications of the release of health information
There is a general lack of understanding by health care staff of security
issues around technology. The technology has become so pervasive that
security implications aren’t even considered.
There are limited funds for education and training of health care staff in
health information security and privacy.
There is a lack of leadership for education of health care staff in health
information security and privacy.
There is a perceived lack of funding for education of health care staff in
health information security and privacy.
There have been no real sanctions on inappropriate release of protected
health information.


o There is a lack of understanding by staff of what is appropriate and what is not in
the exchange of health information
The understanding of appropriate information exchange is critical to avoid
breaches of confidentiality. These breaches would undermine public
support and confidence in any type of health information exchange.
There is a lack of ongoing educational funding for staff education.
There is a variation in leadership practices regarding staff education.
There is a lack of staff education provided by facilities.
Staff are not aware of appropriate sources to consult for security and
privacy of health information.


o There is a lack of ways to share educational materials
Some educational materials may be proprietary.
There are ways of sharing educational material, but a lack of
information/leadership to execute.

o There is a lack of standardized educational materials that have been developed for
sufficient evaluation of effectiveness
Educational needs vary by organization, individuals, geographic, and
available resources.
No specific group has been identified as the industry authority to consult
regarding educational material for health information management.
Those who have developed educational material for health information
management have not been asked to share information with others.
There is resistance to use information for education in health information
management that is developed by others.

flower still working.....

references:
http://www.idph.state.il.us/hispc2/resources/Appendix8-Barriers.pdf
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juvilynconsejo



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PostSubject: barriers in IT/ IS   Mon Aug 17, 2009 10:05 am

There are factor that may affect or shall I say, a barriers in IT/IS implementation. For instance, in terms of technical aspect and in social capabilities.

I will site a very specific example for this, one of the barriers is that money, it is very important that a particular organization should have. Nowadays, we all knew that we have a financial crisis not only in our country but in the whole world so even a small or big companies must have funds to support their needs and the productivity they have. Without money they could not do the right production and they can't acquired the sufficient man-power. In other word, an organization can not survived.

Second, is the man-power, even now that we were improving our technology but we do really need a man-power to support the said technology. The man-power will be the one maintaining and developing their high tech equipments and if there will a damage happen the man-power will manage it. In connection with this, the employers must have a capabilities to do his/her job in order to get the goal of such company.

Next, is the technology in terms of hardware, it is always important today, that in order to compete with the other organization the said company should have a new and updating kind of equipments or shall I say "sumabay sa uso para di mapag-iwanan". On the other hand, is the software, they should have a friendly user system so that it will easy to understand by all. Also, if the system is from out-source, the conflict may occur if the loading is very slow. Plus, the following technology will be no use if it is there is an absence of the current.

Lastly, is the managing or implementing of its rules, the organization itself must have a good directing and managing to its people. The people will have a dedication with their work because they are inspired and they like what they are doing even though with a small salary they had. If such organization do not have this, the people will make any way to destroy the organization such as, rally or "sisirain nila ang pangalan ng kompanya".
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John Paul Pulido



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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Mon Aug 17, 2009 11:31 am

The barriers or the hindrances in IT/IS implementation of our adopted company the GH Depot.
First, is the PROPER IT/IS MODULE. We need to follow a proper and suited module in implementing IT/IS practices because it is the mosr critical part of the company. It is the heart and soul of a progressing company. And also, they need to pratice the proper things to be done in implementing IT/IS.
Second, is the RIGHT PERSON TO MANAGE MIS DEPARTMENT. If you have a MIS Department, you should hire a capable person to manage aThe barriers in IT/IS implementation of our adopted company the GH Depot.
Third, is the NUMBER OF WORKERS. Proper number of workers is important because almost all local companies in Davao City only have one or two personnel on their MIS. It is very important to medium and big companies to have plenty and reliable IT personnel in their office.
Fourth, the TECHOLOGY. If you build a company, you should buy effective and up to date hardwares and sofwares that could help your company to progress and develop.nd run it. It is very essential that a suited person will manage the said office because it times of troubles, they know what to do and handle such situations.
Fifth, APPROPRIATE WORKERS. Right professionals should work on this. This professionals are atleast graduate of any technology or a literate person that knows everything about his/her job.


I have also researched some ideas on IT/IS Implementation on other companies abroad:
FROM IEEE XPLORE:
It is pointed out that much of the technology and practice of organizational information technology (IT) implementation assumes that organizational decisions are consequences of individuals and organizations objectively using information in a rational manner. However, recent data from case studies on IT implementation suggest that rationality may be the exception, rather than the rule. Research on decision makers under stress suggests that they typically act in ways that create error and misunderstanding. These errors are never discussed, nor are they discussable. It is noted that the consequences of this style of thinking and action can be disastrous for IT management. The authors' primary goal is to understand how a large financial services firm was inhibited from implementing a major IT effort in a timely and error-free way because of the action routines of these charged with implementing the system. The authors conclude with a discussion of an alternative framework, based on action science, for IT intervention
FROM INDIANAPOLIS HOSPITAL:
INDIANAPOLIS – A recent survey found Indianapolis lacking in providing top-notch patient care. But, healthcare providers who practice in this city are already working to make sweeping changes, and they are looking to information technology for help.
But some doctors – even one considered a pioneer on the IT front – caution that IT while critical to improving healthcare, is no magic pill.Moreover, many obstacles to implementation remain, they say.
When the journal Health Affairs considered data collected by the Rand Corp. in its most recent issue, it concluded that nearly half of patients surveyed in 12 cities failed to receive appropriate medical treatment.
Doctors in Indianapolis, one of the cities surveyed, say that rate of spot-on care is simply not acceptable. They hope an electronic information-exchange system, expected to be operational this summer, will go a long way in improving their numbers.
"Medicine is too important to accept 50 percent kinds of numbers," said Dr. Ned Lamkin, an endocrinologist who no longer practices. Lamkin, president of the Indiana Employers Quality Health Alliance, is a board member of the Indiana Health Information Exchange, and is one of many doctors in Indianapolis who believes information technology can help improve patient care.
He is one of many doctors in Indianapolis who view information technology as key to improving care, even as he recognizes that some doctors will resist it.
"It will slow them down at first," Lamkin acknowledged. Doctors don't like to be slowed down or diverted, he said, but IT presents so many opportunities for accessing data and sharing knowledge.
"You need that constant access to that quality information," he said. One of the common barriers to adoption of technology is the expense, said Marc E. Duerden, MD, president of the Indianapolis Medical Society. "The problem as a physician is it costs a lot of money,"
Bernard J. Emkes, MD, a family practice physician in Indianapolis, agreed. "Automated EMRs with reminders and evidence based algorithms would help address many of these issues, but the cost of implementing that infrastructure cannot be borne up front by physicians, as they struggle with rising malpractice costs, declining reimbursements, increased pressures to see more patients, and a federal government that continues to try to balance healthcare costs on physicians backs through a flawed sustainable growth rate formula."
However, Emkes stressed that physicians must constantly strive to improve care in spite of the obstacles. "The significant lag between new knowledge and the application of that knowledge must be shortened, " he said.Another obstacle, Duerden said, is that some of the technology is laborious.

Practicing with Rehabilitation Associates of Indiana, which provides treatment for arthritis, brain injury, carpal tunnel syndrome, musculoskeletal disorders, spinal cord injuries and neurological disorders. Duerden has tried two e-scripts systems and both proved difficult to integrate with the practice's existing technology.

"There are lots of choices out there. There are so many systems, and they don't always talk to one another."Duerden and Lamkin are heartened by the work of the Indiana Health Information Exchange. Formed last spring, the nonprofit group, is creating a network to enable data exchange among the city's five major hospitals.
FROM EMERALD:
The need for the improved implementation of information technology (IT) has been identified in both empirical and highly structured research studies as being critical to effective innovation and development at an industry and enterprise level. This need is greater in the construction industry as it has been relatively slow to embrace the full potential of IT-based technologies. In an attempt to understand why the construction industry lags other industries in the uptake and effective implementation of IT, this study reports on an investigation of the Australian construction industry, which identifies the impediments or barriers to IT implementation and the most effective coping strategies to overcome them. A questionnaire-based research approach was adopted for this purpose and a total of 134 valid survey responses were received from various architectural, engineering and construction professionals. The questionnaire was designed to identify perceptions of the most significant barriers to IT implementation and to determine the most “practical” and “effective” corresponding coping strategies to mitigate their effects at three decision-making levels: Industry; Organization; and Project.

References:
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=642184BE502A73405688D5EAE4F8F377?contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkpdf&contentId=1577612
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=284273
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do?contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkpdf&contentId=1577612


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jojimie



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PostSubject: Barriers in IT/IS implementation   Mon Aug 17, 2009 11:40 am

lol!

It seems that some business people always seem to be prosperous and successful and are able to easily attract clients and more revenue? While other business people seem to struggle constantly and despite their hard work and sincere efforts, they do not prosper and are not successful. Well, it really depends on there IS/IT implementation.
In different areas about businesses, especially in IS/IT implementations in a particular organization, there should be some barriers or risk that a company may encounter. Organizations are as alike and unique as human beings. Similarly, group processes can be as straightforward or as complex as the individuals who make up the organization. It is vital to successfully launching a new program that the leaders understand the strengths, weaknesses, and idiosyncrasies of the organization or in a particular company. Well in fact, we can have or find a company having a profitable and successful one when a certain company experiences some barriers in implanting there IS/IT. Barriers can be consider as an obstacle which prevents a given policy instrument being implemented.



In the company that we have visited which is the NCCC Mall.




