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 Assignment 6 (Due: December 23, 2011, before 01:00pm)

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PostSubject: Assignment 6 (Due: December 23, 2011, before 01:00pm)    Tue Dec 13, 2011 10:01 pm

Consider the following dialogue between a systems professional, John Juan, and a manager of a department targeted for a new information system, Peter Pedro:

Juan: The way to go about the analysis is to first examine the old system, such as reviewing key documents and observing the workers perform their tasks. Then we can determine which aspects are working well and which should be preserved.

Pedro: We have been through these types of projects before and what always ends up happening is that we do not get the new system we are promised; we get a modified version of the old system.

Juan: Well, I can assure you that will not happen this time. We just want a thorough understanding of what is working well and what isn’t.

Pedro: I would feel much more comfortable if we first started with a list of our requirements. We should spend some time up-front determining exactly what we want the system to do for my department. Then you systems people can come in and determine what portions to salvage if you wish. Just don’t constrain us to the old system.

Required:

a.Obviously these two workers have different views on how the systems analysis phase should be conducted. Comment on whose position you sympathize with the most.
b.What method would you propose they take? Why?
(3000 words)
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patrickduanevalle



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: December 23, 2011, before 01:00pm)    Thu Dec 22, 2011 11:28 pm

Name: Valle, Patrick Duane
Course/Yr: BSCS III

Assessment 6

As what we obviously notice between systems professional John Juan and the department manager Peter Pedro is they don’t agree about each others opinion. When we talk about the position of the two, Peter will have in the higher position but it doesn’t mean that this will always be follow and in the case of John, he is an expert in this field and he knows how to handle the situation more than anybody else.

If ill be ask on which side I will be between the two, I will be in the side of John because for me, he is the expert in this field and he know something more compare to the manager but its hard to pursue your opinion if the manager didn’t agree about your opinion. The best move they need to make in the first place is they need to analyze on what is the best to do. In my opinion, they need to study first the system to come up for the better approach because as I notice about Peter, he just base his idea in his past experience and for me, even thou you are experience enough in as certain situation, its always be a better idea if there is a study involve.

First thing to do in this situation is to talk and understand each other because I believe that everything can be solved in a better and calm conversation. Conversation is a very powerful tool to communicate and understand each and as a result, they can come up for a much better idea than before. In the opinion of John, he has a point because he said that first, they need to examine the old system for the possible solution so that they will have a faster and effective solution. If they can enhance the old system, they can minimize the cost of operation and the workers can easily understand the system because the old system which they use in the past operation will just be an enhance version of today’s system. Because of the enhancement of the system, the workers operation speed will just be the same or maybe it will be faster than before because we can’t say that the workers operation speed will slower because we need to understand that its an upgrade version and they will make it better and easy for the worker so there is no room for the slow speed operation but going fast. The negative side of John’s opinion is that you need to study the old system and the worst part is you can’t come up for the better result. If that will happened, this reviewing of document will be a waste of time. I say that this is a waste of time because there is no useful data and output but still in my idea, its better to re-use the system to maximize the use of resources. Observing the workers work will allow the analyst to know the problem because sometimes the problem is not in the system but sometimes its about how the worker handle the system. The good part of observing the worker is to know how they handle system and if you will find out that the problem is the worker then you don’t need to re construct a system but you just need to teach them how to use it but if they cant really handle it because they have the hard time understanding the things in the system then you need to re construct the system again specifically for them to use it correctly and minimize the possible mistake they can make. John also give his word that he will assure to the manager that the previous result will not happened again and for me, if the people will tell you that, its almost a hundred percent sure and it includes their integrity as an analyst. He also assure that they will study the system and a assure to have a better understanding about the working an not working system.

In the Peter side, he always want a new system compare to the modified system that may have less cost compare to the new system if you build. If Peter will finance the system development then we can consider it but if the company will finance it then it’s another issue. For me, an enhance version is not that bad if it will work like the new system but the good side is you don’t need to spend much compare to the new system but there are also a case that a new system is much better to the old but upgrade one because the cost is higher or the same compare to the new system and if that happened, it’s a practical choice to choose the new system than the upgrade one. That’s why we need to study the system first if we need to upgrade it or to renew it. Analyzing the cost, time, problem and the complexity of the system is the first things to do in order to evaluate and make an accurate move in a certain situation. As I read again and again, I found out that the manager has made up his mind and go for the new system because of what happened in the past.

If I will choose between the two and if we weight the situation, we can see that John has a point and the idea of John must be follow than the idea of Peter. Let us first see the point why I choose John than Peter.

First point why I choose John is because john is using his mind and Peter is using his experience. All thou experience is the most important than knowledge but we need to conceder that John is an expert in the system field. Peter is just a manager and comparing the right of the two, John must have the favor because he has the knowledge. In decision making, we need to be knowledgeable to a certain matter to have a better output. Everyone of us have expertise in a different field and if you’re an expert with that field then the chance of making something inside that field will have a greater chance compare to those people who are not expert. Second is that he applies his learning about how to approach the system. He wants to study first the system before doing anything and that’s a good idea. He is not concluding and he is using his head not just for his benefit but he is also thinking about the company and the cost. In every approach of developing a system, I must say that the first to do is to study first to know what to do and to have a better approach because approaching and developing a system must be study first to minimize the error and the problem that may happen. This will insure the success of the development so that the time and money will not be wasted for nothing. It can also minimize the cost because if there is a less error then less maintenance and as a result, you will have less cost. If you will study the system, you can balance the pros and cons of the system and for that, you will cover all the negative side of the system. Studying an old system will also give you an idea and build a much better system. If you cant enhance your old system because of some reason, you can develop a system which is far better than before because you will never do the same mistake again from the past system. Because of studying and analyzing the old system, it give you an idea on how to improve the current system and the old system will be your bases or your data for your new system. I am emphasizing the benefits of analyzing and studying the system first especially the old one because in this method, you don’t need to analyze a new system that much because the old system will give you a better idea on how the things work and how did they make it worst. The third point is about the cost related case about developing a new system or preserving and enhancing an old system. John is an idealistic person and for me, it’s a good attitude especially if you are an analyst and you are ask to build a system. If you notice that sometimes, preserving the system that function properly and enhancing the old one will cause you less compare to the new system. It is not like upgrading your computer by buying another tool that enhance your computer or buying a new and upgraded unit. In the system especially if the system is big and complex, its more practical if upgrade it than getting a new one. Like for the case of Pag-ibig Fund in Davao City which will be the subject of our final project in SAD. The style of their system is they just upgrade it and enhance it because if they will go back to the top, they will spend another time to teach the worker and for that, it’s a time consuming and time for them is very important because every second counts. They have 29 or something branches all over the Philippines and if you will have the new system then all of the branches will suffer the consequence of the new system. Their style is in their branch, they study and enhance the system for further development and if they come up for a new system then they send them to the other branches and deploy them to make the system upgraded. They re-use the system so that the development process will be faster compare to the implementation of a new system. The disadvantage of a new system is they need to have more maintenance compare to the old one. In my own opinion why the new system have more maintenance because they are new and it’s very difficult to perfect not like the old one because they have proven and tested for the past year. In a relation of perfection, there will always cost involve because in order to perfect the system, you need to study and upgrade it and it will be costly in the part of the employer.

In the last word of Peter, he sounds like he doesn’t want to cooperate. He just wants to do what he wants and doesn’t want to talk to John. This action will develop conflict between the two developers and will never have a good output. Team work is very important and I believe that two head is better than one. If I will judge the moral of the manager, he will not be permanent in this business because there is a roughness in his attitude and it is not right. In that case, he is prioritizing his personal opinion and doesn’t want to listen to others opinion. As an analyst or a manager of the company, you need to listen to other’s opinion because your opinion is not always good comparing to others opinion.

If John’s opinion will be follow and prioritize, base on my opinion about what will he do about the old system is to find out the useful one. The useful one are those program and system that is not necessary for a change. If you will replace the useful one with another system then it’s a redundant plus it’s a waste of money and time. Even thou the new system will function properly but then the old system which is functioning perfectly will be wasted and the worst part is if the new system will not function properly then you need to fixed it or enhance it to meet the demands. After evaluating the system then maybe if there are no more enhancement and development needed, you can start creating a new system.

In the assessment five, we are ask to search for a system development method and one of the method that I have learned is the Prototyping method. Prototyping method is a good method which is flexible enough in every system. The style of the prototyping method is building a prototype system and they put the prototype system into test and if the system is somehow perfect then they build a system from the prototype one. It is very fast and effective because in the prototype, they build the system in a rapid manner. It is sometimes called a rapid development which I have learn during our class in the data base system. Rapid development because of the short amount of time in developing the system.
I would like to discus first about the prototyping method for my recommendation for the development process of the system. We need to admit that in every method, there is always a negative part and one negative part of the prototyping method is it has a low security measure because as we all know that it is being develop in a rapid manner and it is tested with trial and error in order to perfect the system. If this method has the negative side, it has a big advantage in terms of time and cost. You can save time if you will have this method because as always saying, it is a rapid development. For me, time is very important because every minute count in the business. Every minute is always equal to profit and we need to give value for it. This method is also a less cost effective because you don’t need a long period of time and if you will have the shorter time to develop the system then it is a cost less system.

For me, this prototyping method is very much effective in terms of quality, time and cost of the system. If John’s idea will be prioritized then I must require that he need to use this method and it is very suitable for the situation. If my idea will be follow, I will use the old system to the prototype system and then I will study the system. When you have a prototype system, it is easy to re develop the system that is very friendly to the worker. As I have known, even if the system is almost perfect but then it failed to do its work because of the workers. The workers are the one who is making mistake and for that, the system fails. If we build a system, we need to think always about the workers on how they react or use the system. Even if your system is almost perfect, this will be useless if the worker will just destroy it. In the other word, human error is evadable but we can always reduce that human error in the system by having them connected to the system and by making them understand and making the system to teach them. Structure is very important like security because structure will help the user to understand what is need to do and what is not. As we go back to the statement of john, he wants to study first the system and separate the usable system from the one who need to upgrade or replace. If that what he want then if you use the prototyping method, you will notice if what the system is needed to improve by the use of old system as a prototype system. You can adjust the system for the workers and it is easy to perfect because they will always test the system until you will be satisfy. This will also determine if the system has needed for the replacement if you will see that the system is not meant for the worker. Systems are created for the worker and to address the problem of the community.

There are different reasons why I choose prototyping method and for me it is very effective. The first reason is about the system can be upgrade and the old system can be upgrade and this is the perfect time for the prototype to do the work. If you have this old system then you need to use prototype to determine if its upgradeable or not. I can say that this method can satisfy the worker and the manager because it will have the quality of a new system or better. When the old system will be using a prototype method, it will match the need of the worker and that’s the important one. Another reason is that this will minimize the time consumption especially when you are in a hurry. This will cover up the time that is being consumed by reviewing the system because reviewing the system which is the idea of John will consume some time and because of this method, you can cover all those time. After the reason for the time, another reason that I really want to emphasize is the cost. As I have said earlier, Peter is seems like he doesn’t care about the cost compare to John which is concern about it and also an expert in the field of system analysis. If you will use this approach, you will save money because it is not costly compare to another method. It is a good approach especially if you will make a huge system. We need to control the cost that is being use in development because maybe sometimes we need to spend that money in the other side of the system.

If someone will question why I choose this method and why waterfall method which happened today because someone in my classmate ask me about the method then I just answer them that in my opinion, waterfall method is good because it’s simple but its not flexible enough when you use it in different system. The problem is that you don’t know how complex the system is and if you will choose a method then you need to be sure that it can cater the entire possible problem. The waterfall method is only useful if it will be use in the simple system but it is impractical when you use it to a much bigger and complex structure of the system. We need to assume that all system can be a simple or complex one. If you will always focus and will not think about the possible structure then this may be a case that you will fail to do your system. I think also about the possible action that can be made by John which is reviewing the system and for that the method prototyping will do the work for an easy system.

I conclude that we need to understand each other especially if you are being ask to do such thing and we need to have team work every time because two head is better than one. We need to think first before doing something and experience is not always the key to success, we need also to use our brains and lastly, conversation is a powerful tool and we need to make use of it always especially if you have quarrels..
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PostSubject: Assignment 6   Fri Dec 23, 2011 12:09 am

Name: Alexander Manlod

When we are to consider the conversation between Peter Pedro the manager and John Juan the system professional, both of them have the same point. Peter Pedro stand up with his views that it would not be necessary if they are going to review the previous actions of the system. Since their goal is to make a new and better one. I also get the point of John Juan in which he is certainly concerned on reviewing the operations of the old system and thinking how it will be improve and how effective its performance into the users and clients after the company decided to change the current system. Considering also the views of Peter Pedro that they must not spend too much on dealing with the previous old system since it is more of getting the same result. Or perhaps, a little improvement or modifications of the old system. Concerning about the requirements of the principle of elicitation, the manager Peter Pedro must know about the protocols of the system professionals, hence, Juan John is far better than him when it comes to the knowledge about system designing and developing. It is not that of he doesn’t know anything about the system but it is of more like the principles of the system professionals must be ruled of making it, if not, the system and the users will suffer as they use it for their operations. Given that the developing of the system is determined by the problem.

To evaluate and reviewing of the key documents and knowing the performance of the employees and workers about their jobs, the problem could be figure out by no time. When you are to analyze the previous operations of the old system, they would probably know what is really lacking on that system, and enhance it by defining those problems, they must identify what is really need on that system and change the necessary errors and skip all the useful part of the old system, by that, they can save the time they suppose to spend, the cost of money they suppose to invest and of course the quality of work may upgraded. It must have a thorough of analyzing and understanding with the previous operations of the system must be the primary objective. By this, they probably know and identify the requirements and needs of the system or project in lesser time. The system analyst must be familiar with the designing concepts that suites for the appropriate project of the particular development environment. Basically , system analyst develops and enhances the information system and information technology to make the best benefits and advantage for an establishment or business. While computer programming, it is commonly a person needs to get a knowledge on how to program effectively by using high-end of programming languages. Computer programmers seek their knowledge on some other computer-based fields like network systems, graphical user interfaces, That means the one who is great at designing commercial buildings is not usually a good one to design residential housing. Talking about the analysis stage, it is mainly the front but end in improving or the process of development in computer that supports learning system. At this stage, it usually constructs a significant phase of the process of development but one of the crucial part and issues that defines the quality of work of the final system. I have previously investigate through the internet, I have read that “ system analysis and design has a huge difference from computer programming though some of us actually relate the system analyst as a programmer in the project team. Basically , system analyst develops and enhances the information system and information technology to make the best benefits and advantage for an establishment or business. Though a lot of ideas overlap, the one who is good at creating design on mainframe system is not necessarily a great candidate for web development. The one must have the ability to use the techniques to manage his or her work. Say for example, in designing software tools. It sets the phase for the whole part of making the system or the project. The usual ground work for knowing what the system requirements really is all about is finalizing the whole part of this phase. I know that they usually take the bravest part that the more you exert effort on how you plan, the convenient of the rest of the project will undergo and the better the quality of your system you created.

When a system analyst is into the problem, they commonly determine first the goal of the system you are supposed to create, pertaining to the views of John Juan, the previous system is much more important, it must be scrutinize first to know and determine if there is something wrong with this old system. Say for example, when a current information is too expensive to maintain, by then, the system professional John Juan may suggest that the certain project must reduce cost of maintenance for it since he knows what really best when it comes to system analysis. When you are to analyze the previous operations of the old system, they would probably know what is really lacking on that system, and enhance it by defining those problems, they must identify what is really need on that system and change the necessary errors and skip all the useful part of the old system, by that, they can save the time they suppose to spend, the cost of money they suppose to invest and of course the quality of work may upgraded. It must have a thorough of analyzing and understanding with the previous operations of the system must be the primary objective. By this, they probably know and identify the requirements and needs of the system or project in lesser time. Talking about the analysis stage, it is mainly the front but end in improving or the process of development in computer that supports learning system. At this stage, it usually constructs a significant phase of the process of development but one of the crucial part and issues that defines the quality of work of the final system. By identifying the goals of the particular system is much more important, it must be the first part to know in analyzing systems as well as designing and implementing it. After that, identifying the restraints of the particular solution, of course it is important to know the risk when you are to make something on the system. Even of the smallest part mistake in making it, it will greatly affect the whole system. For an instance, when you are to change something on you operating system, you must know the risk of it as how you implement the requirements of a particular problem.

You should know first the goals and constraints to get a synchronize flow of process in making your system at the end of project management. All of John Juan is concern about is on assessing the previous old system to determine the boundaries of the system, say , which part of the old system should improve or revise so it will make a better result in operating their transactions their after implementing it. one must have the business knowledge or the capacity to use them. System development is a lot like a huge number of blind people trying to know out what a certain animal looks like. Each individual has his or her own field of knowledge. Hence, the more knowledge of one person has would make the process easier and make better outcome. A great communication skill without saying is much more important. This made me think back regarding about the dissimilarity of a system analyst and a programmer. I was mainly asked by the person we interview about that. About an essay article entitled the differences of being a system analyst and a programmer I have previously investigate through the internet, I have read that “ system analysis and design has a huge difference from computer programming though some of us actually relate the system analyst as a programmer in the project team. Basically , system analyst develops and enhances the information system and information technology to make the best benefits and advantage for an establishment or business. While computer programming, it is commonly a person needs to get a knowledge on how to program effectively by using high-end of programming languages. Computer programmers seek their knowledge on some other computer-based fields like network systems, graphical user interfaces, and some of the other fields which are sometimes the as what system analyst look for. In addition, the one who writes it said that not each system developer and analyst is getting involve with computer programming and not every computer programmer is a system analyst. But then system analyst and programming are related in a way. System analyst requires a various of skills, and computer programming is much more focused on a particular emphasis of study.

Somehow, Peter Pedro is right as he said they should be start listing all the project requirements needed so they could get a better system than the other one. He is expecting a functional one without reviewing the previous cases of operations of the old system. He is visualizing a clear picture without analyzing the issues of the previous old system. He must aware that it comprises the quality of work of the system professional John Juan and might cause a huge damage when it is being implemented. Moreover, the most important key skill or characteristic that sir has want to get is, that a system analyst should have a knowledge on how to communicate good-enough. Say for example, you have a certain project and most of your programmers are already starting creating the certain project, then in the climax one you fail to spot the information which is needed to tackle about, this could be a great effect in a waste of possessions, effort of the project, the time spent by it, and most important, the money you invest in that certain project. It is somehow relates to the skill of the people that a system analyst should mainly possess. Skills on communication are very significant especially particularly on dealing with different people which are involved in your system. A system analyst should work with the people on project which composed of the system developers and programmers, designers, the one who document, the one who test, the one who document, the project managers and a lot of others counting the customers and client sometimes. If there are no great communication along with the people of the project, a big chance exist of misunderstanding, “ he pointed out. He also put us a picture of variety of interpretations of the dissimilar people who are getting into in a particular system development. One is a system analyst should be eager to detail, he should be observant in each single information of its own system. This is imperative chiefly that, in any modeling process, if you fail to spot a single information of the system, it could result to a catastrophic project. Say for example, you have a certain project and most of your programmers are already starting creating the certain project, then in the climax one you fail to spot the information which is needed to tackle about, this could be a great effect in a waste of possessions, effort of the project, the time spent by it, and most important, the money you invest in that certain project. As we can see, particular system project values money earned buy clients and customers who requested your ability and services and have your payment.

I have read some article on phases of specifying project requirements and I have concluded that it is not that easy, I had a hard time understanding those phases. I thought that it was just, if you think that that already finish to identify the project requirements once, you think that it is already perfect in way that nothing error could plausibly occur or nothing to change about it. But this must be undergo a hundred times of reviews and revisions to satisfy your quality of work and to satisfy the needs of the clients when you are tom implement those systems. in my earlier post concerning the distinctiveness I seize as a good system analyst, I have already conversed regarding the a range of roles of a system analyst. For a superior system analyst to carry out his / her functions well, he / she must be clever enough to know the current of the system to be able to solve any troubles that may arise. In our Systems Analysis and Design 1, we have engaged in about the approaches to systems development. In a systems development life cycle, these things make up the dissimilar steps of a system analyst in software / systems expansion project. Some use the customary approaches like the waterfall model, overlapping (or concurrent phases), and iteration. It is somehow relates to the skill of the people that a system analyst should mainly possess. Some use the customary approaches like the waterfall model, overlapping (or concurrent phases), and iteration. Now there are also many type of methodologies used in system development. Same as your situation, a system analyst, are keen to details, About an essay article entitled the differences of being a system analyst and a programmer I have previously investigate through the internet, I have read that “system analysis and design has a huge difference from computer programming though some of us actually relate the system analyst as a programmer in the project team. Now there are also many type of methodologies used in system development. Same as the usual situation. there are a variety of phases of problem-solving approach: planning, analysis, design, implementation, and support phases. These things make up the dissimilar steps of a system analyst in software / systems expansion project. Some use the customary approaches like the waterfall model, overlapping (or concurrent phases), and iteration. Now there are also many type of methodologies used in system development. There are a lot of techniques and method that a system analyst can employ to guide him / her in knowing out the gears of a system. Aside from the customary approach, a lot of developers soon enhanced prepared analysis and design practice which gave nativity to a variety of charts such as data flow diagram entity-relationship diagram, class diagrams, and in addition, the object – oriented approaches

Although the two person involve which is Peter Pedro and John Juan are on the same team, still they have their own expertise, title, their professions and of course, experiences in making and designing systems. According to the short conversation, it must have to follow the different flow of phases which is unethical to John Juan if he doesn’t follow his views. It not be appropriate if he doesn’t follow his instincts as a system professional which might compromises his profession if he follow the opinion of Peter Pedro. According to the person we interviewed, primarily System analyst experiment with the other different computer system strategy, they have methods, techniques, procedure to show their skills and abilities. They have to try a variety of steps and tools until they figure out the best system, which will be faster to use, easier to manipulate and of course, it least the cost. Then , analyst choose what and which computer specifications, the softwares and application they will used, the tools to buy, and other stuffs they needed on a certain project or system. They give the project programmers gradually steps and instructions on how the system or project will be efficiently done. Sometimes, some system analyst help in creating the software to use on that project too. Mainly, the job of a system analyst, is making the particular computers to work on a same path together. Of course, they connect them in a good network. System analyst then decide how to get the certain information from these computer to another computer. He also said that google is a powerful tool to get information in getting things done. You can have all the data you want to make your system increase its efficiency and complied the client and customer’s satisfaction. After planning and preparation of a certain system, the system analyst examined it of course to make it sure that it really works. They double check to make sure that information and data is processed faster than the other one and mainly, without mistakes, bugs some other error might occur to the system they created. They also look for the system if it is user friendly and easy to use, and to find it by the clients and customers convenient for them, often , they must have to quickly change their preparations to make their system and project better than other one they planned. Most of the time, computer system analyst work in offices or might be as well as computer labs.