PROFILE:
Their associates, customers, business partners and community. Since starting out as a textile store in 1952 they continue to grow, expanding to different retail businesses and locations to serve more people. They strive to offer Service from the Heart first of all to their associates. They also maintain solid relationships with their business partners to provide a wide assortment of basic and unique merchandise. They are proud of journey and we continue to pay tribute to o founders and history by living up to core values of humility, caring, hard work, excellence and fun. They live for their vision to be A Leader Who Cares. "
NCCC is one of the companies in regard of merchandising /retailing and having service to the Pilipino people .They showcase the need of the people ,they provides jobs and render service in the community.

NCCC starts only from one commercialize center that works manually for their documentation until they become a corporation that adopt the IT /IS change for the better management and improvement of their services and be a competitor.


To render more good services to every customer, NCCC created an ICT (Information and Communications Technology) Department. This department divided into three groups.

Application Group
---In charge for Systems Development, Applications development & support, Lead programming and database administration
Hardware Network /Security Group
---In charge for the security, maintenance of their network as well as software.
Operation Group
---In charge price controlling (inventory and cost benefit and risk analyses).

One barrier which the NCCC mall encountered especially in there is/IT implementation is the “Competition in Business” as cited by Mr. Hervin Miclat, current supervisor of HNS (Hardware Networking Software) “There should be risk in every IS/IT change.” Since we all know that when we talked about business there should be a lot of challenges so that a particular company may have a fast and profitable means of industrializing. In fact, being competitive and profitable mainly the aim of every company all through out the world. For them to earn, they should have a clear and fast system compared to other certain company in the market.
In connection with this, it servers as a challenge to their company to implement and create systems like MMS (Merchandise Management System) which concentrates on vendor management , price management , promotion management , financial control and merchandise receiving, allocation and replenishment Inventory control and procurement.
One simple example mentioned by Sir Miclat is the releasing of receipt (the title of the property obtained in the exchange.) For an instance that there is a STORE A and STORE B.

STORE A
•Releases receipts to their respective customers manually. Done through hand-written or hand-completed receipts.
STORE B
•Releases receipts to their respective customers in a printed record. Done through output devices.


In this case if you are wise customer, you should have to buy your items to a company or business establishment which releases fast and clear receipts. As time changes we should have to adapt the flow of technology. Why should you choose STORE A when there is other company (referring to STORE B) which offers you a fast and hustle free.
Operating System it mainly refers to security and vulnerability issues. These are hone to hacker to use and then compromised the system. Management challenge to conduct a case study regarding to this issue to protect and secure the system against the hacker.

One best example of this is the Microsoft 2000 and Microsoft 2008. Obviously since 2008 is the latest so the company would prefer to used the Microsoft 2008 because it contains a lot of new features and well-organized. This would also make the company to be more competitive in the market.
Other cited example was a server. Pertaining to a certain situation, if a company planning to change a new server, first they should a key study prior to the changes. At that way they can compare which server is appropriate to be used.

Firewall.A firewall is a part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting authorized communications. It is a device or set of devices configured to permit, deny, encrypt, decrypt, or proxy all (in and out) computer traffic between different security domains based upon a set of rules and other criteria. It has a Unified Technology System (UTM).If the company decides to change a system, they should analyze the risk if they will change it or not then list the difference between the old and new system to know which is the appropriate.



Other Important Barriers:

COST
----in every changes in a particular company especially in updating new versions, it is very much important to consider certain amount to satisfy the company needs and to have a competitive business all through out the market.
This may include the following:

Installation- referring to the system development
Communication-referring to the cost that is being used in terms of sending and receiving such information

KNOWLEDGE
----All businesses have access to an extensive pool of knowledge - whether this is their understanding of customers' needs and the business environment or the skills and experience of staff.
The way a business gathers, shares and exploits this knowledge can be central to its ability to develop successfully. This doesn't just apply to huge multinational companies. Knowledge management can benefit everyone from a local newsagent to a manufacturing firm.


References:
http://www.nccc.com.ph/
http://en.wikipedia.org


Razz


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carla comoda



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PostSubject: Topic: barriers in IT/ IS   Mon Aug 17, 2009 11:47 am

Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation.
On the Company we interviewed which is the Skycable their is a Barriers that occur in their IS/IT implementation.
In every organization, having these problems are obvious. People come from different background,cultures and etinity. A good organization manages all these problems properly and that helps in its developement.
These are the external problems. Problems in communication, information sharing and ownership are the internal problems which can be avoided by having a good management.
Barriers to innovation commonly occur where technology experts, or persons with an extensive research and publication record, are supervised by persons lacking in this type of background. In other words, innovation can be blocked where management assigns a technology expert with a supervisor who does not understand science, is not capable of understanding science, is resistant to understanding science, or who feels threatened by science. A growing number of companies in recent years have invested considerable resources to develop strategic planning skills. Companies obviously need to improve strategy implementation activities, but the pace of these activities and the implementation itself have many problems. Primary objectives are somehow forgotten as the strategy moves into implementation, and the initial momentum is lost before the company realizes the expected benefits. The cause isn't easy to explain, but it can be attributed to a variety of problems. Traditional strategy implementation concepts overemphasize structural aspects, reducing the whole effort to an organizational exercise. Ideally, an implementation effort is a "no boundaries" set of activities that doesn't concentrate on implications of only one component, such as the organizational structure. When implementing a new strategy, it's dangerous to ignore the other components because strategy implementation requires an integrative point of view. You need to consider not only the organizational structure, but the soft facts as well--the cultural aspects and human resources perspective. Taking into account both the soft and hard facts (like turnover, operating profit, profitability ratios) ensures that cultural aspects and human resources receive at least the same status as organizational aspects. Altogether, this integrative interpretation allows you to develop implementation activities that are realistic.
Barriers are important because a barrier is an obstacle which prevents a given policy instrument being implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented. In the extreme, such barriers may lead to certain policy instruments being overlooked, and the resulting strategies being much less effective. For example, demand management measures are likely to be important in larger cities as ways of controlling the growth of congestion and improving the environment. But at the same time they are often unpopular, and cities may be tempted to reject them simply because they will be unpopular. If that decision leads in turn to greater congestion and a worse environment, the strategy will be less successful. The emphasis should therefore be on how to overcome these barriers, rather than simply how to avoid them. ECOCITY provides a useful illustration of the ways in which such barriers arise, and of how obstacles have been overcome, in case study cities.

Principal Barriers
 Legal and institutional barriers -These include lack of legal powers to implement a particular instrument, and legal responsibilities which are split between agencies, limiting the ability of the city authority to implement the affected instrument (Section 3).
 Financial barriers- these include budget restrictions limiting the overall expenditure on the strategy, financial restrictions on specific instruments, and limitations on the flexibility with which revenues can be used to finance the full range of instruments.
 Political and cultural barriers- these involve lack of political or public acceptance of an instrument, restrictions imposed by pressure groups, and cultural attributes, such as attitudes to enforcement, which influence the effectiveness of instruments.
 Practical and technological barriers- while cities view legal, financial and political barriers as the most serious which they face in implementing land use and transport policy instruments, there may also be practical limitations. For land use and infrastructure these may well include land acquisition. For management and pricing, enforcement and administration are key issues.


Common Barriers

* Studying the problem too long without acting
* Trying to get everyone's agreement first
* Educating without changing structures or expectations
* Tackling everything at once
* Measuring nothing or everything
* Failing to build support for replication
* Assuming that the status quo is OK

More Barriers to Change

* Lack of such resources as time and commitment
* Resistance to change
* Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion
* Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities
* Ineffective teams
* Burdensome data collection

Essential Elements for Change Effort

* Define the problem
* Define the target population
* Define effective treatment strategies and establish procedural guidelines
* Establish performance measures; set goals
* Define effective system changes and interventions
* Develop leadership and system change strategy


Overcoming problems and barriers

3 major benefits when overcoming identified barriers and problems.

 Prepared minds. The first benefit is to ensure that all participants of the planning process (e.g. senior managers, planners, decision makers) have a solid understanding of the business, its strategy as well as the assumptions behind that strategy. This understanding enables them to identify and to respond quickly to chances and challenges as they occur in real time.
 Innovation intensifier. The second benefit is to increase the innovativeness of the organization’s strategy. A strategic planning process cannot guarantee creative insight or excellent ideas in general; however the process can increase probability that they will occur by opening up participants to new thinking and challenging assumptions.
 Appropriate process. Overcoming selected problems and barriers enables the organization to consider own planning demands best and to focus on important issues of its organization, industry and environment. Hence organizations can create their customized strategic planning process, which offers the most benefits.


reference:
http://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/22/4481.html
http://www.themanager.org/strategy/Strategic-planning-problems-barriers.htm


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Joseph Ethel Valdez



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Aug 17, 2009 12:12 pm

Introduction

The spread of the World Wide Web and high speed computer processors has computer-based technology – henceforth referred to in this paper as ‘technology’ – become easy enough to use and of enough value for most company to pursue it as a tool for business.

Organizations are as alike and unique as human beings because of the technological advancements to help improve the functionality and security of data being processed inside the company. Similarly, group processes can be as straightforward or as complex as the individuals who make up the organization. It is vital to successfully launching a new program that the leaders understand the strengths, weaknesses of the organization or system in which they operate.

As we see Davao City it is an improving city because of many buildings build here for business purpose. One of the companies seen here in Davao City with the help of technological advancement is EMCOR, which the company we adopted and their barriers in their IS/IT implementation.

EMCOR stand for (Engineering Machinery Corporation)and it was started 48 years ago in Davao City as Engineering and Machinery Corp., a franchise dealer of International Harvester, by pioneering entrepreneur Jesus V. del Rosario, who set up Kawasaki Motors (Phils.) Corp., K-Servico Trade, Inc., International Writing Systems Phils. Corp., International Elevator and Equipment, Inc., JVR Foundation and local units of Panasonic Group of Companies. They carry a wide array of product lines like Panasonic, JVC, Philips, Sony, Sharp, Samsung, Electrolux, La Germania, Whirlpool, FS Furniture, Sanyo, Canon, Brother, Epson, Toshiba, Acer, Kawasaki, Honda, Suzuki and many others. We have also partnered with Western Union for our money transfer services. The core of our existence is our ability to provide high quality service to our customers by providing the right products at the right time, in the right place and at the right price. They also believe that as responsible members of our society, they should pursue our profit objectives in the spirit of service to the community. They believe in reconciling the profit motive of our Company with service to the nation. Thus, emcor strive to maintain a balance between the interests of our customers, employees, shareholders and the government by supporting national and local agenda for economic development, social reform, educational/scientific research, healthcare and environmental sanitation and preservation. To date, the JVR Foundation has given more than PhP200 Million in philanthropic work.
http://emcor.com.ph/about.phpout.php

Barriers in IS/IT implementation

The company used a or computer-based information system which means that the transaction and data records of the company is stored in a specific application software in a computer system and being used when automates some of the information-processing activities of the company. In this situation the company uses Information System to make their work accurate. While Information Technology serves as a help of their company in terms of general ledger to financial report because it is well structured and properly documented. Long time ago internal reporting was made manually and only periodically, as a by-product of the accounting system and with some additional statistics, and gave limited and delayed information on management performance. But know through the help of technology it makes our work fast, easy, and accurate.

A barrier is defined as “any condition that makes it difficult to make progress or to achieve an objective” (WordNet, 1997). It is also the structure blocking access, a structure such as a fence that is intended to prevent access or keep one place separate from another.

Here are the following list of the barriers in IS/IT implementation of EMCOR which their company identify potential obstacles and possible solutions. These serve as a good starting point for a planning session that will make their company most effective in business.

System Failure
The companies suffer system failure that affects all transaction currently in progress but do not physically damage the database. As a cause of system failure, poor development practices are one of the most significant. This is due to the complex nature of modern software. But in contras with it is the possible solution. The company has their Daily Backup which provides a copy of computer data that is stored, e.g. a copy stored on a floppy disk, compact disk or any writable materials. In case of brownout, the company has supported data.

Problem in internet connection
EMCOR uses management monitoring system to know the transaction in any store. But because of problem in internet connection in the two stores in Mangagoy, their system cannot access in that store. But the company comes up with the possible solution. The two stores in Mangagoy are now having their own database and they have to submit it to the main branch for evaluation if that branch is improving or not.

Changing their system
In their development stage the company uses a Visual FoxPro as their front end and SQL 6.5 turns SQL 7.0 and turns to SQL 2000 which they are currently using. In changing their system sometimes their personnel is no enough knowledge about the system he is using that will cause failure of their work. But the possible solution for that is to study and train more about the system so that the user will familiarize the technique and function of the system.

Outsourcing
The maintenance of the database is through their programmer and system analyst. Also they are responsible in creating program. But sometimes their programmers also fail to do their work so that’s the time the company is pulled to do the Outsourcing.

Outsourcing refers to a company that contracts with another company to provide services that might otherwise be performed by in-house employees. It is also allows companies to focus on other business issues while having the details taken care of by outside experts. This means that a large amount of resources and attention, which might fall on the shoulders of management professionals, can be used for more important, broader issues within the company. The specialized company that handles the outsourced work is often streamlined, and often has world-class capabilities and access to new technology that a company couldn't afford to buy on their own. Plus, if a company is looking to expand, outsourcing is a cost-effective way to start building foundations in other countries.

There are some disadvantages to outsourcing as well. One of these is that outsourcing often eliminates direct communication between a company and its clients. This prevents a company from building solid relationships with their customers, and often leads to dissatisfaction on one or both sides. There is also the danger of not being able to control some aspects of the company, as outsourcing may lead to delayed communications and project implementation. Any sensitive information is more vulnerable, and a company may become very dependent upon its outsource providers, which could lead to problems should the outsource provider back out on their contract suddenly.

While outsourcing may prove highly beneficial for many companies, it also has many drawbacks. It is important that each individual company accurately assess their needs to determine if outsourcing is a viable option.

The MIS Department of EMCOR Davao has the following responsibilities. They are subdivided into four sections namely:

1.)Help Desk. The responsibility of help desk is to answer queries in case there are problem. They are also responsible to check the transaction of customer in the company and generate errors.
2.)Research Developers. Investigation into new or improved products: in business and industry, the work of investigating improved processes, products, and services and of developing new ones.
3.)Technical. They are the one who will repair some computer hardware e.g. printers, centralize processing unit (cpu), keyboard, etc. and software e.g. programs in the computers. If there are failures of the connection they are the one who will fix it.
4.)Admin Section. They are in-charge of the data and maintain the data and access the data and provide back-up of data.

Most organizations find the usual system of manual handling of data time-consuming and more prone to error and irregularities. Thus, database systems are developed to electronically keep and manage data being processed by the company. This provides the company’s potential for producing more accurate and timely information for operating, controlling, and planning purposes. The performance of every employee greatly affects the output quality of work.

EMCOR is now planning to have a Disaster Recovery System. Disaster recovery is the process, policies and procedures related to preparing for recovery or continuation of technology infrastructure critical to an organization after a natural or human-induced disaster.This system will automatically update every five minutes by the access of the internet and provides back-up and transfer to another system all the data of the company so that if something will happen to the company they can easily restore the entire file. This system also develops some feature in their database to make it easy and more precise to the users. But as of now their company is not yet ready in this system because they have enough training and knowledge about the system.

References:
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-outsourcing.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disaster_recovery

my Blog:
http://jevaldez.blogspot.com/ Arrow
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Gleizelle Jen Dieparine



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PostSubject: BARRIERS on IT/IS implementation   Mon Aug 17, 2009 12:33 pm

BARRIERS on IT/IS implementation



In this assignment our task is to identify and discuss barriers in our company’s IS/IT implementation.
We all know that all things made here has its positive and negative effect like IS/IT ;it is useful to everyone specially to a businessworld but then it has some point that has negative effect.

In our discussion we have already discuss the IS/IT and its importance to the company. It is implemented to lessen the work of peopleware, reliable data documentation, accessing to net and their network in every department , flexible monitoring beyond the company. But then there are many barriers in implementing these.

As we have interviewed our adopt company .They state it is not a barriers thus, it is a challenge.
In EMCOR ,they implemented there IS/IT in a process.They used IS/IT for many years already and time goes by while IT world is evolving EMCOR go with the flow if necessary to endure their success.

Since company has a big plans for the future and plan for many branches soon they adopt a IS/IT that a big capacity to serve the company’s future plans.

Barriers I’ve seen in implementing IT/IS in EMCOR:

Razz Time
They has a much time planning and discussing well for the positive and negative effect. The things that has the company in the future years.

Razz Training
Thus , new IS/IT there should be trained personnel or a peopleware to handle implemented IS/IT. It takes many training to be able to do such task.

Razz Cost
There should be a budget in implementing new IS/IT. Company should be prepare for the cost, and the used of its IS/IT for them not to loss.

Razz Planning
They should plan what to do with their network .If they mis planning ,their business would be failed .Example If they use big servers for a little purposes could cause much problem to a company and the cost of that servers is much than theire income.


These are some of the barriers that company should analyze before they implement IS/IT .
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Jethro Alburo Querubin



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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Mon Aug 17, 2009 1:55 pm

A barrier is an obstacle which prevents a given policy instrument being implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented. In the extreme, such barriers may lead to certain policy instruments being overlooked, and the resulting strategies being much less effective. For example, demand management measures are likely to be important in larger cities as ways of controlling the growth of congestion and improving the environment. But at the same time they are often unpopular, and cities may be tempted to reject them simply because they will be unpopular. If that decision leads in turn to greater congestion and a worse environment, the strategy will be less successful. The emphasis should therefore be on how to overcome these barriers, rather than simply how to avoid them. ECOCITY provides a useful illustration of the ways in which such barriers arise, and of how obstacles have been overcome, in case study cities.

1. Financial barriers

These include budget restrictions limiting the overall expenditure on the strategy, financial restrictions on specific instruments, and limitations on the flexibility with which revenues can be used to finance the full range of instruments.

2. Lack of Security

a. Database security is the system, processes, and procedures that protect a database from unintended activity. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse, malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. Database security is also a specialty within the broader discipline of computer security.

Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems.

Database security is more critical as networks have become more open.

Databases provide many layers and types of information security, typically specified in the data dictionary, including:

* Access control
* Auditing
* Authentication
* Encryption
* Integrity controls

Database security can begin with the process of creation and publishing of appropriate security standards for the database environment. The standards may include specific controls for the various relevant database platforms; a set of best practices that cross over the platforms; and linkages of the standards to higher level polices and governmental regulations.

A database security program should include the regular review of permissions granted to individually owned accounts and accounts used by automated processes. The accounts used by automated processes should have appropriate controls around password storage such as sufficient encryption and access controls to reduce the risk of compromise. For individual accounts, a two-factor authentication system should be considered in a database environment where the risk is commensurate with the expenditure for such an authentication system.

In conjunction with a sound database security program, an appropriate disaster recovery program should exist to ensure that service is not interrupted during a security incident or any other incident that results in an outage of the primary database environment. An example is that of replication for the primary databases to sites located in different geographical regions.

After an incident occurs, the usage of database forensics should be employed to determine the scope of the breach, and to identify appropriate changes to systems and/or processes to prevent similar incidents in the future.

b. When a computer connects to a network and begins communicating with others, it is taking a risk. Internet security involves the protection of a computer's internet account and files from intrusion of an unknown user.[1] Basic security measures involve protection by well selected passwords, change of file permissions and back up of computer's data.

Security concerns are in some ways peripheral to normal business working, but serve to highlight just how important it is that business users feel confident when using IT systems. Security will probably always be high on the IT agenda simply because cyber criminals know that a successful attack is very profitable. This means they will always strive to find new ways to circumvent IT security, and users will consequently need to be continually vigilant. Whenever decisions need to be made about how to enhance a system, security will need to be held uppermost among its requirements.