By extracting the essential requirements for the system or the project, you could probably identify the specific problems of the system easier and in lesser time. So by reviewing the old system based on Juan John opinions, he could easily figure out what the users really need in that particular system. it is not always that you follow your boss demands, it would be unethical to system professionals to not care about the system they are doing. They have to take responsibility what might happen to the system which he have to blame about any cause of damage relating to that system. so think before you invest too much on creating a non directional system, it is far better than analyzing first the needs and the resource of the problem. Most probably, if your mind set is as like a system analyst, you should probably choose the views of John Juan, the system professional.
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annjuviepapas



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PostSubject: System Analyst Vs. Client   Fri Dec 23, 2011 1:35 am


System Analyst Vs. Client
Consider the following dialogue between a systems professional, John Juan, and a manager of a department targeted for a new information system, Peter Pedro:

Juan: The way to go about the analysis is to first examine the old system, such as reviewing key documents and observing the workers perform their tasks. Then we can determine which aspects are working well and which should be preserved.

Pedro: We have been through these types of projects before and what always ends up happening is that we do not get the new system we are promised; we get a modified version of the old system.

Juan: Well, I can assure you that will not happen this time. We just want a thorough understanding of what is working well and what isn’t.

Pedro: I would feel much more comfortable if we first started with a list of our requirements. We should spend some time up-front determining exactly what we want the system to do for my department. Then you systems people can come in and determine what portions to salvage if you wish. Just don’t constrain us to the old system.

Required:
a.Obviously these two workers have different views on how the systems analysis phase should be conducted. Comment on whose position you sympathize with the most.
b.What method would you propose they take? Why?)

Considering so many options intricate your way of thinking that may have effect upon your decision to a certain scenario. The same way with these circumstances. John Juan is a system analyst that expresses a good opinion of his way of analyzing what are the requirements he must engaging in before he develop the system through analyzing the old system such as reviewing key documents and determining the existence of the workers when they perform their tasks. Then they can determine which aspects are working well and which should be preserved but Peter Pedro_the department manager who wanted to have a new information system insisted to list first all their requirements and what the system must give to them and that is the time John Juan’s team can come in and determine what they can recover. Since this two people who are the main character in dealing a project do have different view on how to conduct the system analysis phase so this time our facilitator is asking us to share our opinion or comment on whose position we sympathizes most.

On the side of John Juan as a system analyst and probably got a project the same with Peter Pedro wanted to have, established a working style in analyzing the system. He knew what are the steps in the phases he used given the clearly and explicitly stated time to get the final system agreed between them for deploying to the real event. Let us assume that the model used by John Juan is waterfall lifecycle model or the waterfall model where it has 7 phases such as defining the problem where in the case of Peter Pedro’s old system they did not get or the old system did not satisfy the needs of the people in the department, we also have the feasibility study that determines how capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances are the project in the span of time given by the Peter Pedro as a client, then the requirement analysis which plays a vital role in designing and developing the new system requested by Peter Pedro, system design is also included in waterfall model where it gives details and categorized in two phases which are the physical design and logical design. Physical design it gives detail on the user interface that gives a big impact to the users where it think about in a particular way the easiness or what level of convenience that the system can give to the users. The other one in system design is the logical design in which it highlights how you arrange by systematic planning and united effort the collected information and what they require to the system. After the designing the system is the coding, the programmer will take the part of the system. He will code it using the recommended programming language by the system analyst that is fitted most to the system. Then the testing phase in most cases the quality tester tests how efficient the system produced and probably the client might preview the system. Lastly, the implementation and system maintenance. In implementation phase it deploys the developed system to the real scenario and in system maintenance phase checks if there would be further errors after deploying.

In Peter Pedro side, he wanted to start first by listing all the requirements they wanted to implement in the system due to the reason that it always iterates the problem from the project requested to the system analyst before John Juan enter. He also said that they just receive a modified system of their old system and still the problem is there. So he is concerned and worried that it will happen again for the nth time without aiding their needs since they are spending money again. As a department manager he is anxious on the business side probably worried about their market sales may put into danger by giving a careful consideration to the uncomfortable situation cause by the system. Let us assume that the old system of a particular course of action intended to achieve a result took so long that may cause the lost of potential customers.

The system analyst is in his work’s ethical state of uncertainty or perplexity especially as requiring a choice between equally unfavorable options where stated above between his approach unto the system and approach required by Peter Pedro_the department manager. The client wanted to have a change or even beyond which is a new information system for their department but how could the system analyst do his job by initially knowing what to change if Peter Pedro will not give them a chance to investigate and conduct a thorough analysis in the old system for them to suggest a better requirements beyond the requirements given by Peter Pedro? So it is obviously hard where to express sympathy. Even me I am in my dilemma I don’t know what will be the voice that dominates this paper either my business mind or the part of a system analyst.
In any situation that involves declaration that is made emphatically to many solutions will not end if you will not be compatible or agree with the consideration of not reducing the respect of both parties and putting in mind the best of the people who are engage as a participant and also what will be the outcome of their agreement. In the case of the system analyst since he wants job he should take the request of the client. Like what they usually say “the customer is always right” therefore Peter Pedro’s will will follow. They should agree and meet halfway.

The key for Rapport

Communication is the solution and better communication is much closer to a good solution. As a business professional they follow a code of conduct or code of ethics when they deal with clients. Given that the starting point of the requirements is a verbal interaction between the system analyst and the clients, it is not beyond the limit to declare that how communication skills are applied will have a significant bearing on perceptions between client and analyst. According to Cathy Urquhart of “Strategies for Conversation and Systems Analysis in Requirements Gathering: A Qualitative View of Analyst-Client Communication” the verbalized requirements by the client will be encoded and included to as a sets or requirements by the analyst. She added that in gathering of requirements, building a relationship between the system analyst and the clients is more highlighted in this phase. This relationship will give an echo to the progression of the project. Your communication to the client as a system analyst is a manifestation of your working ethics as taking part of the role you are playing in developing the system. System analyst provides specialized application technical support to users where he meets with user department representatives, analyzes requirements, recommends solutions, coordinates implementation, and tests new and existing application solutions. That is why the most vital characteristic as a system analyst is a good communicator which it involves how you agreed on the differences of your idea. It is also not unreasonable to ponder on how much communication contributes to the social area in requirements gathering hinder or enhance the development of initial system concepts. In addition, she also said that according to Tan found that communication gratification was determined by perception of relationship of mutual understanding or trust and agreement between people rather than goal achievement. Goal accomplishment was not found to be positively connected to communication contentment. For example, both parties may have found the communication successful even though it did not achieve their original goals. It is obviously written that communication is a key to a mutual understanding.

Sir Rustjohn Balagolan also mentioned to us during our interview about the system analyst that “sa umpisa lang mahirap pero pagnasimulan mo na dire-diretso na ang trabaho, basta you communicate according sa kung ano nakapaloob sa agreement nyo”. Powerful relationship won’t happen for the first time or for one time. Relationship is also like building a condominium where you invest time, money and effort to construct a strong and admirable structure so as well building relationship to the client as a system analyst. I also asked Sir Rustjohn Balagolan how he interchanges information or ideas to his clients. He said through e-mail because sometimes through phone he said updates might get redundant and it makes the communication useless but if it is through e-mail it inclines you to organize first the content and get structured. I read also from 5 ways of building up a relationship to your clients one of those is through e-mail.

According to the term paper on the site NathanielAndStephanie.com entitled “Understanding How People Communicate: Expectation Setting and Identifying Communicator Types” to master communication you need first to know the need why you communicate. Factors that affect the reason why we communicate are factors from environment, organizational structure, and global teams but he insisted that none of that tells us why it is important for a Systems Analyst to communicate. He further said that if system analysis is to identify the property of the system and need to communicate then it is imperative that the system analyst must communicate. The primary key that the communicator should consider is the expectation setting. Without expectation setting measure cannot be identified and thus the path of the project might lead in wrong way and take time to recover can be resulted disastrously.

The Clients as your Bosses

Clients give jobs to the system analyst so for short they are your bosses, since they are your bosses you should follow what they like and a system analyst who is expert for that job you should communicate what is better. System analyst should know how to create a harmonious arrangement between the wishlist of your client and of course your likes in the system for them to bring something new to an environment for their business process and operations. In the case above, what Peter Pedro likes will be acquired by John Juan the system analyst as what he wanted is to list first their requirements and after that the system analyst is free doing what he would like. In connection to that, the system analyst has the initial requirement of the information system and he is allowed to conduct the thorough analysis through conducting an interview, through a questionnaire or giving scenarios. We also assumed that John Juan follows a certain model which is the waterfall model. He can now decide upon definitely the problem and along the way as he conduct a research and investigation he might come upon another problem that might the root why the user is not satisfy to the result of the old system gave to them. When the project is ready for developing, the system analyst must give an update to the client and there he can open the topic for the recommendations that the department head they might agreed on.

Systems are designed to perform a specified required function_there could be new functions, or modifications of older functions. A system which is being designed will often require changes and re-integrating a set of rules and functions in the way an organization works. There could be changes in format of input, or reports, additional information to be gathered, new procedures to be followed. The people involved (the system analyst and the department head) raised their points but their common denominator is how to improve the system better than the old existing system. The only problem is what way should they take_the system’s analyst who are expert in designing and developing a system or the department manager’s concerned that it iterates the problem when the system analyst did the same way what John Juan will be conducted. New system means new skills have to be learnt, job descriptions may change and so on. Hence the system analyst is the creator of new environments. For this, he has to be a persuader as well as a controller and appropriately named as an agent for changing the organization.

If I where be the System Analyst

If I where be the system analyst, I will follow what the client wanted to implement, his wishlist, his requirements to the system and after that I will perform my duties and responsibilities as a system analyst to the system. Since the initial requirements are on my hand, I will research further to see what will be the reason why the old system did not satisfy the users. Probably talking to the workers on what problem they encounter as they use the system, prepare a questionnaire if necessary for not them bother during working hours. These requirements are analyzed for their validity, and the possibility of incorporating the requirements in the system to be developed is also studied. Finally, a requirement specification document is created which serves the purpose of guideline for the next phase of the model. I might also compare the requirements initially gave to me by the department head to the requirements I have gathered personally and then communicate to the department head to discuss the requirements collected. When we both go well together I will start to design process as part of the logical design in designing the system phase. Before starting the actual coding phase, it is highly important to understand the requirements of the end user and also have an idea of how should the end product looks like. The requirement of a detailed description of design criteria for a piece of work from the first phase are studied in this phase and a system design is prepared. System design helps in specifying hardware and system requirements and also helps in defining the overall system architecture. The system design specifications serve as an input for the next phase of the model. A data-flow is a good representation of the process that I might get from my past analysis given the requirements. A more developed or executed with care and in minute detail technical design can be planned. Here I’m going to design the actions and activities assigned to or required of every part to be included in the system. After that source code will be materialized and written by dividing it per module or unit. The whole design and its construction are put under a test to check its functionality where integration is a crucial part because you will now put together all the modules if they work together or if they function according to what was specified. If there will be errors that will come up then this will be the phase where it checks_the testing phase. After successfully testing the software, it is delivered to the client_ to the department head. Lastly is the management and maintenance where it is needed to ensure that the system will continue to perform as desired and required by the department head. This phase of the waterfall model is virtually a never-ending phase. Generally, problems with the system developed (which are not found during the development life cycle) come up after its practical use starts, so the issues related to the system are solved after deployment of the system. Not all the state of difficulty that needs to be resolved comes into a situation treated as an observable object directly but they arise from time to time and need to be solved.


Summary:

We are assigned to share our opinion and suggest to whom we sympathize regarding to the situation stated above. At first I was confuses if I’m going to take the side of the department head as a business enthusiast or the side of the system analyst and then as I building this paper I agreed on both parties. Communication is the key element that this paper is obviously more highlighted. It was stated that communication is the key to a mutual understanding between the participants. Waterfall lifecycle model is also repeatedly mentioned in this paper where we assumed that the system analyst might use as he develops the system. In the last part of the paper where I give a caption If I where be the system analyst, I will accept what he wanted and include all the requirements he liked to the further requirements im going to investigate or collected. After we agreed on a certain matter, I will do my duties and responsibilities to the system. Always give the best to the system and create harmonious relationship to the people that surrounds as business professionals and as an agent of change to the company or to the organization that I am engaging of.

Reference:
http://www.umsl.edu/~sauterv/analysis/f06Papers/Laroche/
http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR4-1/urquhart.html
http://churmura.com/technology/computer-science/a-system-analyst-is-an-agent-for-changing-the-organization/31280/
http://www.inc.com/guides/201101/how-to-build-better-business-relationships.html

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Alvin Mark Cabeliño



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PostSubject: Client Over Analyst   Fri Dec 23, 2011 6:31 am

A great strategy towards something is a good thing to say thats a man is passionately in need of solutions towards the undying problems in his career. He must sustain not only the needs of his company, the people doing the job, the construction of the new buildings, but also the flexibility of the work when it talks about the need of the people. It's a fact to say that catering to the needs of the people is a profitable thing to do. That is why different companies deals with different strategy on how to solve the problems for the customer.

Same with the given pre-lude here about John Juan and Peter Pedro, indeed, the two people are having different mind sets on how to solve the problem about the work timeline of a system on the business they are in to. The two have contradicting tactics but having the same point, and that is improving the quality service of the company through upgrading the machine that was implemented for the past business years. Juan's idea is to examine the past performance of the system. Check and re-check so that they can come up with a good system in the later days. Thus he added, that reviewing the said system and its workmanship would mean a lot to improve the company's power. And would mean a great help to everybody. On the other side of the ring, Peter as a business manager of the said department for the new information system objects and said that it is best to know the needs of the department not reviewing the previous performance of the old system. He also added that studying the old system would just result to making a plain modified version of the old system. Quite hard to choose but I came up with one answer to this topic.

DISCUSSION

First and foremost the two has the right to relay their ideas and try to chat out what are the best thing to do for coming up with the best information system for the said company. Thus, it is hard for me to pick which is the best among the two ideas because both are great. However, I checked the things to consider and I will support the side of the department manager for information system which is Peter Pedro. With relation to this topic, last week we had a chance to interview a system analyst of a company. We were able to asked questions to him and was able to get some great feedbacks and answers. In line with that question was related to this topic. He said that, as a professional system analyst, you are capable of checking things whether its is wrong or right. An analyst can determine broad to solutions to simple problems and that would mean that an analyst must always have back up plans. In addition, an analyst musy meet up with what is the business all about, and most especially what are the demands of the business client not the needs of the workers. Thats why I am confident to say that for this topic Peter Pedro must be chosen because Pedro was aiming for the betterment in such a way that the new information system is not the modified model but the new model that caters to the needs of the department. And to clear things up, Peter must have different actions to take to meet up with his goal. Peter did simply qouted that. “make a new system by meeting up with the requirenments of the information system.” Listing all the requirements of the business manager is far away different from checking the bugs and weaknesses of the old system. A plain old system is correctly will be modified after checking it. On the other hand, listing the requirements for the new information system is but a good thing to do so that the company can freely express themselves towards the system that will be developed. In other terms, a good information system must meet up with the business logic of the project manager. Because no matter what you do to make a better information system however its not in line with the clients need, still, it will not work for them. That is why the first thing to consider is the client as the needy the going directly to the customers needs. A business logic seemed to be a broad idea to consider, however, narrowing it down is easy if a the analyst will prioritized the need of the client.

Back then most systems analysts work with a specific type of IT system, which varies with the type of organization. Work activities also depend on the size and nature of the organization, but typically involve: liaising extensively with external or internal clients; analyzing clients' existing systems; translating client requirements into highly specified project briefs; identifying options for potential solutions and assessing them for both technical and business suitability; drawing up specific proposals for modified or replacement systems; producing project feasibility reports; presenting proposals to clients; working closely with developers and a variety of end users to ensure technical compatibility and user satisfaction; ensuring that budgets are adhered to and deadlines met; drawing up a testing schedule for the complete system; overseeing the implementation of a new system; planning and working flexibly to a deadline; writing user manuals; providing training to users of a new system; keeping up to date with technical and industry sector developments.

On the other side, client serves as the profit based creature for system analysts. Why? Because they are the ones who are in need of assistance towards the problem of the company they are handling with. System analysts must put in mind that considering the calls and opinions of business vendors are among the best thing to do in order for the project to be developed and be compensated with much money. Not to talk about money, however, providing solutions, meeting up with the clients demand would really mean that you are eager to help and be a tool for discovering new strategy on solving unexpected problems.

THE PROCESS

In some situations it is very difficult, if not impossible, to identify any of the requirements for a system at the beginning of the project. Thus, we researchers and future system analyst are eager to gather of much information that will lead you to confusion of what must be the systems main reason of developing. However, because of this model, even theoretical analysis can be presented and recognized by some software developers because of the presence of this exploratory model. A work based on theories, hypothesis and even assumptions can be presented through this mode. Thats why my recommendation is to use the Exploratory Model when implementing the said information system because Juan and Peter have different approach on how to make the system work.

In this model, Using whatever information is immediately available, a brief System Specification is created to provide a rudimentary starting point. On this phase, a least specification of the proposed system can be presented by using any information regarding the said system. Randomly using of data and information from the system specification can help to build a modified system.

First step in the requirements analysis process is to identify how the new application integrates to business processes and also what will be its scope and limitations for without having boundaries result into not finished projects. Second is to know who will use of that new application or system they will be developing. Requirements elicitation is next that refers to the information gathered from the multiple stakeholders identified to know what requirements from the application are and what they expect the application to accomplish. Here also are making of use cases diagrams, data flow diagram and etc. Another is to have requirements analysis process in which after all the stakeholder information gathered, the structured analysis is done after the modeling the requirements. And after the requirements are elicited, proper documenting of requirements is next. It is the written reports. The software requirements specification is a document that lists out stakeholder’s needs and communicates these to the technical community that will design and build the system. The challenge of a well-written requirements specification is to clearly communicate to both these groups and all the sub-groups within. Requirements Specification serves as a starting point for software, hardware and database design. It describes the function (Functional and Non-Functional specifications) of the system, performance of the system and the operational and user-interface constraints that will govern system development. The last is the managing of requirements which is the verification, validation and correcting of errors after all is done.


CONCLUSION

Every thing in this world needs to be analyzed first before going to processing. Analyzing is really need for it is the first stage in which you can go to the second stage, that is for my view as I was living in this world. Even in academic subjects like mathematics, you need to first analyze the certain problem in order to know what to do and what formula is going to take to solve certain kind of problem.

In developing a new information system, it also have what we call formula. A step by step formula that will guide you through developing a system. As what Ma'am said in the anflocor as we interviewed her,
there is no perfect system. And I agree to her for just like we, people are not perfect. Everyone made a mistake and in terms of developing, people doing that also can experience failure. And in order to minimize that failure, programmers, systems analyst and everyone involved, they take step by step formula. And first is systems analysis phase. Systems analysis include requirements analysis. Requirement analysis is the process of understanding the needs of the customer in the company, what is expected output from proposed system and is a well-defined stage in the Software Development Life Cycle model.


REFERENCES:

SAD Client Requests Time uses managing server local time
publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/.../com.../pdmst_basic70.htm

Vendor/client relationship in real life, sad but true | Training Marketer
trainingtime.wordpress.com/.../vendorclient-relationship-in-real-life-s
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Ailene_Madato

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PostSubject: Systems Professional Versus Department Manager: Whose Approach Is Appropriate?   Fri Dec 23, 2011 9:34 am


As our sixth assignment, we were a scenario about two experts on different fields but having the same goal, and that is to make an efficient and effective information system. These two people have different views and approach on how to generate a new information system that would work successfully. Before I go thoroughly on my discussion about their conversation, let me first define the individual expertise of John Juan, as a systems professional and Peter Pedro, as the department manager.