Internet security professionals should be fluent in the four major aspects:

* Penetration testing
* Intrusion Detection
* Incidence Response
* Legal / Audit Compliance


3. Limited workstation

A workstation is a high-end microcomputer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems. The term workstation has also been used to refer to a mainframe computer terminal or a PC connected to a network.

Historically, workstations had offered higher performance than personal computers, especially with respect to CPU and graphics, memory capacity and multitasking cability. They are optimized for the visualization and manipulation of different types of complex data such as 3D mechanical design, engineering simulation (e.g. computational fluid dynamics), animation and rendering of images, and mathematical plots. Consoles consist of a high resolution display, a keyboard and a mouse at a minimum, but also offer multiple displays, graphics tablets, 3D mice (devices for manipulating and navigating 3D objects and scenes), etc. Workstations are the first segment of the computer market to present advanced accessories and collaboration tools.

In our adopted company, one of their barriers is their station. Before, they can manage the people, the processes and the customers because it is not that busy before. But, as time goes by, more customers are coming, more people are involved in the company, many processes have been changed and added, now they are having a problem of their station. Though it still could cater the company but it is limited because they lack stations that will be even more convenient for everyone.



Reference:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_security
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database_security
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workstation
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Franz Cie B. Suico



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Aug 17, 2009 3:56 pm

Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation ..(2000words)

First, I will just make an introduction in order for me to reach the 2000 words that our instructor required us to make. I only have few resources about the topic but I will do some research in order to attain my goal. And I am finding it hard to search some resources/article regarding barriers in IS/IT implementations. But I will try all my best in giving you all the information you need regarding with the topic.

To start, I will discuss what company we adopted and the company that we adopted is the Davao Light and Power Company (DLPC) located at Ponciano Reyes Street, Davao City. But before that let me discuss to you what a barrier is.

What is a barrier? Let me define first what is a barrier, a barrier is a natural formation or structure that prevents or hinders movement or action. If we relate it to the question, in connection to IS/IT implementations, it is simply to prevent or preventing a new program/system in implementing or to apply in the organization. In relation to my adopted company, I will identify and discuss these barriers in IS/IT implementations. But I will just discuss first about my adopted company which is the Davao Light and Power Company (DLPC).

As we all know Davao Light and Power Company (DLPC) is the main source of electrical power all over Davao City. It supplies electrical power to residence, companies, and all other infrastructures here in Davao City. And as the leading power corporation here in Davao City, we can say that there are barriers in IS/IT implementations. As an organization it is part in there daily company activities. Each company must find ways to make solutions to daily problems.

As what I have gathered during our interview, Davao Light and Company (DLPC) are also experiencing barriers during IS/IT implementations. And we can’t deny the fact that every new program that is being implemented in an organization there are factors that involves in every step they make; such as, adaptation/adjustment in the new program. Employees will be having a hard time trying to adjust or adopt the new system. There is lot of factors that involves in implementing new system/program within the organization. I will identity and discuss what are those barriers that prevents Davao Light and Power Company (DLPC) in implementing those new systems.

These are the following barriers:

1. Resources
2. Security
3. Workforce
4. Time

RESOURCES

So I will discuss each of these barriers. The first barrier in IS/IT implementation is the resources. Does the company have the resources to support the new system? Does the company knew about the risks associated in IS/IT implementations. Is the company ready in all the process in implementing a new system? Implementing would mean installation, maintenance and repair, and etcetera. So these are some of the question that needs to be answer if we talk about resources in an organization. Money is the most important factor in implementing an information system. Without this factor they could not run the new system. So it is very important in a company that you have the enough resources to support the new system. In relation to our company the Davao Light and Power Company (DLPC), in my opinion they have all the enough resources at hand to support the new system that is being implemented. Davao Light and Power Company (DLPC) also told us during our interview that if they really need to support the new system they spend enough money in order to support it, because they knew that they will still benefit from it. But why spend too much money in a new system if they really don’t need a new one, also stated by the IT personnel we interviewed.

SECURITY

Second is security. The main thing that focuses Davao Light and Power Company is their increasing number of data that is in stored. As the number of data being stored it also increases the chances of unwanted attacks, or being prone to viruses. The data is the most essential and important thing in a company. Without it, I don’t know what will happen to the company. Data collection for developing systems is the hardest and most complex part in the whole data collection process. It’s the most tiresome yet important part because it tells us what the system should be, and what is its range and limitations. Normally, databases are protected from external attacks by the use of firewalls and etcetera. But if it is networked already it is prone to malicious attacks. So traditional firewalling is not enough to protect the database from external attacks. But in connection to Davao Light and Power Company (DLPC) they are a big company, and when you are a big company you also have big data’s in stored. So it is in a networked connection thus it is prone to unwanted attacks from external connections. So they must find ways in order to have a very stable database. We can never have a perfect database or a system, all we can do is to minimize all the possible errors in the database. In the part of Davao Light and Power Company (DLPC) they still manage to maintain their system in good shape. From Clipper they changed to Oracle. I think in my opinion in the business world when we talk about databases of a company first thing that mostly IT professionals would take importance is SECURITY, why? For the reason it keep it from external attacks, for we all know they can benefit from doing such things as cracking systems. So security is one of the barriers of IT/IS implementations.

WORKFORCE

Third is workforce. This is the people that are working 8 hours a day for them to sustain their daily needs. We all know without the people working we cannot implement things. So also this is one of the barriers in IS/IT implementations. Why can we say that it is a barrier in IS/IT implementations? The reason is simple as stated a while ago that without the people who are working we cannot implement things. So without proper training within the employees in an organization they will find it hard to implement things. It also includes workstations, if you are a big company with a small workstation; it will take years before you can accomplish enough jobs to do. So this is also a barrier in IS/IT implementations to it delay works that needs to be accomplish in order to implement things. No proper training, not enough workforce, limited workstations. These are also some of the barriers in IS/IT implementations.

TIME

And lastly, time can also be considered as a barrier since it gives us limitations that we must follow. Such limitations can affect the developing process and the output. In a saying that is stated “Time is Gold”.

So to summarized things, there are many factors that affect in IS/IT implementations. I just stated some of it in relation to my adopted company. So in order to have a good profit every company should analyze and think what those barriers are and how to overcome these barriers. Every company know what are the risks involving those barriers. As we all know in every advantage there are also disadvantages. In relation to the topic every time you implement something in the company is ready with the risks that you will be sacrificing in order to achieve what you want.

References:
It’s my own opinion. lol!

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charmaine_dayanan



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PostSubject: barriers...   Mon Aug 17, 2009 4:21 pm

As I was beginning to recall our interview with the company we once had a conversation with regarding the risks associated with business and IS/IT change (you may check my previous post about the topic at http://charmainespeaksup.blogspot.com/2009/07/risks-associated-with-business-and-isit.html), I was looking for some points where the company found some difficulties or obstacles in management and its implementation with regards to information system / technology.

Davao Light and Power Company started its business as early as 1973. And from that time on, there were remarkable changes in the aspects of office equipments (hardware and software components), human resources (workforce), and management system, to name a few. I could say that their company is able to address problems right away if there were any that may delay their operation. In their long years of service, I could say that the IT Services Group is really very observant on the various changes of IS components and its effects on the company processes. I could only notice some few barriers in Davao Light’s IS/IT implementation. Some of these are on the succeeding sections…

Primary on the list is the gradual increase of data being stored in the database(s) and/or the server(s). I think this is the most essential concern of the IT personnel in the company. As years go by, more and more customers are being served by Davao Light and this means that the data being processed by the servers is also increasing. Aside from that, the company is now developing each year and more departments are being added. That is why the company undergone many changes in hardware aspects to cater the needs of their clients and their employees as well. Their current back-end now is Oracle in place of the previous Clipper. The latter has been tested by years and it was a good programming language and database, yet it is not robust. I could still remember that our interviewee mentioned that as technology evolves, one thing the management is coping with is the business processes. “Your system must always be compatible with your business process,” our interviewee stressed. The system has to be adaptable.

But of course, changing and choosing the hardware and / or software component is not that easy and fast. Sometimes your system has only limited access to those who primarily operates on it. In this case, it is too secured that not most employees who need to obtain data from the database. There are instances that if your database system can hold as much data as you want to load yet it has low security. On the other side, one particular database has high security but has lesser memory capacity. Our interviewee stressed that in changing a system, one has to look for these points. The programmer has to weigh whether the company needs a system in which it has highly secured data but eventually would look for another database system or server after it reached its maximum limit in data storage since it is not that large, only few people can access to it; or, choose the system which can hold much larger data for many years but is not very robust. Security and convenience are the two main points to be looked after. Your current situation using the present system could be a barrier in IT implementation when it comes to the limit. The management could have started planning out some developments in the employees and clients’ side but cannot proceed directly into carrying out these operations since the system is compromised. Other potential barriers here come during the introduction and implementation of the new system. Of course with new environment and usage, some trainings and orientation has to be done for those employees (lower organizational level) who will be using the data stored on the database. Moreover, in spite of how big or small the changes are, the clients (e.g. customers) also have to be informed especially those who are patronizing the services of the company.

The second main point here is the issue of ‘piracy’ of the company’s IT personnel. Even before, there has been some depreciation in the number of top IT employees focusing on the IS department. A number of system developers and engineers would give in to personal extra business from the outside. As time goes by, these employees would decide to leave the company for good so to seek greener pasture in other organizations. If there would be any current activity or system being developed by a certain programmer and/or developer, it will halt and another personnel has to be trained so to be in place of the programmer who left and continue his work. Instead of chances of rapid improvement of the system, the process may break-off or paused.

Another thing is the company’s Change Management System in which requests (for changes) being passed will be redirected first to it for evaluation. I must admit that this is beneficial to the company since whatever requests for changes will be assessed over and over to be sure of its future effects. But what I was thinking is, what about emergency matters requiring immediate attention? Will it be evaluated over and over again until the desired outcome is concluded? As we all know, time is very essential in IS/IT progress. The barrier here is that if there is urgent need for some amendments or modification of the system for emergency purposes, it will take time in assessment before it will be implemented.

…more on Barriers in my other companies [to be continued...]

In the other organization that my group had visited and interviewed previously, barriers in IT implementation has something to do with the fear of some disadvantages brought by the system’s components. Just like DC Tech Micro Services, our company from which we had our industry analysis of the role of internet in e-commerce and e-business, their payment system is not yet electronic or done online. Some establishments are now accepting online payments or using electronic payment systems (customers and clients can process their money payments through the internet and website of the company) in their sales. Internet, for the company, is the channel of distribution where they could advertise their company business, the operational side, and a means of communication by clients and customers. Their website helps in the promotion of their products and so customers can browse through it. But when asked about e-payment system, our interviewees said that they are still following the old and manual system of collection. I wonder why and just as I was about to ask, they stated a major disadvantage and that is in terms of security. In banking over the internet, you can not be sure of whether your customer is a real human anyhow. Although most online transactions in the present are happening widely, where a person’s credit card may be used, the customer’s basic information about his bank account is encrypted in the card as it traverses along the net. But even if this pertinent information about a person is encrypted, there are still wide cases where it is hacked. This major drawback, I should say, restrains the company from having this sort of online payment system.

The company follows the traditional way of collecting payments from its clients and customers. They still have sales personnel to do the jobs, and if their clients do not like to pay to sales collectors, they have the option to have it bank-to-bank. In e-commerce, as our interviewee would say, its disadvantage is, you can not trace a person’s income thus no idea of his capability to pay. Additionally, e-payments are prone to scam. Some widely used online ordering and cash-delivery systems always have glitches.

These opinions made me wonder of the company’s status in terms of information technology / system. I am also considering their reasons and I respect that. But it made me think too, that in the near future, more and more organizations would eventually venture into something like that (online payments) and being one of the pioneers in the industry they belong to, I think they should be on their way to weighing the circumstances and consider planning to have the said system implemented.

I think the barrier here is the fear of the disadvantages that they do not want to implement it – resistance to change. Maybe they are just focusing on the drawbacks that they still choose to have the old way. I have nothing against the old system, though. It’s just that I think we should try something different and new. I do not really mean we should try everything that is modern and unusual. But taking into account the competitiveness of the company in the industry, the above-mentioned demerits can be deliberately studied and simulated so to prevent from its possible security drawbacks. Glitches and weaknesses are just normal, but they can be avoided to have lesser unwanted outcomes. Besides, what is the use of the technology we are developing, using, and applying nowadays, right? Problems are dealt, and not to be avoided. Essential steps that should be taken are defining the effective system changes and interventions and establish procedural guidelines.

Oh, and by the way, if and then, they would be having this so-called online payment system, their sales personnel who will be doing the collection would find no more clients to collect for since customers will be paying online or bank-to-bank. Human resources will be affected. Of course, there would be lesser people needed to take charge of the payments especially the collection. Does that mean that these collecting agents would find no more jobs to do? Well…

I am sure that if not now, in the near future, companies would consider into having new applications to their systems. There may be some hindrance to its implementations and this may be due to its impact on the company’s human resources, the cost that may be cutting a large slice of the budget, and its possible disadvantages (since all have trial-and-error methods) along the way, but any organization can overcome it. As they say, ways to success, whether in business or not, is not only to find the key and keep it, but learning how to break the barriers in case somebody changes the lock. Chill!


Resources that may help:
The TriCentral Palliative Care Toolkit: Chapter 3: Building a Palliative Care Program: Identify barriers to implementation – and strategies to overcome them
http://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/22/4481.html

Legal Barriers to eGovernment by Florence de Villenfagne, CRID, University of Namur (Belgium)

Feel free to drop your comments at http://charmainespeaksup.blogspot.com/2009/08/barriers-in-it-implementation.html lol! lol! lol!


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Roy Cuevas



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PostSubject: assignment 5   Mon Aug 17, 2009 4:49 pm

First of all, my adopted organization(s) are: Lapanday Foods Corporation located at Maryknoll Drive, Lanang, Davao City; Columbia Computer Center at C.M.Recto Street(Claveria), Davao City; and GH Office Office Depot, located at Monteverde St., Davao City. Both companies have their respective IT Departments in their establishments and they are using it to improve their work and all their transactions and other business-related activities.

IT/IS implementations in an organization is very important, especially now that we are in the technological age, and computers and fast rising new technology are needed to make a company prosper and for it to be successful.
A barrier is an obstacle which prevents a given policy instrument being implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented. So in this post, I will be discussing on the obstacles that hinder the implementation of IS/IT implementation in our adopted organization(s).

If I were talking about the barriers in the implementation of the IS/IT in these respective companies, I think it would be: money/budget, personnel and staff, management decisions.

Money/Budget:
Of course, in almost companies, organizations, institutions and the like, money is a very important thing to settle with. Almost all transactions and all events involve money. In a company, it would be very hard to implement Information Systems or putting up a Mnagement Information Systems(MIS) Department if there were no budget because putting these up would mean installation, maintenance and repair, delivery, purchase of specific software and so many other things to do. In order to do this, you have to have a considerable amount of budget in hand. That is why not all companies have their own information systems, because not all companies/organizations have the budget to put it up. For me, only those companies that are bigger and more successful have what it takes for IS/IT-related implementations.

In Columbia Computer, I think that they have no problems with their budget, because their company is an established one, which means that they have a long history ahead of them, and they also have a reputation which makes customers want to go back to them and consider their goods. The only problem is that, even though I think that they have the proper budget, they don’t really need it for the implementation of IS/IT in their office. This issue will be discussed later.

For GH Office Depot, budget is also not a problem, although I think it is. From what I saw in the IT Manager’s office, some of his hardware are old ones, and I think need to be upgraded for better performance. But again, I also think that they know what they’re doing and they are just purchasing what they need. Companies don’t need to buy high-end systems for basic business tasks like word-processing, order entry and other stuff like that.

And for Lapanday Foods Corporation, there’s no problem with their budget, because Lapanday is a big company, already exporting their products, although I don’t know if they had budget problems when they were first starting their Information System and other IT related practices. They even have their own server there, and that fact makes you think immediately that they have their own budget in their MIS Department to be able to purchase a midrange server.

Personnel and Staff:
In implementing IS/IT in your company, you usually need someone to oversee it and maintain it, as with other departments in your offices like Accounting, Human Resources, etc. If not too big, then your IT department shouldn’t really need many personnel and staff for the task, just enough.

In Columbia Computer Center, they utilize their IS/IT related practices very well, which I have discussed in the first assignment. But, they said that they really don’t need a MIS Dept., because all of them there are knowledgeable of what to do there. As they have said, all of them are “Daltans” or “Dala Tanan”. All of them are versatile; they know how to do this and that, even though it’s not the assigned task for him/her. All of them are trained when they start to work there, so everyone is fully functional. So not only do they know how to operate their systems, but they also know hardware support, marketing and selling and other things which they have to know.

For GH Office Depot, I think they have a problem with their personnel, although it’s not that big. According to their IT Manager, the one operating their IT Department is only him. If he needs help then he asks for help with other personnel, but those personnel do not belong to the IT Department. Only the IT Manager has the specific skills to do the jobs required. When their accounting section has problems with their software, or there is a problem with one of their computer hardware, he is the one who comes to the rescue. And also in networking problems, he is the one to manage. I think if he had some people under him which are really IT people, then it would lessen the burden (if there is).

As for Lapanday Foods Corporation, I think there is no problem with their workforce, because when we went to their MIS Department there, there was a whole room of people working in front of computers, and they were really very busy. I think they were working on Lapanday’s website because when you went to their website, it would tell you that it was under construction. But that’s just what I think, because they were so busy.

Management Decisions:
Under this topic, I really can’t elaborate much, because I don’t know what’s on the mind of a high position manager or somewhat like that. The only thing I can relate with this is the one we encountered at GH Office Depot. When they log in or log out, they have a Biometrics Scanner and they also have a Bundy Clock. When we asked why there were two ways of logging in and out, their IT Manager said that it was for regular and casual employees. When we asked why it was like that, he just said that it was the order of the other department, the accounting department, I think. In the long run, even if you have a stable and good-working system, it would always depend on the higher-ups’ decision of how to use it and how it would work. And it will also be up to them if they wanted to change it or not.

For me, if you want your company to be successful and you want to utilize your IS/IT related practices well, then you have to decide which barrier you will have to break. But you have to study first whether it would do good for your company or it would be the cause of its downfall. There are also many things to consider in a company’s success, but the IT field of a company is very important, because many data, transactions and other processes are happening here. That’s why you have to consider it and give it a little importance, because we are in the technological age, and tasks in a company that are connected with technology must be given importance

References:
http://www.konsult.leeds.ac.uk/public/level1/sec10/index.htm

most of the content here are of my own view, the reference is only for the definition of "barrier". So if you think my post isn't right or something like that, feel free to comment at
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Dolorosa G. Mancera



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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Mon Aug 17, 2009 5:46 pm

Fifth Assignment:
Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation. (2000words)

Before I go on with my adopted organization(s), I would like to discuss and identify first what are the things that can be considered as barriers in a company’s Information System or Information Technology implementation. I am quite confused with this topic so I search the internet first to have some ideas about the different obstacles in IS/IT implementation. And I admit that I had a hard time looking for a reliable resources or references. And I guess I found some sites that can be appropriate enough to answer this assignment.