We are all aware that we are already living in what we call “Information Age.” Primarily, this means that most of our activities are being done with the use or help of computers or computer generated systems. In addition, in the fields of business (either it is a small one or big one), industry as well as in government, the role of technology in the Information Age has been renowned world wide, and their whole organizational structures as well as strategic planning procedures has been totally engage to this role of technology. According to R. H. Glover, the author of “Executive information systems: Current assessment & future agenda for Higher education,” as he gave emphasis on the function of technology, he believed that the caliber of information on hand to all decision makers is very significant. Basically, it is because the quality of strategic planning is dependent in the availability of quality information. This means that the people who make the decisions must be knowledgeable in strategic planning for him or her to make the planning efficiently. Glover also states that the administrative information systems were very serious in supplying the necessary data that produced the needed information. We are also aware that having a very good organizational structures as well as strategic plans, with the use of the technology, is very important in the success of every company and enterprise, for it is responsible in making the company competitive and prominent.

JOHN JUAN, THE SYSTEMS PROFESSIONAL

On our past assignments, we have been discussing about the systems analyst, what does the role of a systems analyst as well as how do the systems analyst works. Also, we discussed about the different phases of systems development life cycle which is necessary in making an efficient and effective system.

In the scenario given, John Juan is the systems professional or the one who do the systems analysis. As the systems analyst, John Juan is the one responsible in designing the new information system considering the information requirements of the company as well as of the end users.

Responsibility of John Juan as A Systems Professional

As a systems professional, John Juan has responsibilities that he must always bear in mind.

To the Employers/Clients/System Users

Essentially, John Juan has the responsibility to be loyal and faithful to his employer in professional matters. He must also preserve every user’s, company’s and supplier’s privilege to secrecy and confidentiality as well as to be in awe of any ownership rights that belongs to them. He can do that that by giving appropriate security to the information, limiting the capability to access and ensure the accurate disclosure of any data and information about the clients as well as the users. In addition, John Juan must always treat all persons fairly, especially, when in his colleagues (if he is part of a team).
.
To the Profession

As a professional, John should not just depend on the blunt truth, but basically on the mere facts basis. As a systems professional, he must not jump into conclusion unless he has evidences and make some experiments and surveys to prove it for his own. He must not make any unsupported statements or false statements or present any ambiguous information. He must always make a connection to his client, providing that he must inform them about the progress or conflict on the system he makes. He should take or make his research cautiously and meticulously. He must gather, tabulate, and interpret the data and information with complete awareness. He must consult his client first before taking any action, for approval purposes. Also, he must be vigilant in making or disclosing any information as a result of his research. He should always uplift his colleagues to do their very best to make a good outcome.

To the Society

As part of his responsibility to the society, John Juan must be able to make the system he working at to be beneficial to most number of user as well as it will make the company more profitable. Also, he must generate instructions and proper training to those people who will use the system in order to avoid unnecessary damage to the system and negative feedbacks from the client and users. He must also acknowledge those people who helped (or will help him) and take part on the making of the system.

Skills (In Summary)

Basically, the most important skill John Juan must have, are the following:
Interpersonal skills: this skill is pertaining to the ability of the systems professional to deal with people in an educated manner. This means that he is capable to appropriately interact with others. This skill includes everything that is necessary in interacting with other people; from communicating skills to listening skills to attitude and manner.

Business skills: this skill defines the capability of the system professional to deal with the business logic of the client or company he worked in. Essentially, for John Juan, he must be aware on the business process of the company before he could propose a necessary system which fits to the company’s need.

Analysis and design skills: systems professionals are known to be knowledgeable in terms of analyzing and interpreting problems as well as analyzing and interpreting the gathered data and information related to the problem after he could propose and deign a new system.

Programming skills: this is a very important skill of a system analyst and John Juan must have a broad background on programming to be able to do the required by the company. Without knowledge on program, it is impossible for a systems analyst or a system professional to generate and deploy an information system.

His Approach on Generating a New Information System

As I have read and understood, based on the given scenario and on the conversion took place between him and Peter Pedro, John Juan wants to be knowledgeable on how the existing information system works; to be able to know the reason why it is necessary for the company to make a new one and to know if it just needs to be improve by doing some modifications and adjustments. This view could be practical in terms of cost to buy new parts and components for the new information system.

PETER PEDRO, THE DEPARTMENT MANAGER

As the department manager, Peter Pedro must be capable to manage many functional areas. He must have the ability to lead; he must acquire good leadership skills in order to handle all the people under his supervision efficiently. Peter Pedro must have a very tough administrative and managerial skill, as well as organizational and analytical skills. Also, as a department manager, Peter Pedro must be very proficient and excellent in making decision as well as he must acquire a good problem solving skills. Since he also manage a team who are assigned for making the system of the company; which means that John Juan is under his supervision, Peter Pedro must have a good background about information technology and facilities management. On the other hand, Peter Pedro is also called as the generalist. He is anticipated to have the ability to manage, at the same time, in several vicinity, proceedings and cut-off date. Peter Pedro must also comprise intense interpersonal and communication skills. This means that he must the “power of the tongue”; the ability to encourage the teams under him to work hard, the ability to persuade clients and the ability to handle fiery situation in a calm state. Also, he must be able to nurture and uphold a mutual and compassionate workplace. Peter Pedro must be able to do his responsibilities with minimal supervision.

Skills (In Summary)


• The capacity to lead and encourage a team
• Outstanding communication and people skills
• A great dedication to customer service
• The aptitude to perform under stress and nervous tension and can take care of demanding state of affairs
• Self-confidence, determination and eagerness
• Decision-making competence and a sense of accountability
• The ability to scrutinize and be familiar with sales figure

His Approach on Generating a New Information System

As I have read and understood, based on the given scenario and on the conversion took place between him and John Juan, Peter Pedro does not want John Juan to go over to the old system again. For his point of view, he wanted to go directly to the list of requirements for the system he wants to develop by John Juan’s team. As far as I am concern, Peter Pedro would like to totally break down the old system and develop and deploy a new one. This approach could lead to time effectiveness; the point here is, if the systems professional will go on finding what was wrong and still can be use in the old system, they would spend a lot of time and the deadline for the expected output would be extended and the deployment of the new system will be delayed.

Comparison of Their Approach

Both John Juan and Peter Pedro have points in their different approach and both approaches are for the benefit of making a new system. Primarily, although John Juan and Peter Pedro have different approach on how to make the system analysis, they still have one goal and that is to make a functional information system. As an educated system professional, John Juan’s actions and approach is based on what he knows is right and because it is part of what he has learned. I believe he just want to have a better and thorough review and research on the old system to generate a great idea in order to produce an effective and efficient new system. On the other hand, Peter Pedro would go directly on making the new system since, based on what he has said in the conversation between him and John Juan, they always get the customized and modified edition of the old system which is not fit to the new system they require and want to have. Obviously, Peter Pedro really wants to have and deploy new information system. He does not care if the old system only needs some adjustments and modification and can still be use. All he wants is only to have a new information system that possibly will be utilized for his department. (Well, it is only based on how I understand the things that Peter Pedro told John Juan in their conversation.)

Which Approach I Am In Favor With?

Well, based on the scenario with their conversation, my sympathy will be with John Juan. Primarily because he is more knowledgeable in making efficient information system compared to Peter Pedro, who only do managing and supervising although he has, somehow, knowledge about information system procedures, but not that much knowledge as of John Juan.

As a good and effective systems analyst or a systems professional, it is necessary that you always go into detail, no matter how big or small it is, as long as it is related to the system you are working at. In the case of John Juan, he only wants to go over to the old system to be able to know if there could be something on it that can still be use. Also, by making that step, he could bring about new and better ideas that will be very helpful for his client as will as for the users. John Juan is only applying the step by step procedure of System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) which is essential in building an operative and competent information system.
It seems that the information systems develop is essential for the part of Peter Pedro but it will be inappropriate for the case of the system analyst (systems professional, John Juan), the one who will make the system, to directly jump and do what Peter Pedro wants. It must be “doing what you need for the benefit of many than doing what you want for your own benefit.”

As A System Analyst…Method I Will Propose..

As a systems analyst, I want to consider the time I will spend in making the system as well as the cost and the availability of the resources. First and foremost, it is important for a systems analyst to know the needs of the client. Although, sometimes, there is a point that the systems analyst has a different views compared to the client that would bring up an unnecessary misunderstanding. But basically, to be able to produce a good information system, the client and the systems analyst must agreed on the same idea, and they must always consult each other as the process takes place. Since in our previous assignment, we were tasked to discuss different systems development models that are appropriate in making a good and functional information system. If I were John Juan, I will use the Synchronize-and-stabilize (sometimes just called sync-and-stabilize). For me, Synchronize-and-stabilize method is appropriate in making a good and effective information system since the works can be done in parallel. Also, in parallelism method, works can be done on a less allotted time. The only thing is, in the progress of the process of making the system, people who work in parallel must interact to one another to ensure that their works are correct, and to avoid iterated works.

SYNCHRONIZE-AND-STABILIZE (SYNC-AND-STABILIZE)

One of the models in the Systems Development Life Cycle is the Synchronize-and-stabilize (sometimes just called sync-and-stabilize). It is an SDLC model in which teams work in parallel on individual application modules, repeatedly coordinating their code with that of other teams, and debugging (stabilizing) code on a regular basis all the way through the development procedure. It is said that the sync-and-stabilize model is more advantageous over the older waterfall, which is rigorously chronological in nature. Because sync-and-stabilize development allows parallelism, changes can be done at any point in the process and for that, it can be flexible, and responding to the market requirement changes is easier.

In Synchronize and Stabilize Model:

 Product development and testing is done in parallel
 Vision statement and evolving specification
 Features prioritized and built in 3 or 4 milestone sub projects
 Frequent synchronization (daily builds) and intermediate stabilization (milestone)
 “Fixed” release and ship dates and multiple release cycles
 Customer feedback continuous in the development process
 Product and process design so large teams work like small teams

The Synchronize and Stabilize Model is more flexible compared to Sequential Model in System Development Life Cycle. Since synch-and-stabilize approach uses parallelism, more works can be done and it is also a cost-effective scheme compared to sequential approach which uses a chronological method.

The Synchronize and Stabilize team process can be summarized as follows:

 Feature Oriented
 Synchronize (daily build) and Stabilize (fix errors at end of each milestone, such that the required set of features is completely functional)
 Product Managers develop a vision statement and feature list based on customer input
 Program Managers develop an initial functional specification based on the vision statement
 Program Managers create schedules and parallel feature teams of 3-8 developers and testers based on the functional specification
 Team members can work autonomously, thus maintaining some creative freedom on the project, provided their work can be combined successfully into the daily builds
 Teams develop their own playful penalties for breaking the daily build, which forces a certain amount of discipline amongst a team, while at the same time remaining democratic

According to the book “How Microsoft Builds” by Cusumano and Selby, there are phases which is need to under go in synch-and-stabilize approach.

PLANNING PHASE (3-12 months, depending on size of project)

Vision Statement – Product and program management use extensive customer input to identify and priority-order product features.

Specification - Based on vision statement, program management and development group defines feature functionality, architectural issues and components inter dependencies.

Schedule And Feature Team Formation ¬- Based on specification document, program management coordinates schedule and arranges feature teams that each contain approximately 1 program manager, 3 to 8 developers, and 3 to 8 testers(who work in parallel 1:1 with developers.)

DEVELOPMENT PHASE (6-12 months)

Project managers coordinate evolution of specification. Developers design, code, and debug. Testers pair with developers for continuous testing.

 Subproject I: most crucial 1/3 features, milestone release I
 Subproject II: second 1/3 features, milestone release II
 Subproject III: final (least critical) 1/3 features, milestone release III --- code complete

STABILIZATION PHASE (3-8 MONTHS)

Program managers coordinate OEMs and ISVs and monitor customer feedback. Developers perform final debugging and code stabilization.

Internal Testing - Testers recreate and isolate errors.
External Testing - Thorough testing of complete product within the company.
Release Preparation - Thorough testing of complete product outside the company by “beta” sites such as OEMs, ISVs, and end users. Prepare final release of “golden master” disk and documentation for manufacturing.


Conclusion:

As a systems analyst, one must always capable of knowing how the old system works before proposing a new system. Primarily, there must be something wrong with the old system that is why the company wants to have a new system. As a good and effective systems analyst, he or she must be able to apply, if necessary, the 3Rs: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.

REDUCE: It could be apply in reducing the cost as well as the time that could be allotted. Basically, if the systems analyst proposes to use some parts of the existing system in making a new one,, there will be able saved in terms of cost as well as time. For instance, a specific component is not available in a near location, which means there is a need to go to other location to find or buy that component. That will cost time and money. If that happens, there will be cots ineffectiveness as well as delay of scheduled time the systems must do.

REUSE: Instead of just throwing things away, try to find ways to use them again. Fundamentally, reusing the materials that can still be even avail will lessen the budget allotted to buy new parts and components for making the new system.

RECYCLE: Nowadays, numerous numbers of materials we use can be recycled. We are all aware that recycled materials undergo procedures that make it possible to generate or produce new products and materials from the old ones.


My main point here is, if there is just a need of improvement on the existing system, there is no need to junk or break the whole system. Making some adjustments on current system will do as long as the new system that the company needs and want is fit to the capability of the improved system. Nonetheless, if the company really needs to have a new system with new parts and components, here comes the time that the systems analyst would do the feasibility analyzing and propose a new system considering the business logic of the company he works in. Also, the systems analyst and the client must agree on the same idea to avoid misunderstandings. To be able to make a good system, both must helping each other and supporting each other as well encouraging their colleagues to work hard and enjoy what they are doing. Lastly, acknowledging ones help and work is necessary to build a good relationship between the people who worked hard in producing an information system.





Sources:
http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/html/cnc9764/cnc9764.html
http://www.asis.org/AboutASIS/professional-guidelines.html
http://www.arts.cornell.edu/romance/staff/TFIRM/roleofmanager.pdf
http://searchsoa.techtarget.com/definition/synchronize-and-stabilize

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Gertrude_R_Cordero



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PostSubject: Assigment # 6   Fri Dec 23, 2011 11:02 am


What I want, what you want – John Juan and Peter Pedro’s Point of View based on Experience
Consider the following dialogue between a systems professional, John Juan, and a manager of a department targeted for a new information system, Peter Pedro:

Juan: The way to go about the analysis is to first examine the old system, such as reviewing key documents and observing the workers perform their tasks. Then we can determine which aspects are working well and which should be preserved.

Pedro: We have been through these types of projects before and what always ends up happening is that we do not get the new system we are promised; we get a modified version of the old system.

Juan: Well, I can assure you that will not happen this time. We just want a thorough understanding of what is working well and what isn’t.

Pedro: I would feel much more comfortable if we first started with a list of our requirements. We should spend some time up-front determining exactly what we want the system to do for my department. Then you systems people can come in and determine what portions to salvage if you wish. Just don’t constrain us to the old system.

As what I’ve notice on their conversion, the department that Peter Pedro manage has its existing system already but it somehow not good enough to provide the department a solution to its problem. Now John Juan here has an idea on how they will conduct the analysis phase but also, Peter Pedro has its on idea with regards on how should be the analysis phase is done on the propose system. They both have an idea on how do they conduct the analysis phase and they both have their point. John Juan wants that they should include the existing system and its environment in the analysis phase while Peter Pedro just wants that the analysis should be done within the requirements given. In my own perspective, this ideas that John Juan and Peter Pedro shares with each other are based on their field experiences. John Juan thinks of the possibilities way beyond the project requirements while Peter Pedro only thinks of an immediate solution to the department’s problem. This will dictate the process and the time the system should take through its development.
For me, I will take John Juan’s idea on how they will conduct the analysis phase of the project. Why? Because by taking into account those factors as to what John Juan have mention (the existing system, the workers and key documents) in the analysis phase will help the system development team (John Juan’s part) to formulate and design the system that will not only provide solution to the problem but also fit’s in the working environment in which the system will be deployed. This approach in the analysis phase falls into the predictive way of analysis, so the development team should be able to define and determine those aspects that should be dealt and should have enough details to that part of the system. Also, the predictive approach provides lesser technical risk on the system developed therefore it lessens the redundancy of the process within the system’s development.
The analysis on the existing system on why it is not successful will help the development team on pin pointing the faults and lapses on the existing system and provide guidelines when (if it is required) creating a new system for the department for example or making revisions of the existing system. Faults on the system itself like poor structural design, loose programming functions and weak data security and distribution. Faults on the end user side like irresponsive to the changes required by the system to its users and failure to report found bugs on the system. So by knowing these, it would be much convenient for the system development team in the way that the team will not start its system development from zero. Also, by analyzing the existing system, the development team could get an idea how did the existing system tries to solve the problem and where did it fail.
The analysis on the person’s performance involved in the system is also important because they are the ones who will use the system. Also people, in my opinion, are an unstable factor that needs to be handled on the system development for they are critical to changes. How could I say? Well the changes in the system affect their work performance especially if they are not familiar to it. For an example if the company is still doing manual in issuing receipts and wants it to be automated, the people who are working on that section should know at least how to use a computer. So for those who are not familiar to computer would find the system troublesome because for them to use the system they still need to know how to use a computer then they should know how to use the system which is time-consuming and a headache especially to those people who needs to “scroll down a combobox in just to select their year of birth” and by that they would rather prefer the casual way of issuing receipts which is “nakasanayan”. The worker’s performance dictate’s if the system is a success or a failure in general. If the worker’s becomes more productive on his or her work then the system is good or else it is bad. Also, the proposed system should be easy and user friendly. For example, the graphical user interface of the system should be clean and all of its buttons, fields and menus should be clearly placed and displayed on the GUI.
Another factor that was mentioned by John Juan is the key documents. Key documents could be the existing system’s analysis results, information on the department where the existing system is being deployed or the requirements that the existing system should meet. The existing system’s analysis result serves as one of the references which the development team should look up in order to have an idea on what are the previous methodologies that are used to come up with the existing system and why it was not a success. Also, the development team could get some idea on the existing analysis result to produce a better analysis result that will serves as a pillar to establish the new system and for it to solve the problem efficiently. The development team should also know what is the nature of work that the department undergone, what are the documents that goes in and out of the department for example. And lastly are the requirements that the existing document should meet. The system sole existence is to provide solution to the problem in which the department or company deals with. So the requirements that were provided by the department or company should be take into account through the development of the system intended for the department or company. The requirements set the road on which the development team should follow in designing and building the system.
Unlike to Peter Pedro’s idea on how the development team should conduct the analysis phase which is just to know what are the requirements set by the department of company and then just work with the part that needs to improve. The way that John Juan wants to take in the analysis phase of the project would take some time. Why? Because the development team will still conduct an observation during the actual working hours to see how the system works through the working process undertaken by the department and how workers would interacts with the system but the time it could consume will be reduced dahil narin sa results that was generated on existing system. Also, the development team will review all the documents including the existing system analysis result and the requirements of the existing system before to come up with a method on dealing the problem. This approach that John Juan suggests follows the waterfall model of the system development life cycle. Thorough analysis is conducted on different aspects that would affect the system before proceeding into the next phase of the system development. Whereas to Peter Pedro idea was just provide what is required on its department and then later improve other components of the system. Peter Pedro’s idea was okay due to the system was new to the department and developed in a short period of time.
Both have made their point it both makes sense only that they don’t agree with each other because their idea doesn’t coincide with each other in some aspects but both of them wants the same thing after the system development process which is a system that would address to the problem in Peter Pedro’s department. In my idea, I would propose that different aspects that affects the system should be analyze first before proceeding on the other phases on the system development, taking into recognition to what was John Juan said and not just ask for the requirements for the system. For it will create less risk due to that every detail on the system development should be taken up and discuss through the group and then come up with methods through collaborated ideas from the developing team and to avoid uncertain changes on the existing system which has done its part efficiently. I could suggest also that if the existing system is still good but with just small errors and lapses, it does not necessary that it should be replace with a new system developed. Peter Pedro may not take notice this but if he insists on what he wants, the new system that will be developed will cause its department to spend more and on the side of John Juan is that the development team will go back to zero and repeat the same analysis conducted on the existing system previously upon its development process whereas if the developing team will just update and fix the existing system, the time on the analysis phase will be shorten and it will cost less for the company.
I would also suggest that they follow the modified waterfall model because in this model phases could overlap with each other. This will answer to what Peter Pedro wants during the analysis phase which is there should be enough time to determine what they want the system should be for their department but this model does not apply it only to the analysis phase of the system development but all throughout the other phases. The development team should always think ahead what will happen next to the current phase they are working with to adjust or reformulate their approach to the problem on the latter part of the development process. Also, it is a good thing that the requirements are presented and available together with other documents which I could say that it can be produce at the same time because the existing system have already its analysis results and the only thing is that they will gonna do is to integrate the data that was collected and if any requirement that was not tackled in the analysis document of the existing system then that will be the time to conduct other analysis but only to the specify requirement that was lacking on the analysis document of the existing document.
Conclusion
Peter Pedro and John Juan have different jobs, John Juan was a systems professional while Peter Pedro was a manager. Upon observing their conversation, they based their suggestion with regards to the nature of their jobs. On John Juan side as a system professional, it should be more specific with the details of the project for it is very important in the sense that details serves as the blueprint of the propose system and should be sufficient enough to meet the needs and provides solution to the problems stated. John Juan’s decision is based on what was presented to him and to what he thinks would be better for the proposed system will be. While Peter Pedro as a manager, he is more specific on what he sees and what is needed on the present and sticks to what was planned. There is nothing bad on this, but it is pretty had to deal with this kind of clients. For some times, it would be an experience of a lifetime as a system professional to have clients like this. For this client will surely shape up the very professional of you by having to provide what is on the agreement and to be formal as a professional. I my opinion, Peter Pedro will be a good client because he has sense of responsibility over its workmates and dedicated to what is committed.
In this case, Peter Pedro would understand that it is not always be that a new system is the solution if John Juan could defend and state its opinion with regards to the kind of analysis they should implement. And if ever a new system will be implemented even though it meets with the requirement set by the department or company, it will create a negative impact to the workers on the department or company for the people on the company or department will adjust to the new system that was being implemented. Otherwise if the existing system is still be in use but with some modifications and upgrade made, it will not take for the workers to greatly adjust to the system because they are already familiar to the system already. They will just inform with the changes so that they workers will be updated and be able to adjust to its operations. And as long as possible, the solution on the problem should not be a new system for the sake of time, money and resources. Also, it should be clear to the client where in this example the client is Peter Pedro every step that the system will undergo for it maybe he could contribute important information that will fasten the development time of the system.
Peter Pedro was discouraged by the outcome of those previous systems that his department have. Kahit sino man ang pinangakuan ng isang bagay pero ng dumating na ay hindi iyon ang bagay na pinangako ay magagalit o maiinis – “tuga-tuga ra”. But it should not be the basis Peter Pedro should set
upon system’s development. Since I propose that John Juan’s idea will be followed on the analysis phase of the project, it was also clear to me what are the sentiments of Peter Pedro with regards to the system development analysis phase. Peter Pedro doesn’t tell exactly that those previous system was not good, the only thing is that the developer proposed a NEW system and so Peter Pedro expected that the solution would be a new system. I think that there is just some communication gap between Peter Pedro and to the developer team, maybe the agreement was a new system for the department but along the way, the developers would found out that it would be better if they will just modify the existing system but they failed to acknowledge Peter Pedro about the changes. I should advise to the both party that the communication should be constant not all the time but only when it is needed. Also if possible, the development team should meet the requirements that were client has given and meant what he or she has proposed.
In this scenario, Peter Pedro is the client and John Juan is the system professional but it does not tell that the client as the customer is always right especially in this scenario. It is a good thing that the client suggests what he thinks that would be the best for its department. It is not the fact that his idea will be rejected but instead it will be taken into consideration for he is still the client and John Juan should satisfy Peter Pedro’s wants on the system for his department. Also, John Juan should be also open to what Peter Pedro’s sentiments and should not let that Peter Pedro feels that his idea is disregarded. The very common and should be establish first aside from formal parts on the system development, both Peter Pedro and John Juan should develop good client-developer relationship for in which this one is put up, it makes the conversation which regards to system development and its other component much easier because both are open to with each other. Also, both should be friends so that it could cut the formalities especially when having short meetings which could not be a formal one, so instead of going to the company and set on the both edge of the conference hall table and discuss boringly what should be done, how about going out just like going for a brewed coffee on a café then have some good time while actually both of you are working.
To sum it up, it still depends on the current situation of the department of the company in which the kind of analysis should be taken into action. In the department that Peter Pedro handles, it has experienced not good no the system the previously implement and maybe affects the productivity of it so Peter Pedro takes an action and makes it clear to John Juan that the system that should be developed with strict compliance to the requirements set by himself. This is not just to insure that the system will provide the solution to the problem on the company but also to improve the department also. On John Juan’s part, he has to follow the model which he thinks that would be the best for the department’s system. We could not blame John Juan on how he sees the propose system. John Juan’s judgment on what approach to take on the system development particularly on the analysis phase is based on the details and component that will contribute and affects the system upon its implementation.
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kenneth jan malubay