Let me define first the meaning of barriers. In my own definition, barriers for me simply mean something that separates one thing from another or something that’s in between. It could be considered as hindrance that an individual may face while he/she is trying to gain entrance into something that may sometimes complicates the situation. So when we say barriers in a company’s information system or information technology implementation, those are obstacles that stand in the way of implementing an IS/IT in a certain organization which may complicates the situation. These barriers are hindrance that the company may face when they try to implement an Information System or Information Technology.

I have read an article about implementing a new Information System, published on June 9, 2008 by Lasan in Management; it talks about the different ideas and questions that would be asked if we will implement a new complex Information System within a company. Doing such big project usually entails a lot of problems that must be solved and a lot of barriers to be crossed, so it gives interest and a challenging road toward completion. As what I have understand, if a certain company wants to have a new IS they must consider a lot of things because getting a new “IS” is a strategic decision, where functionality, applicability, and adaptability play the main role. Some of the things that can be a problem or hindrance in having a new IS are the difficulty in choosing a system, the feedback of the end-users and the cost. Choosing a new system is not a simple one because it will depend on what the company wants and how big the organization is. If you are the owner of a company, it would be incorrect if you say “We want a new system that would work in exactly the same way as the previous one”. Why? Well, in this case you don’t need a new system. When changing the IS, you have the opportunity to review your current businesses, make some improvements, modify them, and make them better than the old one. Next is the end-users feedback. If you are the programmer, you should be patient and aware of the users’ response. It would either be positive or negative. The type of user who would probably have a positive response is those innovators, good and hard workers. On the other hand, the regular workers and complainers usually have a negative feedback. They may have a bad response maybe because the users don’t want to spend extra time thinking about their job or reading the manual, they are quick with complains but are not willing to read the manuals or search the web, or they are satisfied with the old one and they are uncomfortable with the new system. Last is the cost. Of course, it could be an obstacle because we have to consider how much money the company is willing to spend to implement a new IS solution.

As I go on searching the net, I have gathered some information that would help me identify the barriers in an organizations IS/IT implementation. Barriers in information technology in a company are inevitable and actually, there are a lot of it. It could be a technical, physical, human resource, communication, financial, operation or psychological problems. But I would like to point out and discuss about the technical problems, financial problems and the operation problems.

From the word information system, itself, it deals with information and how to manage it. So, it is essential to know how information is transmitted and shared by the company. For the first obstacle, which is the technical problems, some of the problems mentioned that would be classified as a problem in technical are the following: data processing difficulties, time factor in the collection and updating of information, a need for new and modern information system resources, and the need for fund for the processing and printing of information. Based on what I have read and as what I have observed, one thing that conflicts the implementation is the difficulty on data collection and management. Why? It is simply because data collection is a tedious yet a very important part of the whole system. It is referred to us as the hardest and complex part of the whole process so we have to look after it.

For financial problems, an information system needs a sufficient fund for the compensation of the information. The company’s financial state could be a big factor in case the company is in need to improve the information system. It could be an obstacle because if we want to acquire certain resources that soothe the company’s needs it gives as passage to have sufficient resources.

The third obstacle mentioned above is the operation problem. Some of the problems in operations of IS are the need for coordination between the professionals and the educational institutions and the need for full support on the new breakthroughs or technology presented by the programmers or any person concern. If the higher rank lacks the support, this is the hindrance that we are talking about in implementing an Information System/Information Technology in an organization. Why? Well, for me, because you are blocking the company to be updated with the new trends of gadgets that would be useful to improve the performance and speed of your systems.

Now, let’s proceed with my adopted companies. Based from the previous assignments, I have two companies the GH Office Depot, located at 88A Monteverde Avenue, Davao City, and the Lapanday Foods Corporation at Maryknoll Drive, Lanang Davao City. Based from the ideas that I have gathered from the net, I tried to recall all the things that we have discuss on our interview that would fit to answer this assignment.

First, we have the GH Office Depot and we are fortunate to interview their IT Personnel. Recalling our discussion with the company’s IT Personnel and in my own observation, one of the problems that I discover is the lock of more personnel on their IT department. As I remember, Mr. HP (the IT Personnel) is the only person on the IT Department. So he is the only person responsible on the maintenance and repair of the hardware components and the installations of software. That’s really a tough job for him but if he had some people that can help him, well, definitely it will lessen the burden and if problems may occur, he have some bodies who can help him. Another burden would be in their technical resources. As what I have observed, their IT department has fewer computers than I thought. They only use a laptop and one old personal computer (I guess). Though, there computers are still working, there is still a need for upgrade for a better performance. And whenever they purchase a new hardware or change into a new system, the budget and cost is always think of before they decide.

Next we have the Lapanday Foods Corporation. After interviewing there MIS manager and toured in some part of there company, I would probably say that there is no problem in there implementation on there IS/IT. In terms of technical, they always make sure that they properly upgraded there computers to have a faster data processing and a better hardware performance. If ever they want to acquire a new IT/IS for the company, they always make sure that they have a proper budget and effectively choose a computer that would fit the needs of the user and the programs that would be installed. So the first two obstacles that I have stated above are maybe not yet encountered by the company or maybe they already resolved that certain hindrance to the success of their information system. And considering there end-users, I guess there are no problem because as the MIS manager told us that before they implement a new system they study it first and properly introduced and demonstrated to the users. They have trainings beforehand to avoid problems. Compared to my other company, the Lapanday’s Management Information System department have several employees so therefore the job was divided and the process of data would be easy. There would be lesser technical problems that may occur.




References:
http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/erd/english/wgesa/doc/ethiopia/appendice_2.htm


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Aug 17, 2009 6:16 pm

Barriers to Technology Integration
Ever since computers were first used in commercial situations, organizations have tried to improve the operation of their business processes through the application of information technology in ways that have come to be described as "automation." While automation has achieved many stunning successes, experts in management and information technology have begun to recognize its considerable limitations. In brief, when business processes are automated without first streamlining and improving them (for instance by eliminating redundant activities), organizations generally fail to achieve significant benefits from their large investments in information technology. Also, when automation efforts are confined to small pieces of a business process (such as those pieces that fall within the boundaries of a particular functional unit of the organization), it can happen that the larger process is suboptimized, and performance is degraded, rather than improved.

Growing recognition of the limitations of the traditional "automation" paradigm has led experts to urge managers to conduct their system acquisition and system development activities in the context of larger organizational "reengineering" efforts. By carefully scoping out the boundaries of the whole business process and identifying its critical performance measures and the major points of leverage on them before selecting or developing an information system, managers can avoid the twin automation pitfalls of automating a bad process and automating the wrong process.

A barrier is defined as “any condition that makes it difficult to make progress or to achieve an objective” (WordNet, 1997). The objective under scrutiny in this study is increased technology integration. The understood and yet unspoken connotation of a barrier is that its removal acts as an aid towards the achievement of the objective. Therefore, the study of barriers as they pertain to technology integration is essential because this knowledge could provide guidance for ways to enhance technology integration. Ertmer (1999) echoed this sentiment, in stating that by providing “teachers with knowledge of barriers, as well as effective strategies to overcome them, it is expected that they will be prepared to both initiate and sustain effective technology integration practices” (Conclusion section, ¶ 4).


Common Barriers
The act of integrating technology into teaching and learning is a complex process and one that may encounter a number of difficulties. These difficulties are known as barriers. In order to lay the foundation for this, it is necessary to illustrate the established set of common technology integration barriers. Although these are often labeled, measured, and rated differently, researchers (Hadley & Sheingold, 1993; Anderson et al.1998; Jacobsen, 1998; Ertmer, 1999; Ertmer et al., 1999; Newhouse, 1999; Beggs, 2000; Becker, 2000b; Rogers, 2000; Cuban, 2001; Pajo & Wallace, 2001; Beaudin, 2002; Snoeyink & Ertmer, 2002; Bariso, 2003) have identified these or similar variations as widespread barriers:
-lack of computers,
-lack of quality software,
-lack of time,
-technical problems,
-poor funding,
-lack of teacher confidence,
-resistance to change,
-poor administrative support,
-lack of computer skill,
-poor fit with the curriculum,
-lack of incentives,
-scheduling difficulties ,
-poor training opportunities,
-and lack of vision as to how to integrate.

In order to draw conclusions, researchers have long attempted to categorize or group barriers through a factor analysis. This is the approach taken in this study. Hadley and Sheingold (1993) conducted a study involving known technology integrators at the 4-12 grade level, their factor analysis identified the following seven themes (ranked here from the most to least) which accounted for over 50% of the variance. The most cited barriers to technology integration were:
1. Poor administrative support
2. Problems with time, access, space, supervision, and operations
3. Poor software
4. Curriculum integration difficulties
5. Teacher’s attitudes and knowledge towards computers
6. Computer limitations and inadequate numbers of computers
7. Lack of technical support.

As stated by SONY:
1. MONEY
2. IT Support
3. Training
4. IT Infrastructure
5. Time
6. Priorities
7. Changing Technologies
8. Planning
9. Fear


Barriers Always Present
To best demonstrate the existence of barriers to technology integration independent of the environment, it is essential to examine the recent history of technology in the classroom. This allows one to see that as the main barrier – lack of technology access – was removed, other barriers still remained. Nevertheless, common sense dictates that in institutions that lack sufficient access to technology, effective technology integration would be a daunting, if not impossible task. It appears that Maddux’s (1998) claim that “it is essential that computers be placed in classrooms. Until that happens, true integration is unlikely to take place” remains true.

They found that abundant access to technology was not enough to ensure technology integration. This means that even in better than average technology-rich schools, teachers were still not integrating technology to any substantial degree. It appeared that even the straightforward task of scheduling a computer lab acted as a barrier. Yet again, the essential element of this study is that as a laptop institution, access to technology is not an issue. This provides depth to the investigation into the remaining technology integration barriers. Some of the barriers preventing teachers from integrating technology were poor computer literacy, lack of time, lack of confidence, and hardware malfunctions. Though access as a barrier had been overcome, others still remained. Similar sentiments are echoed by Cuban (2001) since he found that lack of time and inadequate generic training remained technology integration barriers in technology-rich high schools. He also noted that at technology-rich Stanford University, faculty continue to cite lack of time and poor technical support as barriers to technology integration.