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PostSubject: Assessment 6   Fri Dec 23, 2011 12:09 pm

In this world we all know that every one of us have a different point of view in all the decision we should make. We have different views on how to approach a given problem by following our comfortable approach in solving the problem. Each of us has our own way to understand each problem and finding a solution out of it. It is good in a team if you have a team or a group to respect each opinion on how the approaches they will use in developing the wants of the client After discussing each opinion the group will determine what best approach would result to a polished project after discussing each opinion, the group will determine what best approach would result to a polished project. And it is good to know all the requirements that the client want to attain in his/her project so that the team have the targets in developing the system. Without teamwork in the group makes the team fall because the best team will have the teamwork in working the project, because without teamwork there is no respect in each opinion that will be suggested by their members. But the most important in all is to respect the wants of the client because the customer is always right.

The past assessment we had is all about the functions and works of a System Analyst. In this assessment we will tackle about a System Analyst too. Before we will go to the main topic of this assessment let us review the skills and characteristics of a System Analyst. A System Analyst must always have the skills on the technical, business and people techniques because he/she is the will interact to people that is coverage to his/her assignment project. Now let us know the characteristics of a System Analyst. Based on my last assessment post the characteristics of a System Analyst are the following:
• Flexible
The system analyst must be flexible in the changes of the technology. Technology is fast growing industry every now and then the technology we have will be improve and it will become higher and higher. The system analyst must be able to cope with the changes in the technology. Not in the technology always also in the environment and the needs of the employees.
• Good Listener
Being a system analyst must be a good listener to others. A system analyst is also called the project manager in group development. The system analyst must listen to the opinion of his workmates. It must be open to the suggestions of his workmates. The system analyst is able to react to what the people say. Respecting the people idea to help to improve the system makes you a good system analyst or a project manager.
• Easily to Get Along
System analyst must be easy to get along to the people around him so that it easy to him to get the information they needed to make a system. Every company has different people that have different attitude on them. A system analyst must have this factor to get in touch to the people he/she need to interview with.
• Knowledge in Technology
Like I have mentioned above a system analyst must have knowledge in technology. Not in programming skills a basic of it is okay but the essential on it is the general knowledge on hardware and to the technology that the system analyst uses. Without knowledge on the technology the whole operation must be delayed because the system analyst must learn first how to use the system that he/she will work on. This is one of the characteristics or skills that the system analyst must have.
• Knowledge in Business
Another skill that I have mentioned above is this. System Analyst must have knowledge in business too because in the world of IS business is always involved. Having knowledge in business makes the work done easier because the flow chart that the system analyst done will be organized well. And everything is in the right direction when you know the system flow of the company’s business plan.
• Investigator
In the field of system analyst his job is find a problem and make a solution out of investigation. This is one of the best characteristics that the system analyst must have. Investigating the problem is hard because there are so many factors you will include. Just like most of us said the hardest thing is to find the problem. Investigating the system of a company makes the top priority of the system analyst because his main function is to find the problem in a company. Solving the problem makes the system of the company worsen or better it depends too on how system analyst solves the problem.
• Patience
System Analyst must be patience because not all department of the company is easy to gather the information that you will need. Patience in making a plan, making a plan will take a system analyst almost 3months to finish the planning stage because of information gathering. Patience in developing the system, developing a system will take almost half a year to finish it because the testing and bug finding is included in development stage. If you want to become a system analyst you must have patience in every stage you will be going through.
• Responsibility
Responsibility deals in becoming a system analyst because when developing a system the system analyst has the responsibility in all the stages that is going to do. And most of all when the system is deployed the system analyst has the responsibility in monitoring on it. Responsibility in colleagues too is essential characteristics of a system analyst because he is the one to motivate them to give their best in finishing the projects.

This is the characteristics that I have mentioned in my previous assessment. The characteristics mentioned above are the characteristics that the system analyst must have, not maybe all of it, but most of it. Now let us go back to main topic of this assessment. This assessment is all about the client wants and the system analyst point of view.
In this assessment we have ask two questions on how to react to the given scenario. In the scenario the discussion was made by a System Analyst and a Manager. The Manager wants to have a new system not a modified system for their old system. In the discussion both of them are right in performing the first phase in the development. They have the same priority base on their phases and they have different views on how to approach the development process. In the first question we have the task to sympathized one of them. First let us analyze the two characters in the scenario namely Juan and Pedro. After discussing their points we will point one of them to choose the side of my pick in them.
First, let us analyze the point of view of Juan in the scenario. Juan is the one that is a hired System Analyst of the company of Pedro. Juan is a good analyst because one of his decisions is that he should investigate first the old system first and to gather information to the employee on how they will work base on the old system that they are using. In that way he can tell what are the one that he will preserve on the system and the others will be change according to the wants of Pedro. Juan has the same process to the basic approach of the other System Analyst because the first phase he will want to do is to gather all the information he will need to finish the project. And the point of view of the manager which name is Pedro. He doesn’t want the idea of Juan because he is sick of the approaches of the other System Analyst that was hired of him. All the finishing system of the previous System Analyst was the modification version of the old system. He is sick of the old system that the company is using he wants to make him a new system that will fit his satisfaction in the system. He want first to give the requirements needed in the system so that the Juan will understand and know the he really wants to the new system. Pedro was so disappointed of all the work of the previous System Analyst because his requirements did not meet by them. He doesn’t want to happen again what happened to last system that the previous System Analyst did.

The side that I want to sympathize is the side of Pedro. Why would I choose Pedro? I choose the side of Pedro because let us always think that the customer is always right. All the hard work of the systems people will not be credited if they will not meet the client requirement. He wants just to propose his requirements to the system people so that they will have the idea on how they will make the system based on the demand of Pedro. To know the requirements need in the system makes the milestone of the system people established. All they will do is to base their approach in the wants of Pedro and they can do all they need to do in developing the system. For me the best one is the side of Pedro because he is the one will be demanding the needs of the project he wants to see. Respecting the wants of the clients will make your name be known because if you meet all the needs of the client and build a great system that the client was expecting from you it will build a great relationship between you and the client. And it is a profit for you because if the client has another project he/she will choose you first because what you have did for his/her project.
For the second question in the assessment we have to answer what method they will take on their project. For me they will just take simple method in developing a system the waterfall method. So first let us discuss what the waterfall method to the other readers that don’t know the meaning of it. Based on my last assessment I had discussed the waterfall method. The Waterfall method is a traditional approach in developing a system. The first approach of the waterfall was ‘Process Model’ it is introduced and followed widely by software engineering to guarantee the success of the project. Waterfall has different phases to undergo with. These phases are requirement specification, software design, implementation and testing and maintenance.

This is also base on the last pose that I did and this idea is based on some author of an article. The first phase is the Requirement Specification. Knowing the different phases of the Waterfall Model will let you understand why I have to pick this model rather than the other models.

The requirement specification or requirement analysis this phase is all about the requirements in developing a system all the needs on the developing process is in this phase. All the functions and components that the end user want to have in a system will be stated here. This phase is the first thing to do by a developer. He/she will undergo an investigation or analyze the entire possible requirement that the end user want to have in a system. Lastly, the developer will document all his/her findings in this phase to serve as guideline in the next phase in the model.

The next phase is system and software design. Before arriving in the coding phase it should analyze first the guidelines of the requirements to plan the flow in developing it. In this phase the guideline of all the requirements are been studied to make a system design. Designing the flow makes the coding part easier because the desire outcome of the system is been seen or the designing team have an idea on the outcome of the system. System design will tell all the system requirements and hardware that is use for running the system. Specifying the system design serve as the input for the next phase of the model.
The next phase on the model is implementation and unit testing. Upon receiving the documentation in system design the work is been divided in modules or units and the coding of the system is started. The first one to develop in small programs is called units, the units will be integrated I the next phase. After the unit is finish it will undergo in testing this time it is referred as the unit testing. It will test the functionalities in each module or units that are done. The result in the test will tell if the specifications in each unit or module have been met.

The next phase on the model is integration and system testing. As the last phase is done in developing each module or units and test the functionalities of it this phase will be up. In integration phase, the units will be integrated into a complete system. After the integration phase, the system is checked all the modules or units if they coordinate in each other and the system behavior in per specification of it. After the checking the system it is delivers to the end user for deployment.
The last phase on the model is operations and maintenance. This is the never-ending phase in the waterfall model. The problems or error in the system that is not founded in the testing method is needed to be fixed. There are problems that are occurred in time in time usage of the system. Maintaining the system makes the problem to be fixed. If the end user wants to add more features in the system it is not anymore under in this last phase it will become the new project of the developer.
These phases are based on the author that I had based on the last assessment I had did. By following this phases will help the system developer to manage the requirements in developing a system and it will organize the flow in developing the system. It is important to follow each phases in this model if you intended to use this model because you can’t proceed to the next phase if the current phase is not yet done.

Now the advantages and disadvantages in Waterfall Model. First, let us know the advantages in waterfall model. The advantages on the Waterfall Model are the following:
• It is easy to implement. It is easy to implement because in the eyes of the manager it is easy to understand and it reduce the cost of the project. The flow of the project makes it easy to understand.
• It has a clear compartmentalization. By having a clear compartmentalization it is easy to set a schedule in every task in the duration of the project.
• It has step by step flow. Having a step by step flow of the phases makes the work easier because you can’t proceed to the next phase if you can’t finish the current phase. All the work is well organized. There is no overlapping of task in the whole duration of the project.
• It has documentation and testing. Lastly, every end of the phase it has documentation and testing to undergo with to know if the phases have error. Documentation each phase helps to know the other team what are the findings in the last phase so that their work will have a better direction. By testing the system helps to minimize the error that the end user will noticed in the long run.

Now, we know the advantages of a Waterfall Model. Let us know the weakness or the disadvantage of a Waterfall Model. The disadvantages on the Waterfall Model are the following:
• Not all requirements gather as one. There would be circumstances that the demands and the requirements given by the clients are inadequate and they would later demand those needs as you go along with the system. Sometimes the clients will add some requirements in the middle of the development process. This will cause the success of the project in a negatively aspects.
• Problems in each phase are not solved. Not all the problems in phase will be solve in the entire duration of the phase. Not all the problems will be seen in the current phase because there are sometimes cases that the problem will be seen when the other units or modules is develop. It will give a system badly structure.
• The system becomes useless. Lastly, some customers will tell their needs in the progress of the system having a list of their wants makes the system become more useless because of their new demands. The new demands will be meet in the newer version of the system it will cost more to the customer.
Having some of the disadvantages mentioned above the waterfall is one of the widely use model of software engineers. This is the best and easy way to use in developing a system throughout the duration of the project.

By knowing the flows of the Waterfall Method you can see why I’ve choose this between to the other models. In spite of the disadvantages it has, it is still the commonly use in building a project because it is easy to implement and all the flow in the project is based on the step by step. And the other key that I’ve pick this because of the first phase it have that will support the client dialogue in the assessment. Specifying the requirements will make you think the best design in building the project. Systems professionals should follow what system the clients want and not the system that we want. Always remember this saying the customer is always right.

In my conclusion to this assessment all the way I’m sympathize the side of Pedro because he is the client and the System Analyst must follow what the client want not his/her own wants in the given project. But if the System Analyst found a better solution that is far enough to the requirements of the client, the System Analyst must inform this to the client so that they will have the same understanding in development of the system and they will have the same satisfaction when the system is done. It is vital to the System Analyst not to meet the needs of the client because all of his/her work is based on the needs of the client not the amazing system. The client want most is that the system will meet his needs in the company and not the amazingness of the system.
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Joseph Jorge Repaso



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: December 23, 2011, before 01:00pm)    Fri Dec 23, 2011 12:18 pm

A conversation of a system analyst and a manager of a department is just a normal scenario for a system analyst. It needs a lot of conversations for be able to know what the system will do. As part of the assessment on assignment six, we are to comment on the conversation of the systems professional which is John Juan and a manager of a department targeted for a new information system which is Peter Pedro.

Based on what I have understood on their conversation is that thy have their own way of approach in analyzing the system. I understand both sides. In the part of Juan in which he is the system professional or analyst, he wants to examine first the existing system of the company because it may lead to an effective solution to the problem. Also, it may not cause of time to solve the problem. It only does is to examine the existing system and determine its does and don’ts. Also, it is important to check its documentation so that it can help to examine the system. It is important to check the documentation of the existing system because it covers what is the system all about. John Juan wants to do is that he wants to analyze the problem based on the existing system. On the side of the manager of a department targeted for a new information system which is Peter Pedro, he wants to have a new system. Based on what he had said that they had gone through these problem and they always ends up repeating the same problem. They did not get the new system they wanted that promised to them. They only got the modified version of the existing system. The point of the manager is that they wanted to have a new system. The manager wanted to start analyzing the problem all over again.

From the conversation between the system analyst and the manager of a department targeted for a new information system, for me, I am on the side of the system analyst because he knows better than the manager. Though he is the manager of the company, he should trust what the system analyst can do to his company. If the manager wanted to have a new system, he should tell the system analyst what concerned he has. It is because he does not have enough knowledge in analyzing system than the system analyst. Even though, the decision of the system analyst should be approved by the manger. If they want to solve to problem of the company, they should first solve the problem between the two of them. In the phase of analysis, one of the important things there is to have a good conversation with the client or the manager. It is because the manager knows better the problem of the company. It is important to have a good conversation because it can helps to understand the problem of the company. In this part of the development life cycle, it is important to have a good conversation between the system analyst and the manager because it may lead to not solving the problem. One factor also is that the system analyst may not know the main problem of the company without the help of the manager. There are some effects if they do not cooperate with each other. It may lead to a wrong solution to the problem. If this scenario will continue, developing of the system could go wrong. On the side of the manager, he has the power to command to the system analyst what he wants to make. The main concern of the manager is the he wants the better of his company. The manager wants to solve the problem of the company. Because their problem is the old system, he wants to have a new one and he wants to start all over again and it will not base on the existing system. The manager will give all the requirements needed by the system analyst and with that, the system analyst could come up the solution to the problem.

It is important to know the opinions of both sides. The decision to follow is the one in which it is more close to solve the problem. They have different approach in analyzing the problem. But I think the system analyst should have the power on the system side. It is the system analyst will analyze the problem. The part of the manager in analyzing the problem is that the manager will tell its concern of the company to the system analyst for be able to analyze those problems and could come up a solution based on those problems. It is also important to study the existing system of the company because may be a little problem was found on the system and the bigger part is not part of the system. It is part of the system development life cycle which is analyzing the problem. It is also important to observe the workers who are using the system because may be that is the main problem of the system. In this way, the system analyst can determine the problem of the system. In this phase or the analyzing phase, it is important to have a thorough research on the system. He or she should not focus on one side only but he or she should be fair in analyzing to solve the main problem.

The main role of the system analyst in a company is that he / she is the problem solver of the system. The system analyst should first analyze the existing of the company. It is a very big help for the system analyst to save time in analyzing the problem. It may be a waste of time to start all over again and start in a scratch. The role of a system analyst in a business company is very important and it is not an easy job to do. Some people would say that system analyst is problem solver. He or she knows hot investigate the problem of the company. He must know to analyze and design a system. In this regard, system analyst should undergo thorough research in a particular system. He or she must analyze a system and after that, He or she can conclude and start to make a design a system. Also, one of the roles of the system analyst is that he or she can help translate business requirements to IT projects. He/she can help to make the process of a certain system to an easier one with the help of technology. Another role of system analyst is in strategic planning. He or she develop information systems that support strategic planning. He can develop an application architecture plan, a description of the integrated information systems that the organization needs to carry out its business function. He can also develop a technology architecture plan, a description of the hardware, software, and communications networks required to implement planed information systems. According to techterms.com is that a system analyst is the person who selects and configures computer systems for an organization or business. His or her job typically begins with determining the intended purpose of the computers. This means the analyst must understand the general objectives of the business, as well as what each individual user's job requires. Once the system analyst has determined the general and specific needs of the business, he can choose appropriate systems that will help accomplish the goals of the business. System Analyst as business problem solver has to understand business problems. He or she uses logical methods for solving problems. A system analyst wants to make things better. And also he or she is more of a business problem solver than a technical programmer. There are several approaches in solving a problem. He or she researches and understands the problem. A system analyst should verify benefits in solving the problem. He or she can define the requirements for solving a problem. He/she can develop a set of possible alternatives solutions. A system analyst will decide the details of the solution and also can implement the solution. He or she can maintain to ensure the desired result. As a systems analyst would be needed by a company to examine their systems and processes, and recommend improvements. A Systems Analyst serves as a business professional who uses analysis and design techniques to solve business problems using information technology. According to systemanalyst.com, a systems analyst performs the following tasks: Interact with the customers to know their requirements, Interact with designers to convey the possible interface of the software, Interact or guide the coders or developers to keep track of system development, Perform system testing with sample data with the help of testers, Implement the new system, Prepare High quality Documentation. It is also important for the system analyst to know the vision, mission and goal of the company. It because the system analyst has the basis on what solution he will make and it will meet the desired goal of the company. The system analyst should also consider the presence of the documents connected to the existing system because in this way, it can easily to analyze the system. It is easy for the system analyst to know the flaws made by the system.
On the side of the manager of a department targeted for a new information system which is Peter Pedro, he wants the best of his company. He wants to solve the problem that they encounter every now and then. In his understanding, because of the existing system and they have been through these problems, he could come up to a decision that he wants to have a new system rather than that modified the existing system. Also, the manager wanted to have a new system so that the problem of the company will not be repeated all over again. For me, the role of the manager of the company in analyzing the problem of the system is that he or she will guide the system analyst and he or she will support on what the system analyst does. He or she also states the problem to system analyst in order for the system analyst to analyze the problem. The manager also can contribute in solving the problem of the company nay giving his ideas and concerns. In this way, the system analyst and the manager will have a good conversation with each other.

In this situation, the analysis phase is very important on developing the system. It is because this is the phase where the gathering of data happens. It is said to be the most crucial stage. It is because in this phase, you will meet the client and ask them some questions relating to the system. There is a possibility that miscommunication occurs and maybe you will misinterpret what the clients said to you. In this phase also, includes the visit of the company that you want to analyze. It is important to make sure the requirements are detailed and accurate because it can easily determine the problem of the system and the needed things to improve. In this phase also, you need to analyze the problem of a certain system of the company based on the data that you gathered. The requirement analysis phase is more on the gathering of data and analyzing part. It is important that in this stage is completed before can proceed to the next one. Analysis phase is done in order to understand and solve a given problem. For example, it is important to analyze all the possible causes and effects of the problem of the system.

It is important to have models in system developing life cycle. If I am going to choose from all the system development models out there, I rather choose the Waterfall model. For me, it is the most stable model of all. The waterfall lifecycle is the traditional approach to system development. It is used by most system analysts and project managers. It is the earliest method of structured system development. The waterfall model is widely used today because it is the generic model for system development. The waterfall model has different phases. Each phase must be completed before you can proceed to the next phase. The waterfall undergo a specific phases to work with. The first phase is the requirement analysis. In this phase is this where the gathering of data occurs. It is also used by most system analyst and project managers. In this phase also, you will a good communication between the system analyst and the clients. It is also said to be the most crucial phase in developing a system. It is because you need the face different people and asks them to some concerns regarding the system. There is a possibility that miscommunication occurs and maybe you will misinterpret what the clients said to you. It includes also in this phase is the visiting of the company. To sum it up, the requirement analysis is more on gathering of data, communicating to the company and mostly analyzing part. The next phase is the Design. The design phase is related to requirement analysis. The design that made is based upon the data that you collected on the first phase. You cannot proceed in this phase without completing the collection of data phase or the requirement analysis. It is very important that the data you gather is be specific and be precise because the more specific the design for the given problem. In this phase, it will be a back and forth a lot of times with the requirement analysis and the collection of data. The design should of course be based on the analysis, and for the project to be the project will be complete. The data that are gathered in the requirement analysis phase are broken down into logical units, so that the software process becomes easy for implementation. To have an effective design for the project, you need to gather all the data needed by the system to improve the system and solve the problem of the system. In design phase also, you need to select the language to use to implement the system, the hardware needed in the system. Also, third parties software is chose in this phase. Every type of data which will be required for the designing of the software is done here in this phase. What type of database will be required, what type of data should be supported are some of the important aspects that are decided in this phase. The algorithm of the process in which the software needs to be designed is made in this phase. This algorithm is used for the actual coding part in the next phase. To sum it up, this is the phase, where the fundamental work for actual programming and implementation is done. The next phase is the Implementation. In the implementation phase, this is where the project starts to build. In this phase, the actual development of the software takes place. This phase is also known as coding and verification phase. Like other phases, you cannot proceed to implementation phase without completing the design phase. The next one is Test. In this phase is the testing part of the system before it will be given to the clients. This is where the bugs and all the error will occur. The system testing is done. They are normally a series of tests, which are run to check the performance of the software, the user-friendly of the system, how to use it and also to find if any new bugs were introduced into the system, after the previous bugs were fixed. In this phase also, the codes designed by programmers are integrated and it is tested if the software works as the specifications provided, according also to the data gathered and according to the specifications of the clients. The setup of the final software which needs to be installed at the clients system is also designed and tested so that the client does not face any problem during the installation of the software. After the test phase and all the bugs are fixed and will meet the client’s specifications and needs, the system is then handed over to the client. And the last one is the Maintenance. This is the last phase of the Waterfall model in which the system is given to the client after checking all the bugs of the system. After the deployment of the system, maintenance of it is needed. The system needs to be maintained because to fix the errors when it was turnover to the clients. This is also the phase where change occurs. If the clients want to change something or add something this is the updates happens. Some system needs to improve due to the fact that it is old and needed to be updated. Some system also, those errors will occur during on the client’s time to use. This time, maintenance is needed. During the maintenance phase, support and debugging is provided for all such problems. The main objective why I chose the Waterfall model because for me it is flexible and anyone can easily understands it.

In my conclusion in this topic is that, in order for the system analyst to analyze the problem, he or she should be flexible enough to gather all data. A system analyst also should have the skills in communicating to other people. It is very important in developing a system because this is where you will gather all the date. We all know that the system analyst is the problem solver of the system. He or she should help the problem of the company. It is not new to the system analyst that has a quarrel on the manager. In analyzing the system, the system analyst should not focus on one side only; he or she should consider all the possible problems of the company.
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Louie_P_Sanchez



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: December 23, 2011, before 01:00pm)    Fri Dec 23, 2011 12:24 pm

In this article I will tell about the conversation between two persons, John Juan the systems professional and Peter Pedro the manager of the department targeted for a new information system which John Juan will be working with. In this article I will try to analyze which of them should I sympathize most and I will try to to find a solution or method in their problem.

As I’ve understand in their conversation, John Juan is insisting that they should first analyze or examine the existing system the company has, then they will review the document and also observe all the employees on how they perform their task and then John Juan will determine all the possible aspects that is still OK and gather all the important data that can be preserved, but Peter Pedro is worried because they’ve been to this kind of projects before but they still got failed because as John Juan was insisting, Peter Pedro said that this kind of technique will just put them to failure because as Peter Pedro experienced before, they didn’t get a new system as promised but instead they get a modified version of the old system. John Juan promised to Peter Pedro that this will not happen, they just want to have a thorough understating to the existing system, they like to know what is working well and what is isn’t but Peter Pedro said that he is much comfortable if John Juan will analyze what really is the problem of their company, then John Juan will list it and it will serve as the requirements of the system and also Peter Pedro said that John Juan should determine what will be the purpose of the program to their department, then after doing this, John Juan and his team as Peter Pedro said will salvage or save the possible portion of the system that can still be save, because Peter Pedro doesn’t want that they will be force to use the old system of their department. Obviously these two professionals have different views on how the analysis phase should be conducted, for me their views have two sides, the negative and positive sides. Let’s talk first about the positive side of John Juan’s views, for me examining first the old system is the best way to gather some important information regarding to the capabilities of the system, being a systems analyst is that you should analyze first the existing system before creating a new one, and also the positive side of the views of John Juan is that it is right to review all the important documents and then observe the employees on how they do the task, being a systems analyst John Juan is doing his task well but for there is a negative side of John Juan's views, being a systems analyst is that you should understand well the needs of the client. In case of John Juan, he is insisting that they should preserved the old system and instead of making a new system they should modify it. And to the views of Peter Pedro I can say that it has a negative and a positive side also. For me Peter Pedro's views is correct also because he is the client and he is the one that has many experience regarding the works of the system and he is the one also who knows how their employees used the system and I understand the point of Peter Pedro on making a new system instead of a modified older version of the system, but on the negative side Peter Pedro doesn't understand well the views of John Juan, although Peter Pedro is the client and has many experience on their company, but we cannot deny the fact that John Juan is a systems analyst and he knows so much about this kind of job. And also being a systems analyst I agree with John Juan that they should preserved what can be preserved. But I agree also with Peter Pedro because by preserving some of the data from the older version, they can still have a modified version of the old system but not a new one. So to begin with the first question regarding whom do I sympathize most, I must explain first what is a systems analyst and what are the roles or skills of the systems analyst.

What is a Systems Analyst?
We all know that System Analyst is the one that investigates and analyze the existing system or the possible system an organization could have. System Analyst is the one responsible in making the plan strategy more capable of making the project being effective and efficient. As we know the major role of a System Analyst in a project team is System Analyst works primarily for an information system. System Analyst should interact with other people because it is the only way that they would know the capability of their employees. We all know that a System Analyst is expert in computer and System Analyst is very professional in investigating different kinds of situation.
Skills on being A System Analyst

As our lesson goes further, I learn that being a System Analyst is not an easy job. Being a system analyst, you should learn how to talk to the people and know what are their needs and concerns. Being a System Analyst is that we all should research, plan, coordinate and recommend other software’s that will help or meet the organizations requirements. System Analyst has so many things to do, some of them are writing technical or methodological requirements from a critical phase, and also after that, System Analyst should cooperate with the designers or developers in order to fix and avoid system bugs. System Analyst is the one capable of testing the system, and it is also the one that deploys the system and determines the flow of the system.
The Three Major Skill of A System Analyst
1)Technical Skills
When you are a system analyst you should be able to become a technical type of person, it simply means that you should know about computers, you should also know the easiest part of the computer that is very useful of becoming a system analyst and also the knowledge of computer in terms of peripheral devices(hardware), communication networks and connectivity, database and database management systems (DBMS), programming languages ( for example, VB.NET or Java), operating systems and utilities, software productivity packages, integrated development environment (IDEs) for programming languages, and CASE tools, testing documentation support, reverse engineering, configuration management, project planning, system analysis, systems design, database design, network design, construction, implementation, systems support.
2)Business knowledge and skill
A Systems Analyst’ most important task is to solve business problems, thus he/she should know the business functions performed by the organization. Some of these are:
•Business functions performed by organization
- It is one of the important task of a system analyst is to know the business functions performed by the organization, for example it is important to know what kinds of business functions an employee is doing, because it enables the systems analyst to analyze well what is the function the system lacks.
• Strategies, plans, traditions, and values of the organization
- Being a systems analyst is all about investigating the current system of some organization in order to improve it for the greater good of the company. A systems analyst, should know all the plans or goals of the organization because it is the most important job of a systems analyst to know what he/she is working on and also by knowing the strategies and the traditions of the organization will help him or her to find the best way in improving the system used by the organization.
• Organizational Structure
- In starting an investigation, a systems analyst should know the organizational structure because it enables the analyst to be more precise and accurate of what he/she is doing. Organizational structure serves as the flow chart of an organization.
• Organizational management techniques
- Organizational management is the lifeblood of any company or group. Being a systems analyst, it is important to know the lifeblood of the company in order to understand well what the needs of the company are. OMT is the methods used to manage the company's daily activities, motivate employees to produce at a high level and guide the company's future path, by knowing all these a systems analyst can simply determine what is the thing that the people in the organization wants. Understanding successful organizational techniques are important to effective management. The first thing to keep in mind is that it helps to understand multiple methods to the several techniques so the approach can be adapted for any given situation.
• Functional work processes
- It is important for a system analyst to know the whole process done by organization or the business flow and the different functions happening because as I’ve mentioned earlier it enables the systems analyst to analyze well what the system really lacks.
3)People Knowledge and Skills
A systems analyst need to understand important things regarding the people. Some of these are:
• Think
- It is very important that a systems analyst should know what do people are thinking because it will help or it is a guide to know what does the people really wants and a systems analyst must understand what their needs are.
• Learn
- It is important that a systems analyst should learn from the people around because learning in line with teaching the people to will create a good bond to the system and the people using it.
• React to Change
- It is important that a systems analyst would realize that the people will surely react to the change, and a systems analyst must analyze well the system and make sure that the system can be easily adopt, it is the role of a systems analyst to realize that.

• Communicate
- A systems analyst must communicate well to the people because it will help an analyst to gather more information and the people will have a trust to tell all the data he/she needs from them, and also by communicating well, an analyst can understand the complexity of the employees doing. It is important to make sure that an analyst must be good in communicating in order to motivate people and also provide necessary support
• Work
- An analyst should know what kind of work the people are doing in order so that they can easily adapt to the changes.
After discussing about what is a systems analyst and what are the skill and roles of a systems analyst, I came with a decision on whom I sympathize the most. In my opinion I sympathize the both of them but I sympathize the most is John Juan, because John Juan is just doing his job, even though Peter Pedro has more experience about their system but as I reviewed about what is the systems analyst, John Juan is just doing what a systems analyst should be doing. In John Juan's point what he wanted to do is to examine first the old system and try to recover the important features of the system that can be preserved and can be useful to create a new system. What John Juan was pointing is that he just wanted to get the information from the old system so that he can analyze well the needs of the employees, He is just trying to explain that in the old system maybe they can find something useful in their study and so they can insert it to the new system they will create, but Peter Pedro does not understand John Juan's point, although I understand Peter Pedro, because he is just afraid of the plan of John Juan, because he experienced it before, instead of making a new system, they got a modified version of the old system, but as I've understand that John Juan will make a new system, he is just gathering some important details and he is observing the works of the employees and how do they use the system. I sympathize also with the point of Peter Pedro, because he wants to make a new study of what are the needs of the system and it will serve as their requirements to create the new system but I think John Juan has a better idea because I think John Juan is just using the most used method of being a systems analyst which is the waterfall method. Let me discuss what is the waterfall method.
What is the Waterfall Method
The waterfall model is the earliest method of structured system development, nowadays this model is still widely used even though in the recent years It has come under attack for being too severe and impractical when it comes to meeting customer’s needs. It is most closely resembles a “generic” model for software development. According to some study waterfall model is a sequential design process, often used in used in software development process, it is called a waterfall model because as it seen that its progress if flowing steadily downwards life a waterfall. In 1970 up to now it has become the fundamental model for software development in many software companies. This model was introduced by Winston W. Royce. As I’ve understand waterfall model has its personal feature that sets it apart from other software development models, this feature is, waterfall model does not allow a simultaneous execution between phases, it simply means that a second phase cannot be executed when the first phase in not finish, this kind of approach is easy to implement and there is transparency in every stage. Systematic documentation is done at every phase of waterfall model. To verify whether the development process is on track and meets customer’s requirements, review meetings are conducted at the end of every stage. The waterfall model consists of the following steps; these are problem definition, feasibility study, requirement analysis, system design, coding and testing, implementation, and system maintenance. In Problem Definition Phase ,this is where we define the problem, it is not an easy job because defining the problem is more likely solving the problem, because when you find what really is the problem we can find the right solution for the problem, this phase requires a critical thinker that has the ability to think what really is the problem, identifies what is the characteristics of the problem. In Feasibility Study Phase, it aims to accurately and logically uncover the strengths and weaknesses of the existing business or proposed venture, opportunities and threats as presented by the environment, the resources required to carry through, and ultimately the prospects for success. In its simplest term, the two criteria to judge feasibility are cost required and value to be attained. In Requirement Analysis Phase, this is the phase of the waterfall model which includes a meeting with a customer to understand his/her requirements, in this phase an analyst must perform a full and complete analysis to the current situation of the customer. This phase also refers to the gathering of system requirements; an analyst should gather all the important requirements with the goal on determining how these requirements will be accommodated in the system. In System Design Phase, this is the phase where the designing of the system takes place. This explains why the waterfall model has a unique feature because you cannot proceed with the designing if you are not finished with analyzing. Once the requirements have been collected and analyze, it Is necessary to identify in detail what should be the design of the system or how the system should be constructed in order to perform necessary tasks, the main objective of the system design phase is to focus on the data requirements for example “what information will be processed in the system?” it is focus also in the software construction for example “how will the application be constructed?” and also it is focus in the interface construction for example “what will the system look like? What standards to be followed?” In Coding and Testing Phase,this is the phase where the analyst is not capable of doing. This is the time when you gather all the needed information from the start up to this, this time the programmer takes place. In coding the programmer is the one capable of doing, after understanding all the gathered information the programmer converts this information into a machine readable computer code. In the Implementation Phase, this phase is the realization of the application; it is the time when the developer executes the plan, and ideas. According to some study it is a realization of a technical specification or the realization of a technical description or algorithm as a program, software component, or other computer system through programming and deployment. In the Maintenance Phase, this is the final phase of the waterfall model the maintenance phase, in this phase the developer checks the processes made by the system from time to time. He/she will update the system if it has some errors or bugs.

Proceeding with the next question about what is the method would I propose that they should take. In my opinion they could use the usual method, all they need is understanding. For me they should plan first what should really be the problem of the system, they should understand and know all the possible problems that they could encounter and next is that they should analyze the problem well if they can analyze the problem well they can get a better solution to it, and also John Juan should understand well Peter Pedro, he should explain well what he was doing. I think the best solution to their problem is that they should combine their ideas for example John Juan will examine the old system but he should still find a new way or new requirements in making a new system, then after that they should ask the employees what are things that is lacking in the system and what should be out in the system after doing this they design a new system that fits their needs.
Conclusion
To sum it all up, for me their conversation is not about quarreling, it is just about a two experts, expressing their ideas to make an efficient and effective system, the two of them has a point on their views, Peter Pedro wants a new system and also John Juan but John Juan wants that they should examine first the old system and if they find something useful they can insert it to the new system. As I've observed good communication is the most important way to have a good relationship between the client and the analyst. An analyst should develop good communication skills in order to communicate well with the client.
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brian flores



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: December 23, 2011, before 01:00pm)    Fri Dec 23, 2011 12:29 pm

Consider the following dialogue between a system professional, John Juan, and a manager of a department targeted for a new information system, Peter Pedro:
Juan: The way to go about the analysis is to first examine the old system, such as reviewing key documents and observing the workers perform their tasks. Then we can determine which aspects are working well and which should be preserved.
Pedro: We have been through these types of projects before and what always ends up happening is that we do not get the new system we are promised; we get a modified version of the old system.

Juan: Well, I can assure you that will not happen this time. We just want a thorough understanding of what is working well and what isn’t.
Pedro: I would feel much more comfortable if we first started with a list of our requirements. We should spend some time up-front determining exactly what we want the system to do for my department. Then you systems people can come in and determine what portions to salvage if you wish. Just don’t constrain us to the old system.
a.Obviously these two workers have different views on how the systems analysis phase should be conducted. Comment on whose position you sympathize with the most.
b.What method would you propose they take? Why?

We can figure out based on the conversation between John Juan as a system professional and Peter Pedro as manager of the department that they having the same goal which is to make a new better system but then, they also have different idea and approach of doing the new system. The purpose of this discussion is to determine and know the views of the two professionals in doing the new system which is more focus in the analysis phase of system development. And then decide on which approach we will take as we develop a system.

The both professional have a good idea in creating the system. But in the matter of who is idea will prevail and to be followed, I will take the decision of the system professional John Juan because being a system professional he has lots of experience in creating a system. His experience about his job may help the project or the system ensures to be the successful one, because having a big experience in doing a certain thing is a big advantage of making it right. Compare to the department manager, the system professional having the more knowledge in doing the project but he has less information about what are the requirements of the old system or how the system work. The scenario is just somehow related to software prototyping. It has two kinds which are the Evolutionary prototyping and the other is the throw-away prototyping. With the Evolutionary prototyping, the developer must create the prototype of the system that is created for demonstration and requirements elaboration. The reason for this is that the Evolutionary prototype, when built, forms the heart of the new system, and the improvements and further requirements will be. Simply means that this should be made to expect revisions from the old system to the new one. While throw-away prototyping is a model that eventually be discarded and would not be used for the new system. But throw-away prototyping can be done quickly, so it is much advantage for the system developer. If the users can get quick feedback on their requirements, they may be able to refine them in the development of the software.

In the side John Juan as a system professional, he wanted to examine first the existing system before conducting the required development or making a new one because he lack for the information in determining the solution of the project and what will be the things need to develop the old system. He also wanted to conduct thorough research and observation from the users of the old system to be the bases of the new system that he will make; he wanted to make a sketch before doing the system to have a inductor part of the project. His idea wanted to make a new system through the response of the back-end users about the current system, but this kind of approach might take a long too long time in determining what will be the revision will be make in the old system. And because of the way of creating the system is by referring from the old system, there are times that the new system was almost the same from the old system which means the expenses of development is gone with no reason. Since the department of the systems professional’s client already has an information system installed which I can tell that the particular system might not have met the needs or requirements of the department manager and of the other users of the system, the argument of the systems professional, regarding how to conduct the analysis phase for the new information system is acceptable. In this situation where an old system is about to be replaced with a new one, examining the former is an important part in the system analysis phase for the reason that this step will be able to help the systems professional to know more about the old system. If the existing information system’s features and functional requirements are made known to the systems professional, then it will not be difficult for him to discover the real problem about that particular system and will be able to help him find more ways or alternatives which he may apply for the new information system. I also noticed that the systems professional is not only concerned about the technical side of the existing information system. Rather, he wants to have the workers observed as what he had stated. What he just showed is one of the important steps in system analysis phase. In order for the systems professional to be able to develop new information system for his client or to improve the existing system, human factors must also be considered. This is one way of knowing how the users react and know whether the end users like the system that they are working with or not. Moreover, the systems professional will be able collect additional requirements or suggestions coming from the workers that are necessary for the development of the new information system. I also observed that the systems professional gave the department manager an assurance that his way of conducting the system analysis phase will be able to address the problems and meet the requirements that will be agreed upon.