Barrier Elimination
Recommendations as to the methods of eliminating technology integration barriers differ according to the type and intensity of the barrier. (Ertmer, 1999, Obtaining Resources Section, ¶ 1).

1. the less sophisticated technology integrator will require more professional development (sessions on ways to integrate technology) and more basic technical support (who to call when the computer crashes) because they are less independent;

2. the more advanced technology integrator will require more sophisticated technology support (things like learning how to make a CD) and advanced professional development (sharing sessions with other advanced integrators).



Links and Pdf's:

file:///C:/Users/ImpulsE/Desktop/MIS_assign5/6.htm
file:///C:/Users/ImpulsE/Desktop/MIS_assign5/barriers.htm
file:///C:/Users/ImpulsE/Desktop/MIS_assign5/Implementing%20a%20New%20Information%20System%20_%20Bizcovering.htm

http://is2.lse.ac.uk/asp/aspecis/19940017.pdf
barriers_ehr_implementation.pdf
ITbarriers.pdf
lthe02_05.pdf

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http://alyssaraeonmis.blogspot.com/
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Maria Theresa F. Rulete



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before August 17, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Aug 17, 2009 8:33 pm

Why are barriers important?

A barrier is an obstacle which prevents a given policy instrument being implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented. In the extreme, such barriers may lead to certain policy instruments being overlooked, and the resulting strategies being much less effective. For example, demand management measures are likely to be important in larger cities as ways of controlling the growth of congestion and improving the environment. But at the same time they are often unpopular, and cities may be tempted to reject them simply because they will be unpopular. If that decision leads in turn to greater congestion and a worse environment, the strategy will be less successful. The emphasis should therefore be on how to overcome these barriers, rather than simply how to avoid them. ECOCITY provides a useful illustration of the ways in which such barriers arise, and of how obstacles have been overcome, in case study cities.

What are the principal barriers?

In our work in PROSPECTS, we grouped barriers into the four categories listed below. More recent work in TIPP has demonstrated that failure to adopt a logical approach to the process of strategy development can also impose a barrier to effective planning. This Guidebook is designed to help cities avoid this happening. TIPP also provides a set of recommendations.

1) Legal and institutional barriers

These include lack of legal powers to implement a particular instrument, and legal responsibilities which are split between agencies, limiting the ability of the city authority to implement the affected instrument (Section 3). The survey of European cities in PROSPECTS indicates that land-use, road building and pricing are the policy areas most commonly subject to legal and institutional constraints. Information measures are substantially less constrained than other measures.

2) Financial barriers

These include budget restrictions limiting the overall expenditure on the strategy, financial restrictions on specific instruments, and limitations on the flexibility with which revenues can be used to finance the full range of instruments. PROSPECTS found that road building and public transport infrastructure are the two policy areas which are most commonly subject to financial constraints, with 80% of European cities stating that finance was a major barrier. Information provision is the least affected.

3) Political and cultural barriers

These involve lack of political or public acceptance of an instrument, restrictions imposed by pressure groups, and cultural attributes, such as attitudes to enforcement, which influence the effectiveness of instruments. The surveys in PROSPECTS show that road building and pricing are the two policy areas which are most commonly subject to constraints on political acceptability. Public transport operations and information provision are generally the least affected by acceptability constraints.

4) Practical and technological barriers

While cities view legal, financial and political barriers as the most serious which they face in implementing land use and transport policy instruments, there may also be practical limitations. For land use and infrastructure these may well include land acquisition. For management and pricing, enforcement and administration are key issues. For infrastructure, management and information systems, engineering design and availability of technology may limit progress. Generally, lack of key skills and expertise can be a significant barrier to progress, and is aggravated by the rapid changes in the types of policy being considered.

How should we deal with barriers in the short term?

It is important not to reject a particular policy instrument simply because there are barriers to its introduction. One of the key elements in a successful strategy is the use of groups of policy instrument which help overcome these barriers. This is most easily done with the financial and political and cultural barriers, where one policy instrument can generate revenue to help finance another (as, for example, fares policy and service improvements), or one can make another more publicly acceptable (for example rail investment making road pricing more popular). These principles are discussed more fully in Section 11. A second important element is effective participation, as outlined in Section 5, which can help reduce the severity of institutional and political barriers, and encourage joint action to overcome them. Finally, effective approaches to implementation can reduce the severity of many barriers, as discussed in Section 15.

How can we overcome barriers in the longer term?

It is often harder to overcome legal, institutional and technological barriers in the short term. There is also the danger that some institutional and political barriers may get worse over time. However, strategies should ideally be developed for implementation over a 15-20 year timescale (Section 3). Many of these barriers will not still apply twenty years hence, and action can be taken to remove others. For example, if new legislation would enable more effective instruments such as pricing to be implemented, it can be provided. If split responsibilities make achieving consensus impossible, new structures can be put in place. If finance for investment in new infrastructure is justified, the financial rules can be adjusted. TIPP makes a number of recommendations for longer term institutional change. Barriers should thus be treated as challenges to be overcome, not simply impediments to progress. A key element in a long term strategy should be the identification of ways of resolving these longer term barriers.

Identify barriers to implementation — and strategies to overcome them

Organizations are as alike and unique as human beings. Similarly, group processes can be as straightforward or as complex as the individuals who make up the organization. It is vital to successfully launching a new program that the leaders understand the strengths, weaknesses, and idiosyncrasies of the organization or system in which they operate. Try to anticipate barriers to implementation so that you can develop strategies to minimize their impact or avoid them altogether. The following list of common barriers can be used to help your leadership team identify potential obstacles. The list of essential elements for change can help the team brainstorm possible solutions. The lists are a good starting point for a planning session that will be most effective if it also takes into account the organization's unique characteristics (Institute for Health Improvement).

Common Barriers

• Studying the problem too long without acting
• Trying to get everyone's agreement first
• Educating without changing structures or expectations
• Tackling everything at once
• Measuring nothing or everything
• Failing to build support for replication
• Assuming that the status quo is OK

More Barriers to Change

• Lack of such resources as time and commitment
• Resistance to change
• Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion
• Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities
• Ineffective teams
• Burdensome data collection

Essential Elements for Change Effort

• Define the problem
• Define the target population
• Define effective treatment strategies and establish procedural guidelines
• Establish performance measures; set goals
• Define effective system changes and interventions
• Develop leadership and system change strategy

Craft a business plan

To "sell" your program idea to administrators and financial officers, you will need a business plan, which outlines the new program's prospects, identifying both potential risks and benefits. A business plan gives you a format for presenting the work you have accomplished in a professional manner that lends credibility to the project. Here is where you report the findings from your needs assessment, outline your program's goals, and describe its procedures and policies. Here is also where you discuss the implementation process, including strategies for overcoming potential obstacles. Information pertaining to finances, program evaluation, and quality management—topics addressed in chapters 5 and 6 of this toolkit—should also be presented in the business plan.

Before you start writing, gather all the information you want to report in the business plan and then draft an outline.

This checklist will help get you started:

• Organizational description, including name, location, mission, patient population
• Management and organization, including organizational chart, key management, consultants, and advisors
• Justification for a palliative care program, including results from your needs assessment
• Services and implementation plan, including operations plan, policies and procedures, and program evaluation and quality management plan
• Marketing plan, including marketing materials
• Financial information, including budget, reimbursement streams, and other funding sources

It is best to wait and write the beginning of the business plan — the executive summary — after you have written all other parts. While a complete business plan may run 30-40 pages, the executive summary should be no more than two pages; it is the business plan in the most concise form possible. The primary purpose of the executive summary is to entice busy administrators to delve further into the details of the business plan.

http://www.konsult.leeds.ac.uk/public/level1/sec10/index.htm

http://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/22/4482.html

My Blog: http://etelur.blogspot.com/2009/10/mis-assignment-5.html




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Sheila Capacillo



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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Mon Aug 17, 2009 10:55 pm

bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce
Based on your adopted organization(s), identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation.


BARRIERS IN THEIR IS/IT IMPLEMENTATION



Technology is moving forward now, it is a way in which human develop their way of living. They try to practices new facilities and they try to engage to different way of developing their learning andapply it in their works.

There are so many aspects that can cause hindrance or barriers in implementing Information System or Information Technology. Before we discuss about how do the companies or organization comes up with those barriers, we will first define the meaning of it:

A barrier is an obstacle which prevents a given policy instrument being implemented, or limits the way in which it can be implemented. In the extreme, such barriers may lead to certain policy instruments being overlooked, and the resulting strategies being much less effective. For example, demand management measures are likely to be important in larger cities as ways of controlling the growth of congestion and improving the environment. But at the same time they are often unpopular, and cities may be tempted to reject them simply because they will be unpopular. If that decision leads in turn to greater congestion and a worse environment, the strategy will be less successful. The emphasis should therefore be on how to overcome these barriers, rather than simply how to avoid them.

I will base my discussion on two companies the GH Office Depot and the Davao Light Power Company.

These are the some Barriers I found:

Idea Common Barriers

Arrow Studying the problem too long without acting

On GH Depot
In the case of GH they have only one IT personnel that’s why he cannot do many tasks at the same time. He cannot easily handle two different things at the same time.

On DLPC (Davao Light Power Company)
On DLPC it takes long time to study their problem when it comes to implementing IT/IS practices because the company needs a thoroughly analysis due to sensitivity of data.