In the side of Peter Pedro as manager of the department which is the one who knows more about the existing system and the thing should be develop in the system, he has more knowledge about the existing system that they trying to develop. His idea in making a new system is by providing a list that the users require for the system which will be the foundation of the new system. He preferred not to use John Juan idea because he wanted to make a new system. Based on his experience as a manager of the department where the system is being used and as he witnesses all the development done before on the system, he can say that the John Juan idea of making a revision of the system will have a chance of getting the same system compared to the old system. The new system that he wanted to make is based on the requirement of the user and not on the failure of the old system which is no more research needed before the project can start this approach made the project fast to be finished. But his approach has a disadvantage, this is because the new system is on his experience on how the system works based on the user’s requirements that always change for time to time, then it is possible that lots of revision will be done on the system. On the part of the department manager, I can tell that he grew tired of the improvements or modifications of his old information system that failed to meet the functional requirements, that is the reason why he wanted a new information system developed for his department and to follow his way of conducting the system analysis phase and that is starting with the requirements analysis. Determining the system requirements is one of the most important part in system development since in this phase, the clients and the developers will be able to know if they are still in focus and are developing the real system that is needed and address the real problems which the previous systems failed to solve. Another thing that I had observed is the department manager’s lack of confidence when it comes to the system department’s view on systems analysis phase. I cannot blame the department manager for acting that way, though.
The two professional wanted to make a new system but they having the different way in the analysis phase of the system development life cycle. The analysis phase defines the problem that the customer is trying to solve and defines the requirement document should state in a clear and precise fashion what is to be built. The requirement document tries to capture the requirements from the customer's perspective by defining goals and interactions at a level removed from the implementation details. This the analysis phase includes the gathering information, define the system requirements, prioritize the requirements, prototype for feasibility and discovery, generate and evaluate the alternatives, review the recommendations with the management. To examine the more about ideas of the two professionals, let’s take a view to how they will conduct the analysis phase as system analyst.

In gathering information, the system analyst collects data about the system to be developed. According the computerfreetips.com (can be found in one of my reference) which gives a tip about the system analysis that the gathering of information can be done by using the different tools and methods as follows:
• Written Documents - The analyst may collect the information/data from written documents available from manual-files of an organization. This method of data gathering is normally used if they want to upgrade the existing computer based system. The written documents may be reports, forms, memos, business plans, policy statements, organizational charts and many others. The written documents provide valuable information about the existing system.
• Interviews are another data gathering technique. The analyst (or project team members) interviews the managers, users/ clients, suppliers, and competitors to collect the information about the system. It must be noted that the questions to be asked from them should be precise, relevant and to the point.
• Questionnaires are the feedback forms used to collect Information. The interview technique to collect information is time-consuming method, so Questionnaires are designed to collect information from as many people as we like. It is very convenient and inexpensive method to collect information but sometimes the response may be confusing or unclear and insufficient.
• Observations. In addition to the above-mentioned three techniques to collect information, the analyst (or his team) may collect Information through observation. In this collect technique, the working, behavior, and other related information of the existing system are observed. It means that working of existing system is watched carefully.
• Sampling. If there are large numbers of people or events involved in The system, we can use sampling method to collect information. In this method, only a part of the people or events involved are used to collect information. For example to test the quality of a fruit, we test a piece of the fruit.

By reviewing the key documents and observing the workers perform their tasks, the problem could be literally understood. From there on they would already know what is really needed to be change and which should remain. It is right that a thorough understanding with the old system must be the first objective for with this they could already identify and elicit requirements needed for the project.

The analysis stage is the front-end phase of the development process of computer-supported learning systems. This phase constitutes an essential step of the development process and one of the critical issues that determines the quality of the final product. The analysis phase sets the stage for the whole project. The necessary groundwork for understanding what the project is all about is completed in this phase. I believe that they take the strong position that the more effort you put into planning, the smoother the rest of the project will go and the better the quality will be of your final product.
As what I had understood about the system requirements analysis phase, the views of both the workers, though differs from each other are all important steps in system requirements analysis and are necessary for the development of a successful and efficient system. Moreover, open communication between the development team and the client is very important in this analysis phase. It is through constant open communication that both parties will be able determine the type of system is really needed to address the client’s problem, how the client wants the system to work for user – efficiency and to know the functional and non – functional requirements of the system that will be developed.

In analyzing the problem, a system developer must first identify the goal of the system itself. And as John Juan insisted, old system must be examined first to see if there is something wrong with this. An example is the current information is costly to maintain. By then, John Juan could suggest that the next goal would be to reduce maintenance cost. Determining the goals are really a very high requirements for any projects. Next, is to identify the constraints on the solution. An example would be the requirements towards the Operating System look and feel and deciding if they would preserve it or change it.
The goals and constraints should be perceptible in order for the developer and the client have it access at the end of the project management. All of John Juan points of view is on evaluating the old system to ascertain the boundary of the system, whether it is on the internal or external environment of the project.
To connect in the discussion we will base on the conversation by the two professionals above. The John Juan as a system professional wanted to gather the data about the old system, so in order to have the information and to determine the requirements of the system he must conduct any of the techniques of information gathering for him to have useful information in developing the system. While for Peter Pedro as a manager of the development, in order to define the system requirements in making a new system in by his own experience that he encounter in using the old system with his companions. Both professionals need to undergo the phases of the analysis in the current system to determine and meet the requirements of doing the development of the system

• Develop a Business Activity Model. A model of the business activity is built. Business events and business rules would also be investigated as an input to the specification of the new automated system.
• Investigate and define requirements. The objective of this step is to identify the problems associated with the current environment that are to be resolved by the new system. It also aims to identify the additional services to be provided by the new system and users of the new system.
• Investigate current processing. It investigates the information flow associated with the services currently provided, and describes them in the form of Data Flow Model. At this point, the Data Flow Model represents the current services with all their deficiencies. No attempt is made to incorporate required improvement, or new facilities.
• Investigate current data. This step is to identify and describe the structure of the system data, independently of the way the data are currently held and organized. It produces a model of data that supports the current services.
• Derive logical view of current services. The objective of this step is to develop a logical view of the current system that can be used to understand problems with the current system.

If I will choose of what approach I will take in developing the system, I will prefer to the approach used of the John Juan a system professional in the conversation. I will prefer in conducting the analysis of the system first before starting the development of the project. By this way I could determine the things that the system needed to improve to in enhance it speed and productivity. Even though, having research about the old system on how it works and what is need to improve which also needs an additional budget for the project analysis but this may help the system met the real requirements of doing development in the system. But I will consider of using the idea of Peter Pedro if we only based the development of the system on the old system will results the new system the same with the old system. To handle that scenario not to happen, I will clearly identify the things that should be improve and provide an effective methods in achieving those things that the stake holders of the project set to meet as a target of the development. As a system profession al I am liable in that will be the output of the project, if either to meets the user requirement or not. So, I must put a bit attention on the analysis phase of the system development life cycle to guide the flow of the project. By knowing the required thing needed by conducting a research on the system will makes the development of the system more useful because it puts a goal for me and for the development of the system.
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melissa_carpio



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PostSubject: Systems Professional vs. Deparment Manager   Fri Dec 23, 2011 12:50 pm

Name: Melissa B. Carpio
Course/Year: BSCS 3

In making decisions on everything that we do needs critical thinking in order for us to decide not only for the good of the result but to acquire the specific idea we have in achieving better results. Considering the conversation of a systems professional, John Juan, and a manager of a department targeted for a new information system, Peter Pedro, both parties would have different views and opinion in developing a target plan which is the new information system for the department managed by Peter Pedro. As I was reading through their conversation, I can say that both of them have the same point. Even though they have different perspectives on how to deal with the new system but their ideas are most likely needed in the process because somehow, from what they said, all of it will lead into having new or revised system. In order for us to understand both parties, let me first introduce John Juan and Peter Pedro.

John Juan is a systems professional and is hired to make a more progressive system in the department under Peter Pedro’s management. John Juan’s idea on making the new information system is by doing examination on the old system existing in the department, the examination of system includes the reviewing of key documents and observing the employees on how they perform their task using the current system. In this manner, they can determine which part of the system must they focus on revising and they will also determine which part of it would be preserved because it might not be giving problems in the system. As a systems professional, they know what to do in dealing with certain systems that need revisions or new versions and as for John Juan, analyzing the old system’s performance is the best foundation on dealing with a new one because I can say that it would cost time and effort to change what was being implemented already. His idea is that through examining the old system, he might stumble on a problem that would cause trouble to the department and by that he can focus on that part only. Systems professionals are particular on what they are doing, on the time that would take them to deal with a system, and the effort they will put into for them to deliver the right system to the clients.

On the other hand, Peter Pedro is a manager of a department and is planning on having a new information system for their department. Peter Pedro’s idea on dealing with his targeted information system is that making a list of the requirements needed. Take more time on analyzing and defining what system they really want for their department. After that is systems professionals can butt in to determine the portions of the system that needs to focus in. Peter Pedro does not want to just observe the old system and the systems professional would just modify the old one. According to him, they have been doing what was told by John Pedro before and they end up not getting the new system as promised but they just get a modified version of the old system. He insists on having new information system and not the revised and modified system only. As the manager of a certain department, it is necessary for him to envision what problems they might deal with the old system that they have. He can aptly determine what went wrong in his department considering that the system they are using is old and cannot support new operations unless it is under observation for a better system.

Based on the first thing that they did, they had a conversation over the matter and as dealing with a systems professional-client relationship, communication is the most important factor needed in order to understand both parties and as a result of that, they can have a unified idea that can lead to a better solution to the problem. John Juan and Peter Pedro expressed their ideas on dealing with the targeted new information system. As mentioned above, they have different methods on arriving to the new system. On John’s first step in dealing with the problem, examining the system which includes reviewing of the documents and observing the tasks performed by the employees, I can say that he has a point on that matter. A systems professional must be concern on the people who are using the system. He must know the opinions of each employees dealing with the system in order for him to determine which part of the system he should deal with. He must also know what key documents he has to deal with because the main reason on why he was hired is that he must meet the need of the client and that is having a system that would make their department more productive and competitive to other departments. In other words, John wants thorough investigation on what part of the system he should deal with in order for him to narrow his scope considering all parts of the system because through his idea, he can be able to determine what part must be focused and give more attention. The negative aspect of John’s idea is that analyzing the whole part of the old system in order for you to have knowledge on what you are dealing with. By this approach, John would really take time in understanding the old system especially if he was not the systems professional who handled the old system. Examining the old system is a salient part on deriving to a targeted new information system but the cost of time would really be present in this situation.

On Peter Pedro’s side, he is hesitant on just adopting the old system and make revisions out of it. He wants to have the targeted system not basing on the previous one but to start on knowing what requirements are needed. In other words, he wants to make a system that is different from the ones being implemented before. He also wants to give emphasis on what they really want the system to do to their company. He suggested that they should be focusing more on that in order for them to really meet what they need. He doesn’t want to stick with the old system because he might think that the system would just waste their effort and time but still they won’t gain profit or be productive while using the system. The negative side on what Peter wants is that he doesn’t want to relate the old system to the new system. It is difficult not to adopt the previous system because there would be more complicated aspects that would come upon developing new system. The result might be of big difference to what they want to improve and achieve to meet their needs.

Peter and John obviously have different views on handling the targeted new information system. If I were to choose on whose position I would sympathize the most, I would prefer to be on John Juan’s side. The fact that Peter Pedro is the manager of the department and he has the right to demand on what he wants to do with his system, in the process of developing the system, the systems professional has more power over it because he has more knowledge on dealing with the system. As what I discussed on our previous assignments, certain skills and characteristics are possessed to systems professionals to make a good system. Here are some skills those systems professional must have when dealing with systems. Identifying the client organization’s needs, in order for him to have a specific system to deal with, he must identify the needs of the business organization. The organization may comprise of different departments and of different needs and it is the job of the Systems Analyst to find out what those needs are. Drawing up plans for a modified or replacement IT system, before a system can be develop, it has do undergo through lots of planning and analysis. After several phases of planning and analysis, a Systems Analyst should not implement his system directly and replace the existing system of the business organization, he should first plan for the modified system and seek approval to the client. Carrying out feasibility studies of proposals and making recommendations, after the problem has been identified, the Systems Analyst should make feasibility studies on the future system and seek recommendations on which part of the system should they revise or upgrade before developing it. Working closely with programmers and software developers to build the system, the work of Systems Analyst is to analyze the problem, understand the problem, make some plans on how to solve the problem by developing a system, and design the system to solve the problem. In order to implement the system, he needs the help of a programmer and software developers to actually implement the system. In other words, Systems Analysts cannot stand alone in implementing a system. Overseeing installation and testing correcting problems before the final version is released, Systems Analyst may deploy an initial system or trial version to check whether bugs may occur as the system runs, if there are no bugs found, final version may be released. Providing staff training and instruction manuals for the new or upgraded system, in order for the clients to embrace the new or upgraded system the Systems Analyst has deployed, he must provide manuals or guidelines with regards to the functionality of the system.

Based on the skills I mentioned for a systems professional, I can say that John thinks that way. Even if Peter has a point on accumulating the requirements needed to make the system, the idea of John gives more fairness on making the system because in order for you to determine what requirements must be needed to meet the need of the department; you must know the performance of the previous system. The decisions you have are based on what were examined before. John can conclude what problems the system might deal with based on studying the old system. After concluding on what part of the system he must focus, he can now list some of the requirements needed to modify the previous one like what Peter said. Peter’s idea is useful on the process of developing the system. It is true that through listing the requirements needed, they can determine what system the department needs to handle with. It is not necessary that when the clients experienced some technical issues on the system, they already want a new one just to serve them right, it would be a help to the systems professional to base what they deal with on the old system.

Method that I would propose to them…

In our previous assignment, we have been tasked to describe each of the models that we chose to tackle with and the most common model for all even to others who are professionals now is the Waterfall model. Let me give you some information regarding the Waterfall model and what makes me think I recommend this model to the two workers.

Project Definition
Project definition phase in a simple understanding is the phase where a systems analyst must define the goals of the project, the requirements, and its specification. By defining the goal means investigating first the need of the client. In dealing with this phase, we must be able to interpret what the client wants through communicating with them and sometimes communicating with them may not be as easy as picking up the phone and list the orders that the client wants to be delivered, some say that it is the crucial part of the first phase since misinterpretation at this phase may give rise to the software that is being developed. After the goal has been defined and the requirements have been noted, we must be critical enough to make sure that the specified needs of the client are detailed and accurate in order for us not to meet any ambiguity as we get along with the system. By doing this, it will make the clients confident enough to rely on the system that is handled by you. In this phase also, we as systems analysts must not only meet the need of the clients, that is, to have a new system or an improved system, but consider also that the main reason why they made decision on having a new system is that in order for them to gain more profit than what they have on their previous systems.

System Design
System design phase is the phase where we as systems analysts identify the software requirements along with the hardware requirements because as what was acquired from the previous phase, the requirements are broken down into logical units so that the software process can be easily implemented. In this phase also, we must also interpret the design used to create the system. the accumulated logical units are interrelated to each other so that there would be connection on all the parts needed to create the system and to do that, we are to recognize different algorithms and providing diagrams on the plan can make the work easier to understand and follow. In other words, this phase would focus on the fundamental work for programming and implementation. Documentations are present in this phase because this phase is considered as the crucial phase on developing a working system.

Coding and Implementation
It is clear in this phase that we are to deal with coding after the design has been identified. The source code of the program is written in this phase. It is where the algorithms and diagrams are translated into a functional system. After arriving from a functional system, implementation takes place to check in the produced system has met the need of the client. Any revisions on the system would occur on the next phase which is the testing phase.

Integration and Testing
Integration and testing phase would not be possible if the system has not been implemented. Implementing a system does not necessarily mean that the system is ready for operation but implementation phase is done to check whether certain conditions from the clients are met and if so, testing phase is next to it. It is now the work of the client to test the system according to its, functionality, integrity, capacity to perform the desired outcome, that is to make the lives of the client easier in order for them to gain profit easier also. If the clients noticed some bugs along the implementation, further revision may be done and most probably the system would undergo to another repetitive step or the phases and start in the designing phase to identify the bug and fix it for improvements.

Deployment and Maintenance
This is probably the last phase of the Waterfall Model, where the system has being tested and is checked by the clients for the acceptance, is now ready for deployment. The work would not end here for it is necessary for the systems analyst to execute maintenance on every system that they deploy because as clients go along with the system, they may be stumbled on a foreign procedure on the system and it is the work of the systems analyst to explain each part of the system so that clients would be familiarized to it and would be dependent to the systems analyst just for a short while. Other changes and improvements that the client wants for their system would make the entire process under revision and also it will start again from the first phase of the Waterfall model.

The Waterfall model starts with the Project Definition, in relation to John and Peter’s argument, John’s idea on observing the work of the system to the workers and examining the old system fits the first step of the Waterfall model. They should first analyze the system that was implemented and base that one to make new system. The next step is to design the system. In this part, the idea of Peter takes place. Designing the system would not be effective if the requirements are not determined. Requirements are needed to know what kind of system, John needs to deal with. Other steps follow after determining the two main steps.

Conclusion

To some, customers would always be right but in the situation like what John and Peter encounters, I can say that the final decision would be on the expert of the system, John. Peter pointed out that what they experienced before are just revisions on their previous systems and because of that, same problems may arise. To John, adopting the old system would let him determine the problem of the system and it would be easier for him to deal with the new system since he has the background of the previous one. The primary concern of Peter is to have new information system and not just a revision of the old one but for John, it is not necessary that the system is new because it would also take time for the part of the employees since the system is new, they need to adopt the new system and need to learn how to deal with the new one. In my own point of view, John’s idea is more accurate than what Peter wants to have. As a systems analyst, there is really a need on adopting the old ones, reviewing what possible problems they meet, and how other employees would deal with the previous system in order to determine what system they want. John only wants to make the previous system more functional and more productive than the previous one. I can say that he refuses to have more cost on time making new system as what Peter wants to have in their department. Certain conditions may be adopted on how John will handle the system but in the end, it would be on Peter’s decision if he will adopt what system John made. As long as there is unity on the ideas and perspectives of the clients and the system professional, anything would be possible and the targeted new system would be attained.
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viktor immanuel calonia



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PostSubject: Peter Pedro, John Juan, and Analysis Phase   Fri Dec 23, 2011 12:57 pm



The Analysis phase includes the job of defining and understanding what would be the business needs and what would be the needs in the processing of the system. The system analyst as the project manager will be defining what would be the system capabilities and constraints. System analyst will define what would be the functional needs of the system which would include the activities system must perform which will be based on procedures and business functions. The system analyst as the project manager will document the analysis models. The system analyst will define also the nonfunctional requirements of the system which would be the operating environment, the usability, the reliability, the security requirements, and the performance objectives of the system that the system analyst develops. The requirements of course would depend on the people with interest in successful system implementation, the one who will benefit the success of the system or the stakeholders of the system, and they would be the direct user of the system, the clients or the sponsor of the project of the system development, and the technical staff or the one that maintain the system operation. The analyst would be the one who will analyze who would be the people that corresponds to the three types of stakeholders. The first thing to do by the system analyst is to find or gather information that will be needed in the development of the project or the system that the system analyst develops. The information will be needed by the system analyst of the project in order to understand what the business-functions that are exist, and also from what the system analyst understand on the business functions. To understand more the business functions, it is practical to make or create a model of existing system, and from the model of the existing system, it would be possible to derive the information system requirements from the existing model. The other approach in the information gathering is to identify the logical requirements of the new system then the system analyst would balance the review of existing or current business functions with the new information system or system requirements. To make the results of the analysis more reliable, the system analyst does some fact finding investigation about the existing system.
The fact finding jobs can be done in the investigation about the business by doing some readings in the review of existing report or procedure reports and descriptions about the system if there’s any. With that, it is part of the job to know identify business rules, discrepancies, and redundancies, and the need of understanding of the processes that are in the business. The other way of doing fact finding would be to do some interview and discussion about the business processes with the user of the system. Doing this would cost time because it is time consuming and money because it would be required to do many sessions in order to meet all the users and in order to understand more about the business processing requirements. The other way is to do more observations and documentation of business process in order to have a documentation of the existing system for future references which can be documented with workflow diagrams. It would be possible that there will be variation from the office walkthrough to performing actual task. The other way of making fact finding about the business process is to build and create system prototype. Making a preliminary design of the information system that will develop. It is focused in making the business process prototype to accomplish single objective which means that the prototype is changeable. The other way would be to distribute and collect questionnaires about the system that will be given to the stakeholders of the system. This technique of gathering information would be limited and specific information can be taken from a large number of stakeholders which would be the same. In short, small information can be taken a large number of people and is not well suited for gathering detailed information. Conduct application design sessions with members of the team that are in the group. It is an expedite investigation of system requirements seeking to compress fact-finding, modeling, policy formation, and verification activities into shorter time frame. With this method, it is important to have all the stakeholders in the session. Research more about vendor solutions. It is to conduct research if the other company solved the problem but it may cause a purchase solution before understanding problem which would result for the analyst who would conduct the method to not know the detail about the problem. A system analyst can pick from those method in gathering information. In the analysis phase, it is part of the analysis phase to model the information system that will be developed by the system analyst.
The system analyst will develop the system requirements of the system that the system analyst develops. It is also included in the analysis phase to define the priority of the information system requirements with that the team can identify which of the requirements would need to be handled first. In analysis phase, the system analyst as the project manager will define the prototype for feasibility and also finding and evaluating what are the alternatives in handling the problem of the system. From that the system analyst can review recommendations in the system with the management or the client.
Peter Pedro and John Juan, based on the problem, are arguing about what method to do initially in doing the analysis of the new information system that they plan to develop or make. In the problem, they are arguing in the process of doing analysis of system development which is obviously caused by different view and perspective on how to make analysis of developing new information system for the department that Peter Pedro and John Juan work. The argument of Peter Pedro and John Juan is all about on what initial work to do in order to have analysis on the new information system that Peter Pedro and John Juan develop or work together. Their argument of Peter Pedro and John Juan is all about what method of analysis to be performed to initialize or to start the project or information system of their department that they want to develop or make.
Before choosing the option of what person that I have to agree with the method of analysis of the information system of the company, I have to first define each of their side. I have to define why would be the reason why would be the advantage of the method of Peter Pedro and the advantage of the method of John Juan. And also what would be the disadvantage of the method of the method of Peter Pedro and the disadvantages of the method of John Juan. I have also to include what are the differences of the method of the Peter Pedro and John Juan, and also, I have to define in details about the methods of analysis of Peter Pedro and John Juan.
The way or methodology of John Juan of making the analysis phase in developing or making the information system for the department of the company is different than of the way of methodology or way of making the information system of Peter Pedro. The methodology or the way of making of the information system of John Juan is about examining the list of information system requirements needed in the information system of the department of the company.
John Juan has a different way or methodology of modeling the information system of the department of the company. John Juan if following or doing the method of modeling of object oriented approach in modeling the information system for the department of the company. it is to make the list of the requirements needed and convert the needed requirements into use cases. The use cases is the key in doing the object oriented approach of modeling the information system of the department of the company. So I think, the method of analysis of the John Juan follows a modeling method of object oriented approach in modeling the information system of the department of the company.
So first I have to explain about what is the Object Oriented Approach of modeling the information system for the department of the company. Object oriented system Approach of modeling information system is Unified Modeling Language (UML 2.0). The unified modeling language is a standard modeling technique or method of Object Management Group (OMG). In the Object Oriented Approach of modeling the system in the analysis phase of developing information system for a department of a company, the system is viewed as a collection of interacting objects. The view of the information system in object oriented modeling approach is that objects interact with people and each other. And the information system is viewed in doing Object Oriented Approach in making model of information system as objects that send and respond to messages from the objects or people which interacts with each other. One of the requirements of the modeling of information system are specified and documented through process of building models. The initial process of object oriented method of modeling is to identify the use cases and problem domain classes (one the things in users’ work environment). In also doing the Object Oriented modeling approach of modeling information system, business events generate elementary business processes that the new or the developed system must address as use cases. As part of the Object Oriented approach in modeling information system, the use cases define the functional requirements of the information system that would be developed for the department of the company. The object oriented approach of modeling the information system requires different kinds of models, like use case model, it is a collection of models to capture system requirements. The use case is simply the reason to use a system or information system. There should be analysis in the use case of the system, since it is needed to identify and define all business processes that system must support. The use case is also an activity that the system carried out, and it is usually in response to a user request.
The other one is the use case diagram, it is a used in helping in identifying the actors and their roles on how the actor roles utilize the system. The use case diagram contain actors that usually represented by a stick. The actor is the person who interacts with the system, it is also the role played by the user and it is outside the automation boundary. Simple use case diagram shows overview of functional requirements.
The other one is the activity diagram, the activity diagram is a type of workflow diagram that describes the user activities and their sequential flow. The activity diagram is used to document the workflow of business process activities for each use case or scenario in the information system developed in the project. The activity diagram support any level of use case description; a supplement to use case descriptions. Also, the activity diagrams are helpful in developing system sequence diagrams.
The other model required in modeling information system following the object oriented approach of modeling system is the System Sequence Diagrams (SSDs), the System Sequence Diagram defines inputs and outputs and sequence of interactions between user and system for a use case. The System Sequence Diagram is a communication diagram or a sequence diagram. The System Sequence Diagram is used to model input and output messaging requirements for a use case or scenario of the information system. The System Sequence Diagram shows sequence of interactions as messages during flow of activities. In System Sequence Diagram, the system is shown as one object and it is a black box. The System Sequence Diagram follows a notation, it is said that Lifeline or object lifeline is a vertical line under object or actor to show passage of time for object. The other notation is that the message is labeled on arrows to show messages sent to or received by actor or system, Actor is role interacting with the system with messages.
The other model that required in object oriented approach in modeling the information system is the message between the object, it is the communication between objects within a use case. The other model that will be needed in modeling the information system is the Domain models, the domain models describes the classes of objects and their states. And the other model required in doing object oriented approach in modeling information system is the State Machine Diagrams, the state machine diagrams describe states of each object.
The way or methodology of Peter Pedro of making the analysis phase in developing or making the information system for the department of the company is different than of the way of methodology or way of making the information system of John Juan. The methodology or the way of making of the information system of Peter Pedro is about examining the process in the old or existing information system of the department of the company. Peter Pedro follows the traditional method or approach of modeling the information system for the department of the company.
So now, I will explain what would be the traditional approach of modeling information system for the department of the company. The Traditional approach or method of doing model of information system view the system as a collection of process, the traditional approach or method of making a model to a system also must view the system as collection of process that interact with data entities. In the traditional way or approach in modeling information system, the system is regarded as a collection of processes that accept inputs and produce outputs. In doing the traditional method or approach of modeling information system, a data flow diagram will be made as part of the method In the traditional approach. The data flow diagram shows how data moves through an information system but does now show program logic or processing steps. A set of data flow diagrams provides a logical model that shows what the system does, not how the information system does the processes and the work. In making the data flow diagram, it is needed to create a graphical model of the information system based on your fact-finding results. There are three step process of making the data flow diagram, the first one is to draw a context diagram. The context diagram is a data flow diagram that summarizes all processing activity for the system or subsystem. In making the data flow diagram, a logical model and a physical model are made. The logical model shows what the system must do. The logical model assumes implementation in perfect technology. And the logical model does not tell how system is implemented. The second one to be made with data flow diagram is the physical model. The physical model describe how the system will be constructed. The physical model also describes assumtions about implementation technology. And also, the physical model developed in last stages of analysis or in early design. The physical model of data flow diagram shows the technology-specific processes. the physical model of dataflow diagram shows actor-specific process names. Also, the physical model of dataflow diagram shows technology or actor specific process orders and the physical model of dataflow diagram shows redundant processes, data flows, and files. The context diagram is highest level and is the most abstract view of the information system and the context diagram shows system boundaries. Then the second one is to draw a 0 data flow diagram, and the last one is to draw the lower-level diagrams. In traditional approach in modeling information system for the department of a company, each process, data flow and data store requires detailed definition. Analyst may define processes as structured English process specifications, decision tables, decision trees, or detail process data flow diagram. The detailed process decomposition of data flow diagrams used when internal process complexity is great. Data flows are defined by component data elements and their internal structure.
From those facts, we now define the sides of two parties, Peter Pedro and John Juan. Their point was both fine and good. The method of doing analysis in the information system of the department of the company should depend on the situation of the company. if they want a fast result on or if they want to have the system as soon as possible, they to do the object oriented approach in modeling the information system for the department of the company which would initially require the system analyst to get the list of requirements and determine what would be they want the system to do and convert the result to a use case. Makin the use case diagram would be the initial step in doing the object oriented approach of modeling information system for the department of the company. If they want to have long and predictive approach in doing the life cycle or the system development life cycle, they have to follow what mister John Juan proposed.
The proposed method of the two person don’t differ that much. The fact finding, examining the old system, review of the key documents of the systems and observing the workers are all the other way of knowing the list of requirements. It is just that, the list of requirement would probably the same or overlaps the features, functionalities and modules of previous information system or old information system. if I were to choose on what method I will follow, the method of Peter Pedro or the method of John Juan, I would it by saying “It depends on the trust of the client on me”. If they don’t allow me to do fact finding personally, do examining old or existing information system, review on the documents that would help me in doing the system development of the system, observing their workers, and just give list of system requirement that they want in the system to protect the confidentiality of their company, I have no choice but to do the job. But if they trust me enough to do observation personally on their company operation, I would do the job based on what would be the result of my observation on the company operation. As much as possible, I would do the method that John Juan do even if it would cost me more effort.
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Nelly C. Ancajas

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PostSubject: A Dialogue between a system professional and a department manager.   Fri Dec 23, 2011 1:23 pm

A Dialogue between a system professional and a department manager.

Consider the following dialogue between a systems professional, John Juan, and a manager of a department targeted for a new information system, Peter Pedro:
Juan: The way to go about the analysis is to first examine the old system, such as reviewing key documents and observing the workers perform their tasks. Then we can determine which aspects are working well and which should be preserved.
Pedro: We have been through these types of projects before and what always ends up happening is that we do not get the new system we are promised; we get a modified version of the old system.

Juan: Well, I can assure you that will not happen this time. We just want a thorough understanding of what is working well and what isn’t.
Pedro: I would feel much more comfortable if we first started with a list of our requirements. We should spend some time up-front determining exactly what we want the system to do for my department. Then you systems people can come in and determine what portions to salvage if you wish. Just don’t constrain us to the old system.
Required:
a. Obviously these two workers have different views on how the systems analysis phase should be conducted. Comment on whose position you sympathizes with the most.
b. What method would you propose they take? Why?
With the conversation they have from John Juan (systems professional) and Peter Pedro (department manager), they have different views and opinions about the new information system, first John Juan (systems professional) consider that the first way to go about the analysis is to first examine the existing system while Peter Pedro (department manager) considers the way to about the analysis is to first started with a list of our requirements. For me, I’ve agreed to the idea of the systems professional (John Juan) cause he consider in starting analysis phase it must start on analysis strategy then have an analysis plan then gather some information like what John Juan (systems professional) said to his dialogue such as examining the old system, like reviewing key documents and observing the workers perform their tasks also by conducting an interview with an expert and giving questionnaire to the users to be. Then analyze the existing system then determine exactly what you want the system to do. As a sum up, to their conversation, the right side of this is John Juan the system professional cause professional has more knowledge of this particular issue not with just the department manager Peter Pedro is just concern about it for he is the manager of the department and that they end up only in a modified version of the old system. According to wikipedia, the Information Systems Professional (I.S.P), or Informaticien professionnel agréé (I.P.A. in French), is a professional designation issued by the Canadian Information Processing Society (CIPS). Introduced in 1989, the professional designation is recognized by legislation in most provinces of Canada. Before meeting the entry requirements for professional status an applicant may use the "Candidate Member I.S.P" designation. CIPS has developed the Computer Science Accreditation Council (CSAC), and the Information Systems and Technology Accreditation Council (ISTAC) to accredit baccalaureate programs in Computer Science, Software Engineering, Management Information System, Computer Systems Technology, Applied Information Technology, and post-diploma type programs in Canada. These accredited programs combined with several years of experience lead to the I.S.P. Designation. From its meaning, it needs a lot of experience is required to be a systems professional. And it means that since the system professionals undergone that, we can say that system professionals really an excellent person for the system professionals surpassed that kind of challenge.
And according to the American Society for Information Science and Technology these are the responsibilities of the client/systems user and to the profession. For the clients/system users they must act faithfully for their employers or clients in professional matters, to uphold each user's, provider's, or employer's right to privacy and confidentiality and to respect whatever proprietary rights belong to them, by limiting access to, providing proper security for and ensuring proper disposal of data about clients, patrons or users and to treat all persons fairly. And for the profession they must be truthfully represent themselves and the information systems which they utilize or which they represent, by: not knowingly making false statements or providing erroneous or misleading information, informing their employers, clients or sponsors of any circumstances that create a conflict of interest, not using their position beyond their authorized limits or by not using their credentials to misrepresent themselves, following and promoting standards of conduct in accord with the best current practices, undertaking their research conscientiously, in gathering, tabulating or interpreting data; in following proper approval procedures for subjects; and in producing or disseminating their research results, pursuing ongoing professional development and encouraging and assisting colleagues and others to do the same and lastly adhering to principles of due process and equality of opportunity.
Just a short review from the previous assignments and to what I have research: systems/software development life cycle is a logical process undertaken by system analysts to develop an information system (wikipedia). It involves several phases necessary for the development, such as planning, analysis, design, and implementation. The usual first step in building up a system is initiation or planning. This is where the goals of the project is determined, or shall I say, the analyst or manager identifies the need or opportunity for improvement or a problem perhaps. So the concept is made for a proposal to the upper management. A feasibility study is typically conducted and this is to be submitted to the management in an attempt to gain funding. This is part of the analysis stage.
The analysis phase defines the requirements of the system, independent of how these requirements will be accomplished. It describes all the data, functional and behavioral requirements of the software under production or development. By having the requirements needed we must first observe to know what are needed. This phase defines the problem that the customer is trying to solve. The deliverable result at the end of this phase is a requirement document. Ideally, this document states in a clear and precise fashion what is to be built. This analysis represents the ``what'' phase. The requirement document tries to capture the requirements from the customer's perspective by defining goals and interactions at a level removed from the implementation details. There are several factors that must be checked that would assure the quality of the software and the developed system itself. These factors include security, data integrity, usage difficulty and future upgrades. Analysis Strategy may be looked upon as the starting point of the strategic management process. It consists of the advance work that must be done in order to effectively formulate and implement strategies. Many strategies fail because managers may want to formulate and implement strategies without a careful analysis of the overarching goals of the organization and without a thorough analysis of its external and internal environment. Organizations must have clearly articulated goals and objectives in order to channel the efforts of individuals throughout the organization toward common ends. Goals and objectives also provide a means of allocating resources effectively.
In the analysis stage you must gather some data that you think could help you. But in gathering those data you should have techniques to follow and decide to have an interview and take note all the interviewee answered. For me it’s the most effective technique to have though it takes a lot of courage to perform it successfully.
In analysis phase they must apply a plan overview which I think could introduce what the system is all about, next is the Interview schedule which will handle the session for interview and followed by the Interview questions which contains questions and lastly the Interview transcripts are for the recording and approved documentations coming from the interviewee and lastly the Observation.

With the definition of the analysis phase the requirements is essential to build a solution because It’s difficult to build a solution if you don’t know the requirements (in spite of the fact that many teams still try to do it today). The “elicitation” step is where the requirements are first gathered from the client. Many techniques are available for gathering requirements. Each has value in certain circumstances, and in many cases, you need multiple techniques to gain a complete picture from a diverse set of clients and stakeholders.
Analysis phase aim is to discover problems with the system requirements and reach agreement on changes to satisfy all system stakeholders. It is a transition phase from problem understanding to solution specification. It is a set of requirements that are of high quality, having the following characteristics: unambiguous, complete, consistent, realistic, conform to business goals, verifiable, traceable, and required. Also all stakeholders must agree it. However, analysis is difficult, identifying problems and understanding requirements’ implications is difficult. Most large software systems address wicked problems. Different stakeholders have different requirements and priorities. There is a constantly shifting compromise in defining the requirements. Therefore, requirements are normally both incomplete and inconsistent. Modeling is also part of analysis. Building an abstraction or what we called model of the problem enables us to answer questions about the system. Requirements collected during requirement elicitation are transformed into a model that describes the system. The development of models of the problem is fundamental to requirements analysis. Requirements analysis is a modeling activity. We build models so that, we can comprehend the problem better, to communicate with stakeholders, to deal with complexity and also to find errors or omissions. Several kinds of models that can be developed include: Data and control flows, State models, Event traces, User interactions and also Object models. One factor influencing the choice of models is the nature of the problem, like for example the control flow and state models are likely to be more important for real-time systems than for an information system. Another factor is the expertise of the requirements engineer, the process requirements of the customer, the availability of methods and tools. No single model is sufficient. Every nontrivial system is best approached. Analysis Methods are methods for requirements analysis that are sometimes characterized by orientation. The Process or function-oriented is one of the analysis method, like the Classical structured analysis (SA), Structured analysis and design techniques (SADT) are one of the methods. Another method is the Data-oriented like the Entity-Relationship (ER) modeling. Another method is the Control-oriented like the Flowcharting. Another method is the Formal method like Z, VDM, and Object-Z. And lastly, the Object-oriented like OMT, Booch, UML is another method of analysis. I propose that the method they will use is the Object oriented because it is easy to understand. The Object-Oriented Lifecycle is an Object-oriented approach that can be used with any lifecycle model. Object-oriented approaches encourage object evolution - analysis objects evolve into design objects, which evolve into implementation objects. Object evolution - simplifies trace ability and verification of implementation. UML defines a notation a set of diagrams, the notation is the graphical stuff to build models; it is the concrete syntax of the modeling language, the meta-model defines the abstract syntax and the static and dynamic semantics of modeling concepts provided in UML Graphical notation for System structure and System behavior. It also covers multiple system views like Static structure (class/object/use case diagrams), Distribution structure (component/deployment diagrams), Interaction (sequence/collaboration diagrams), State change (state-charts), and Use cases/services (Use case/activity diagrams). It is also a tool for systematic development of component-oriented software architectures.
Wherein the use of Case Modeling Objectives is to define the functional and operational requirements of the system by defining a scenario of usage that is agreed upon by the end-user and the developer team. Also, to provide a clear and unambiguous description of how the end-user and the system interact. A use case presents business functionality in many cases, a functional requirement maps directly to a use case. An actor represents whoever or whatever that interacts with a use case. Hence, use cases are determined from the analysis of: functional requirements, and the identification of actors and their tasks.
As a summary, in analysis phase you must have an analysis strategy then have an analysis then gather information like examine the old system, such as reviewing key documents and observing the workers perform their tasks also by conducting an interview with an expert and giving questionnaire to the users to be. Then analyzing the existing files and determining the exact system you want to do. I propose that they will follow Object Oriented method. Object-oriented are specified and documented through process of building models. Modelling process starts with identification of use cases and problem domain classes or things in users’ work environment.

reference:

http://www.asis.org/AboutASIS/professional-guidelines.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Requirements_analysis
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Michael S. Palacio



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PostSubject: John Juan and Peter Pedro   Fri Dec 23, 2011 1:33 pm

When it comes to the communication between two or more people from different fields of work and specialty, there is a tendency that they will not understand each other and most probably there will be misunderstanding and argument to decide who is right or who is wrong or whose idea or proposal is better than the other. Misunderstanding happens mostly to people who discusses all about highly critical issues that needs careful and, if possible, the highest attention. This happens as for the reason that the topic they talk over is very important to each other due to the huge effect on both sides. One wrong decision may lead to a loss of business, lowering of the level of integrity of a person, and other discouraging events. At some point in time, one person may think that his solution is better than the other who believes that his way is the better way out. Both of them may be right anyhow, but what is being weighed in here is of which consequences would solve the problem, yield far better results, and lesser expenditure and risks. The most important thing to consider is that the benefits should outweigh the costs.

The Situation
By understanding the situation between John Juan and Peter Pedro, we could assume that the condition needed to happen or to meet is the call for a change or improvement in the information systems of the department which is managed by Peter Pedro where the systems professional assigned is John Juan. It seems that Juan aims to investigate first the processes of the whole system, reviewing and observing the details of how the old system functions, and after that, determine which parts really needs improvements and are targeted for renovation or should be kept. On the other hand, Pedro believes that Juan’s style is just like any other he had experienced where the professional team suggests to make similar steps as mentioned by Juan then after all they (Pedro’s department) only gets the same old system but just slightly customized. Pedro now does not want to be confined in the old system so he recommends that they better identify a list of requirements for their system and let Juan and his team develop it.
This paper aims to answer the following questions or problems:
a. Obviously these two workers have different views on how the systems analysis phase should be conducted. Comment on whose position you sympathize with the most.
b. What method would you propose they take? Why?
To understand more of the situation and to answer the above mentioned questions and problems, it seems right to understand first the nature of the two characters involved in the dialogue, the system analyst John Juan and the department manager Peter Pedro.