Arrow Trying to get everyone's agreement first
On DLPC
The IT department of DLPC was divided into 4 that’s why they need to communicate constantly so that they can have the views and opinions of each team so that they will agree on the same idea, imagine a company without union, it will be hard for them to implement and promote new IT and IS practices.
Educating without changing structures or expectations

On GH Depot
The IT personnel says that if he develops a new software or anything that is related to IT, some of the employees will expect that it will be hard for theme to adopt it.
Arrow Tackling everything at once

On both companies, they have a briefing with their employees. These briefing can minimize the different complications they will encounter.

Arrow Measuring nothing or everything

Before implementing the different Information Technology and Information Systems practices the companies will first encounter the measuring or analyzing the right way how to implement it and measure the capacity of the services they can offer.

Arrow Assuming that the status is OK

Some times they assume that the implemented Information Technology and Information System practices are good enough to answer the needs of their employees, but the truth is it’s not enough.

Arrow Lack of such resources as time and commitment

Due to limitation of time, the implementation of those practices can increase the problems of the companies systems. In DLPC sometimes they cannot do or practice it perfectly because they were given limited time.

Arrow Resistance to change

I t’s been a long year when DLPC change there way of implementing different IT and IS practices, they resist to change because it may help the company or it may cause a problem to company’s daily transactions. But there was a time that they really need to change it, because they see that it will help. They try it first, and then they continuously develop it. Until now they are trying to develop it for better usage of their employees.

On GH Depot, they are practicing it for more than 5 years now, their IT personnel said that it a big help for them. But some of the employees would prefer to use the older way because they have grown to that way of working.

affraid Reflection:

Due to the increasing demand of our day to day needs, and the desire of the person to ease their way of working, we IT person tries to make and develop different Information Technology and Information Systems practices so that it can help us in our day to day activities. The barriers that had been discussed are just some of the barriers that are develop and exist during the time that they are practicing the IT and IS practices that they conclude.

The better way to have good and manageable employees is to have a unity in a company. As what I have said, how could you implement the changes in a company if you cannot control your employees.

Reference:
http://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/22/4481.html


blog blog blog....
http://shecapacillo.blogspot.com/



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Marlie E. Sisneros



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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Mon Aug 17, 2009 11:18 pm

MARLIE's PAGE:

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BARRIERS IN IT/IS IMPLIMENTATION


LET ME DEFINE FIRST WHAT IS A BARRIER IN AN IS/IT IMPLIMENTION confused
Retort:

Barriers to Making the Connection

The quality of life in the future home may dramatically improve as more and more IT applications are implemented,
but the value proposition for connectivity is nontrivial at this point. A roundtable participant noted that people are
being asked to buy into a system, as opposed to a product . And unlike a telephone or a television set,
the basic form, fit, and function of the in-home network are still evolving. Many people perceive the system as too
complex to use and deploy, or even to evaluate. Participants further suggested that people don t invest in things
that don t appear stable and they don t maximize the cost-benefit analysis; they satisfy their needs. They have
pragmatic concerns and want a good out of the box experience (i.e., it will work when they get it home). They
want to believe they ve made a good investment and have reservations about throwing away tomorrow what they
buy today.
The barriers to moving IT into the home are an intertwined set of political, socioeconomic, and technical challenges.
Many of the barriers presented here can be summed up as a valuation problem, from the perspective of the
consumer, the builder, and the service provider. People are more likely to adopt IT in the home if there is a
significant reason to do so, and builders are probably willing to incorporate these technologies if there is a demand
for them. The experience of using these technologies must meet the expectations and needs of the users.
Technology is diffused not by the allure of devices or the network, but the expected benefits that result from it.

Nice to Have, Not a Necessity. The Internet is most likely the mainstay of connectivity and will be the delivery
mechanism for many things, but it is not ubiquitous in homes, it is not in the background, and it is not seamlessly
delivered like running water. When a home is bought and sold, it is not necessary to decide to install the water
heater and the pipes that carry cold water, hot water, and waste water. In contrast, connectivity is largely a personal
preference or add-on that must be consciously sought out, planned for, installed, and maintained. Individuals decide
how much connectivity (bandwidth) they want and where they want it, based on their personal needs and the options
of services offered. These choices are most likely made with little guarantee that the resultant infrastructure is
sufficiently flexible to gracefully evolve with technology and applications over time. Builders faced with a similar
uncertainty sometimes wire homes without a strong reason or clear benefit, simply because they feel it is a good
idea.

reference:http://www.rand.org/pubs/issue_papers/IP203/IP203.pdf

Common Barriers



  • Studying the problem too long without acting
  • Trying to get everyone's agreement first
  • Educating without changing structures or

    expectations
  • Tackling everything at once
  • Measuring nothing or everything
  • Failing to build support for replication
  • Assuming that the status quo is OK

More Barriers to Change


  • Lack of such resources as time and commitment
  • Resistance to change
  • Lack of senior leadership support or physician champion
  • Lack of cooperation from other agencies, providers, departments, and facilities
  • Ineffective teams
  • Burdensome data collection






Essential Elements for Change Effort


  • Define the problem
  • Define the target population
  • Define effective treatment strategies and establish procedural guidelines
  • Establish performance measures; set goals
  • Define effective system changes and interventions
  • Develop leadership and system change strategy
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Based on the Organization that i've[we've] visited and interviewed
namely ABS-CBN and Imageworld [printing press] Corporation
there common barrier in IT/IS Implementation is the new trend
of technology system being proposed to them for the development
and improvement od there outcomes and upshots. As Sir Bation
of ABS-CBN qouted " why take the risk of those latest systems
when we are so confident, comfortable, at ease and contented
with our Systems."unsa may kalahian sa daan og sa bag-o?
ang interface og nawong lang pero The same lang gihapun iyang
function og gamit" .
Acording also to the Manager of Imageworld{i forgot the name}
the main barrier also is the finance or the financial of the corparation
when it comes to renewing and renovation or improvement there
IS/IT systems.in this matter according to him, they prefer
outsourcing,a freelance, to create and maka a system for them
that suits there needs because in accordance with him having a in-house progammer
will cost them a high finalcial subsidy.
SOme barrier in IS/IT implemention are the peopleware
,the end user certainly,because when they outsource, they
must fisrt orient and train the end user/employee who will execute
that outsourced systems.
-The end user must be reliable, computer effecient,dexterous and
expert.
one of ABS-CBN's barrier is the signal and the whether.


-in my own perspective this is very true why following the trends
if those not so 'new-fangled' systems executes and accomplishes
excellence in every Company,whose used to it and comfortable to it!.
As technology began to offer
improved, more efficient operations, the information revolution took hold in the business sector. Now, with the
increased availability and affordability of technology that can collect, store, process, and transmit information,
homes are poised to experience a phenomenal change


~Fin~



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neil rey c. niere



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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Tue Aug 18, 2009 12:09 am

Based on our adopted company, we are tasked to identify and discuss barriers in their IS/IT implementation.


Barriers in IS/IT Implementation

Before I gave you these barriers, first i will define what barrier means and its causes to every organizations or companies.

What is Barrier?

a structure or object that impedes free movement
any condition that makes it difficult to make progress or to achieve an objective; "intolerance is a barrier to understanding"
anything serving to maintain separation by obstructing vision or access

I've read this article about some facts in company barriers and I've gathered some informations about this article.
These are some facts and information I've gathered:

The Six Most Common Barriers To Sales Success

There are a variety of reasons and excuses behind poor sales lead management because the $10 to $2000 companies spend to generate each business to business inquiry largely go to waste. I call them Barriers To Sales success. Here are six of the most common which plague businesses today.

1.SENIOR MANAGEMENT DOES NOT CARE

Paid to lead the organization in the big picture issues of market strategy, quality and customer satisfaction, senior managers are tempted to dismiss operational fundamentals and assume all is well. They are not aware of the tactical need for complete lead follow up, rapid inquiry fulfillment, accurate qualification practices or actual measurement of communications and sales performance.

2.SALES PEOPLE REMAIN UNINFORMED.

Unless they understand the potential value of qualified leads, salespeople (an independent minded breed) think they do not need help. Sales managers who fail to insist on follow up imply that leads are at best an option for slow days. Marketing departments that fail to qualify leads in advance will most likely contribute to the problem, giving leads a poor reputation.

3.POOR COORDINATION HOBBLES MARKETING AND SALES

Marketing and marketing communications people frequently have little idea of the quotas salespeople must meet, the timing of their sales contests, their need for seasonal boosts in lead volume, the products needing extra lead support and the geographical balance need to apportion leads sensibly among sales territories. Meanwhile ,the sales force does not understand why lead follow up reports are essential if marketing is to fine tune its advertising, mail and other promotion tools.

4.THE COMPANY MISMANAGES ITS PROSPECT LIST

Inquiries become orphans in a netherworld between marketing and sales. As a result, the company sends wrong information to inquirers, sends it late and does not tailor it to inquirers' specific interests. Marketing collects limited and uninformative data and updates them frequently. Marketing rarely compares separate databases - one for orders and one for inquiries, for example - and even more rarely merges them into a marketing information system.

5.MANAGEMENT DOE NOT HOLD SALESPEOPLE ACCOUNTABLE

Sales management does not insist on follow up and new prospect status reporting, even though it fusses and gripes over detailed expenses and call reporting.

6.MANAGEMENT DOES NOT HOLD MARKETING PEOPLE ACCOUNTABLE

Chief marketing officers do not hold subordinates accountable for lead handling performance.They do not insist ohm program return on investment reports, for example, evidence that inquiry generation ties in with company sales goals or analyses of inquiry source productivity.

All six barriers are the product of poor communications, inattention, lack of knowledge, human frailties and the sublime dysfunctionalities that lurk within all organizations. None is the result of weak strategies, poorly designed products, sloppy manufacturing, competitive pressures, government regulations or inadequate capital the classic management issues that pre- occupy most companies in the world today.


Sources:

htmlhttp://www.streetdirectory.com/travel_guide/1374/business_and_finance/the_six_most_common_barriers_to_sales_success.html
www.wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

visit my blog:

http://neilreyniere.blogspot.com


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