John Juan
John Juan, as stated in the situation, is a system professional working on a project for the company managed by Peter Pedro. Specifically, John Juan can be called as a system analyst based on the conversation of two people concerned. To know the duties and responsibilities of John Juan, we should first define and understand what a system professional, more specifically a system analyst is. So what is the work of a system analyst?
Based on the previous assessments, and by my own understanding, a system analyst is a specialist in formulating or designing solutions, specifically by developing information systems, for a wide variety of businesses and other organizations that needs support in technological aspect. A system analyst is married to the concept of system development life cycle (SDLC). He or she does the following:
• A system analyst investigates the problem.
o The first step of the system development life cycle is to investigate the current status of the client company or what is the problem all about. System analyst gathers basic information of everything the system is all about. He or she interviews some of the employee who are going to be the users of the system, or asks the person who truly understands the whole process or the flow of the business (for example, in an enrollment system, a system analyst should know what would be the different steps of the enrollment, who are the people involved in this step, or how long will the operational time be). The system analyst would also ask the client to define his or her basic requirements that the to-be-system must have.
• A system analyst analyzes the situation.
o After the system analyst gathers enough information, he or she would now analyze the situation. He or she would work on understanding everything that happens during the operation of the system. The system analyst studies the problem, what is the possible reason why such problem arises, and what would be the best way to solve the problem considering many things such as efficiency, cost, and other components critical to a business. In analyzing, a system analyst would still be in constant communication to the client for it would be faster to understand the unique process of the business.
• A system analyst designs the solution.
o By fully understanding the problem, the system analyst could now design the system. He or she creates the database design, the user interface, and other important parts of the system while still considering the wants and needs of the client company. The system analyst also decides what tools and approaches he or she must use for the system to be finished on time and efficiently.
• A system analyst develops what he designed.
o In this step, the system analyst now uses different tools such as programming tools and other utilities needed in developing systems. The system analyst now may also be called a system developer. He or she develops the system based on the design created, where he displays his or her skills in programming, constructing the system by modules for an easier approach.
• A system analyst installs the system.
o In this stage, the system has now attained the defined requirements of the client. The system is now to be deployed in the operation area ready to be tested by the users. The system analyst should train the users on how to use the finished system or how it works.
• A system analyst evaluates the installed system.
o Even though the system has finished developing, the system analyst should now evaluate how the users reacted to the system or how are they with the system. He or she should know if the client is happy with the resulting system the system analyst has developed. If there are any requirements failed to meet, the system analyst should handle the failure and continue developing it until the client is satisfied.
• A system analyst should maintain the system.
o There is no perfect system. Eventually, bugs and malfunctions will occur and as a system analyst, he or she should be prepared for the worst. Thus, a system analyst should know how to maintain the system where possible bugs and malfunctions will be prevented.
So basically, a system analyst is a specialist who creates an information system as a solution or an answer to any business problem that another person have and unable to solve by himself or herself.

Peter Pedro
While John Juan is a system professional specifically in the area of system analysis who deals with clients to solve their problems, Peter Pedro is the client who hires systems analyst like John Juan. Based on the conversation or dialogue between John Juan and Peter Pedro, he (Peter Pedro) is a manager of a department of a company. To understand the part of Peter Pedro, let us define what a manager of a department does.
A department manager aims to improve the outcome of a business using solutions created by successful management of integrated workforce. Specifically, the department manager can do the following on a department:
• Add new users within the department
o A department manager can decide who can be a worker in his or her department. He makes sure that his or her co-workers are skilled enough to generate better work and choose persons who he or she thinks that are easy to be managed.
• Reassign users to another department.
o A department manager can reassign an employee to another department if he or she thinks that his or her (employee) specialty is not really on the current department residence but to another department of the company. With this, the efficiency of the other department may be improved and also is the department managed by the one who decided to transfer the worker to another department.
• Change Job Titles for users within the department.
o On a specific department, there are also different types of work could be found; and if the department manager can see that the skills of the employee or worker is not suitable to his or her original assignment, and is better to be working on another job, the department manager can reassign the worker’s job title.
• Assign users in their department as Document Owners and/or Document Reviewers
o Some specific works on a department deals with documents. Specifically, an employee can be a document owner or a document reviewer. And as a department manager, he or she must know who to assign or who has the skill to become a document owner or a document reviewer.
• Assign users in the department as Proxy Authors.
o Proxy authors are persons who can sign some documents for specific persons (being absent or on a leave) who are unable to do so. By persons who are absent or on leave, one of them is the department manager. So when that happens, a certain employee must be authorized to sign a document if a signature is really in need. And with that, the department manager must assign a person who can become a Proxy Author.
To become a department manager, one should have the following basic skills:
• The ability to lead and motivate the team
• Excellent communication and ‘people’ skill
• A strong commitment to customer service
• The ability to work under pressure and handle challenging situations
• Confidence, drive, and enthusiasm
• Decision-making ability and a sense of responsibility
• Sound business sense
• An understanding of retail laws, security, and health and safety
Peter Pedro, who is a department manager, should basically have the skills and ability to do his roles in a company specifically in his department.

Now that we already know and understand the different roles of John Juan, who is a system professional, and Peter Pedro, who is a department manager, this time, we will dwell on the system development life cycle which is a framework of how an information system is created.

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
As how I defined a while ago what systems development life cycle (SDLC) is, it is a framework used by system analysts and developers in creating different information systems, and is composed of different phases.
• Feasibility
o The feasibility study is used to determine if the project should get the go-ahead. If the project is to proceed, the feasibility study will produce a project plan and budget estimates for the future stages of development.
• Requirement Analysis and Design
o Analysis gathers the requirements for the system. This stage includes a detailed study of the business needs of the organization. Options for changing the business process may be considered. Design focuses on high level design like, what programs are needed and how are they going to interact, low-level design (how the individual programs are going to work), interface design (what are the interfaces going to look like) and data design (what data will be required). During these phases, the software's overall structure is defined. Analysis and Design are very crucial in the whole development cycle. Any glitch in the design phase could be very expensive to solve in the later stage of the software development. Much care is taken during this phase. The logical system of the product is developed in this phase.
• Implementation
o In this phase the designs are translated into code. Computer programs are written using a conventional programming language or an application generator. Programming tools like Compilers, Interpreters, and Debuggers are used to generate the code. Different high level programming languages like C, C++, Pascal, and Java are used for coding. With respect to the type of application, the right programming language is chosen.
• Testing
o In this phase the system is tested. Normally programs are written as a series of individual modules, these subjects to separate and detailed test. The system is then tested as a whole. The separate modules are brought together and tested as a complete system. The system is tested to ensure that interfaces between modules work (integration testing), the system works on the intended platform and with the expected volume of data (volume testing) and that the system does what the user requires (acceptance/beta testing).
• Maintenance
o Inevitably the system will need maintenance. Software will definitely undergo change once it is delivered to the customer. There are many reasons for the change. Change could happen because of some unexpected input values into the system. In addition, the changes in the system could directly affect the software operations. The software should be developed to accommodate changes that could happen during the post implementation period.

John Juan and Peter Pedro on System Analysis Phase
In a situation where an old system is about to be replaced with a new one, examining the former is an important part in the system analysis phase for the reason that this step will be able to help the systems professional to know more about the old system. If the existing information system’s features and functional requirements are made known to the systems professional, then it will not be difficult for him to discover the real problem about that particular system and will be able to help him find more ways or alternatives which he may apply for the new information system.
In the situation of John Juan and Peter Pedro, both of them are really concerned with the systems analysis phase, where in the system development life cycle or SDLC is composed of the feasibility study and requirement analysis and design.
Peter Pedro’s concern is that on the previous development life cycle of their system, he thinks that it is unsatisfying to have a new system that only few modifications were made by the systems professional. And this time, he really wants to have a whole lot different system where his wants would be met but still not forgetting about the needs for the system to function well. Peter Pedro requests that he and John Juan should allot a specific time where they try to define and understand well the requirements of Peter Pedro and the company.
And on the side of John Juan, the system professional, he assures Peter Pedro that their job would be just to have a thorough analysis of the system, determining the things that work well and not. They do this by first examining the old system and observing the general and specific flow of the system they are trying to enhance.
On my opinion, and as a defense to the previous system professionals who analyzed and created the system (where the department manager is unsatisfied with), they have conducted the system development life cycle traditionally or just followed the framework. And the resulting system is really just what they think that is the best system for the company of Peter Pedro. But as Peter Pedro was dissatisfied, we must assume that some of their requirements of were not met by the system professional. And as John Juan enters on a new timeline, I think that he thinks that the problem with the last system development process is that there was a lack of communication that resulted to a dissatisfying system for the client. And so now, he assures Peter Pedro that the new system would be different from the last. And as in choosing sides, I would sympathize on John Juan.
Systems analysis is done to determine where the problem is. Essentially, John Juan is trying to analyze the situation and project goals (as what a systems analyst would do based on the systems analysis life cycle or SDLC), so in breaking down the elements of the system, the particular part which needs to be targeted can be recognized. In this way definite requirements can be defined and requirements gathering sometimes call for the individuals or team who are involved in developing the information system in the organization. This is where Peter Pedro, the manager of the department where the new information systems be developed comes into view.
Peter Pedro must also be right on saying that they should start on listing of the requirements needed. But, he must know that evaluating the old system is not constraining them from the old one, instead giving them a clear picture of a more perfect system.
Requirements shall be well determined and defined so to give an accurate list of what should be aimed to develop, change, or improve in a system. In constructing or repairing a house, you must first then identify which parts you need to build, hammer, saw, or paint and prompt for the materials and equipment you needed. Just like in solving any problem, you first identify the scope, the given, the steps you have to take before implementing the solution.
Gathering the right and accurate data is crucial in defining the requirements. It is because the specifications of the system to be developed depend largely on the requirements you have elicited. That is why, Mr. Pedro asserts to have a list of requirements to tell exactly what they wanted their system to do with their department.

Method of System Development
When we talk of System Development Life Cycle, there are a lot of methods (or known as models to system analysts) that a system analyst can perform. The approaches on these models differ in a way that some are predictive and some are adaptive. And based on the conversation of John Juan and Peter Pedro, I think that the method or model they would take is the waterfall model which is a traditional model and is focused on completing and, if most possible, perfecting each phase so that there would be no need to conduct again the previous phases.
The main focus or concern on the situation of John Juan and Peter Pedro is the system analysis phase. Though all models conduct analysis, I can say that they would propose the waterfall model because of what John Juan said that they would conduct a thorough understanding of what is working well and what is not. There is this assurance that the system analysis must be conducted only once, and when we say once, we always think that the analysis is a one shot where it would be slowly and surely, meaning almost perfecting it with one try only. And as what I have stated on the qualities of the waterfall model, the concept of analysis in the situation matches with the waterfall model. And as such, I can say that waterfall model is the method John Juan would perform in the development of the system for Peter Pedro.

Source:
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_job_role_of_department_manager
http://www.policytech.com/support/help/ppm45/Administrator_Topics/Setting_Preferences/HR_Users_Groups/Departments/Department_Manager_Responsibilities.htm
http://www.totaljobs.com/Content/Job-descriptions/Retail/Department-manager.html
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kevinmendez



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Join date : 2011-11-23

PostSubject: Assignment 6   Fri Dec 23, 2011 1:35 pm

Many professionals who are working in the field of information system have different point of views regarding in creating and developing a software project in any companies and organizations in the world. Because different professionals in information system have different experiences in developing a projects, each of them have different strategies or techniques they want to implement in finishing the given project. Kayak nga kahit na ipagsasama pa ang iba't-ibang klaseng propesyunal sa isang malaking proyekto ng system development, hindi talaga maiiwasan na mayroong taliwas na pinaniniwalaan kung anong sistema o istratehiya ang ipapatupad o gagawin para maging matagumpay sa ginagawang proyekto ng grupo. Software engineering must not always deal with software development, but also developing good software by using such available knowledge with the help of different and various methods and effective use of tools. There are so many various existing software development approaches, that are defined and designed that are employed during the development process of software. There is particular life cycle in each process models that they are following in order to ensure success in the process of software development.

It is very obvious that the two professionals in information system, Juan and Pedro, have different point of view regarding their projects on what they must do to create a new system or only modify the existing system they are using. It is very difficult to give the two different professionals a project that they must work on, who have different principles in creating a system development, because they may always argue in what method they must use to finish the creation and development of the project. In my own understanding, these differences of the two professionals can result to argument that can lead to misconception or missing the objectives of the project. It is very important that there will be teamwork to be able to work in harmonious way every individual in the team for the project to have a clear objective of the project. Between the two professionals who have different point of view on what methods they must prefer to use to come up a new and more effective system they must use, I most see the effectiveness of the method that Juan want to implement in the project because, as what process of the method he want to implement, I saw the resemblance of the Waterfall Model method process he was talking about in the conversation because he wants to review the existing documents of the old system to see any defects or any improvements and modifications he want to apply in the old system. In that way, the old system can improve itself to the fullest because these modifications can enhance more the capabilities of the system that is why the Waterfall Model method of the system development life cycle is the most common method, and the first method that a man had created and the predecessor of the later software development method. Most of the existing system development models that had created were all derived from the Waterfall Model method because it has an all well planned process and methods to improve more the system. That is why the Waterfall Model is very common in all of the professionals in the information system industry because of its linear method. Maybe that is the reason that Juan prefer to use the method of Waterfall Model because it is all well planned process and it can detect the mistakes and any flaws in the program because of the complexity of the working program, and it is not in any circumstances that there is always a chance that the program cannot be effective anymore because of the always changing times and the fast pace technology in our age. So I discuss everything about the Waterfall Model to validate the proof that Juan really uses the Waterfall Model to have some improvements and modifications in the system they are using in the present. The Waterfall Model is using the development in a sequential software development model, and seen as flowing steadily downwards through several phases. These are the following phases in the Waterfall Model that followed perfectly in sequential order: Requirements specification, System Design, Implementation, Integration, Testing, Installation, and Maintenance. In Juan's approach in their conversation with Pedro, he is always specifying in the project that in the analysis is to first examine the old system and to have a review in the documents of the existing system. It has some common factors or definitions of the first phase of the Waterfall Model, the Requirements specification or System Analysis, from the statement of Juan during the conversation. The Requirements specification or System Analysis is the gathering of all the possible requirements of the system to be developed. The requirements also gathered from the end users because they are the one who is active in the usage of the system and the finished product of the software development. All of the requirements gathered are analyzed for their validity and the possibility of studying the requirements in the system to be developed. In these phase only, there are so many modifications that can be point out in the problems specifications. Just like the examination of the old system by Juan, he is reviewing the documents of the existing system sa kadahilanang kailangan makita muna ang lahat ng mga problema kailangan resolbahin sa old system para makapagbigay solusyon and modification of the existing system for it to properly function in the objectives of the modified system and to catch up the fast pace technology. Mas gusto ko ang proseso gagawin ni Juan kasi mas mapadaling baguhin at ayusin kung anong problema ang makikita sa old system kasi mas mapabuti pa ang modified system sa kadahilanang mas madali itong gawin dahil mayroon ng foundation kung anong gagawin para mapa-improve ang lahat ng kailangan baguhin at iimprove sa isang software system kaya mas napabilib ako sa istratehiya giganawa ni Juan. Pwede rin ginagamit ni Juan ang Reuse model of the system development model method kasi kagayang kagaya ang sinasabi ni Juan sa mga salita niya sa proseso ginagamit sa Reuse Model. Because the basic foundation of the Reuse Model is that the system should be built using the existing components, as opposed to custom-building new components. The Reuse Model is obviously suitable to Object-Oriented computing environments, which have become one of the premieres technologies in the present system development industry. The use of Reuse Model is that the libraries of software modules are maintained that can be reuse for the future modification of the system. These components of the Reuse Model are of two types: the Procedural Modules and the Database Modules. Every time they are building a new system, the developer or the creator will borrow a duplicate of a module from the system library and then plug it into a function or procedure. If the needed module is not accessible, the developer will build it a new one, and store a duplicate in the system library for the future use of it. If the modules are well constructed, the developer with minimum changes can implement them. These are the following steps that the Spiral Model can verify that Juan really uses this kind of method in his modification of their existing system. The first is the Definition of Requirements, then the Definition of Objects, Collection of Objects, Creation of Customized Objects, Prototype Assembly, Prototype Evaluation, Requirements Refinements, and the Object Refinement. The Definition of the Requirements is the initial step in system requirements that are collected. These requirements are usually a subset of the complete system requirements. This first process of the Spiral Model is very similar to the first process of the Waterfall Model, the Requirements specifications and gathering. This process may have resemblance of the two methods, the Waterfall Model and the Prototype Model; because it is very important to the development or modification of the existing system to really discuss and identify the potential upgrades or development of the old system, or maybe some problems exist in the usage of that system software. The next process is the Definition of Objects, this process is using the objects which can support the necessary system components, and it can be identified. Next is the Collection of Objects, this process allows the scanning of the system libraries so that it can determine whether or not the required objects are obtainable. The duplicate of the needed objects are downloaded from the system. Then the Creation of Customized Objects is the identification of the objects which of them are needed, and if the needed function or procedure in the existing library is not available, then the needed library is created. Then the Prototype Assembly is the creation of the prototype version of the system or the modification of that system using the important objects that can be used in the system. Next is the Prototype Evaluation, the prototype is evaluated to determine if it sufficiently deal with the customer’s needs and requirements. Then the next process is the Requirements Refinement, the requirements are additionally refined as a more detailed version of the prototype is created. Then the last is the Objects Refinement, the objects are refined to reflect the changes made in the requirements.

While Pedro is using the Prototype Model of the system development model method, based on my understanding about their conversation with Juan because he wants to develop and implement a new system in their departments. And because some of the detailed facts he discussed about the creation of the new system is that he wants to create and develop a new system in the short span of time. That is why I thought that Pedro wants to use the Prototype Model in the development of a new software system in his department. The Prototype Model is the development of the program that is not based on strict planning, but instead it is based on the response of the end users. Because most of the traditional system development life cycle are those type of development who have all focused on the developers and not in the end users. The concept of prototyping has its bases on the development by creating prototypes after prototypes until the software created has been perfected. The Prototype Model is building slowly from a simple concept of what is a program, and the software is updated and tested little by little in a real time environment. The users have its participation and able to test and improve the software as what they are created. There are different types of the Prototype Model of system development life cycle. Each of the different types has their own advantages and disadvantages but the prototype model has its purpose in constantly changing until it reaches their intended end users and functions. There are mainly four types of Prototype Models that is based on their development planning: The Patch Up Prototype, Non-Operational Prototype, First of a Series Prototype, and Selected Features Prototype. The first type of the Prototype Model is the Patch Up Prototype, it is the of Prototype Model that encourages cooperation in different developers. Every developer will only work on a specific part of a program, and after each of the developers has done their part, the integration of the program will takes place and each of the programs will combine resulting in a whole new program. Patch Up Prototype is a fast development model because everyone is working on a different field, and if every developer is highly skilled, there is no need in overlapping in a specific function of work. The Patch Up Prototype as the type of software development model that only need a strong and experienced project manager who can monitor the development of the program. The project manager only controls the work flow of the developers and ensures there is no overlapping of functions happened among different developers. The second type of Prototype Model is the Non-Operational Prototype. The Non-Operational Prototype Model is only used on a certain part of the program that should be updated. The specific part of the program will work it could be tested as planned, even though it is not a fully operational program. The prototype or the main software is not affected by updates and modifications as the dummy program is applied in the application. This non-operational prototype is only implemented when certain problems in a specific part of the program arises, and because the software could be in a prototype mode for a very long time, updating and maintenance of specific parts is very important. Then the third type is the First of a Series Prototype, this is also known as beta version and could be very efficient if it is properly launched. But even though it is fully functional software, the only aim of it being in a beta version is to gather feedbacks, and suggestions. This kind of prototype model could be very successful if it is properly done. And the last and fourth type of prototype model is the Selected Features Prototype. It is also a beta version of releasing software but in another form. This selected features prototype is only introduced in the public the only selected features or limited access to some important tools in the program. These are the steps a Prototype Model is using in the process of system development: the Requirements Definition or Collection, the System Design, Prototype Creation or Modification, the Assessment, Prototype Refinement, and the System Implementation. The Requirements Definition or Collection is similar to the System Conceptualization phase of the Waterfall Model but not as complete as that process. The data or information collected is typically limited to a subset of the complete system requirements. In the System Design, once the preliminary layer of requirements data or information is collected, or new data or information gathered, it is quickly integrated into a new or existing design so that it may be doubled into the prototype. The Prototype Creation or Modification is that the data or information from the system design is quickly turned over in to a prototype. This may indicate that the creation or modifications of documents information, new coding process, or modifications to existing coding. Then the Assessment is that the prototype is presented to the end user or customers for the review. Comments and suggestions are collected from the end users or customers. This Assessment is very important in the creation of new system software because the developer must know the important details they can get from the reviews of the end users or customers in the software system they are using in order to relate those suggestions in the modifications of the working software system. Next is the Prototype Refinement, the data or information collected from the end users or customers is absorb and the prototype is improve. The developer must modify the prototype to make it more effective and efficient. Then the last phase is the System Implementation. In most cases, the software system is revising once requirements are understand. Sometimes, the iterative process eventually creates a working system that can be the foundation for the fully functional system. Each of those processes is very important to develop a new system in a shirt span time because it can easily develop a new system using those processes in this method.


So I conclude that despite of their differences in what method they must in the software project they working with, I preferably suggest that they might use the Spiral Model of system development method because the Spiral Model method was designed to include the best features from the Waterfall Model and the Prototyping Model, and they also introduce a new process in this latest method, the risk assessment. This risk assessment is new to this Spiral Model because it assesses the potential risk of the process they are taking in the development of the project. The term spiral is describing the process that is followed as the development of the system take place. This Spiral Model is very similar to the Prototyping Model because the initial version of the system is developed, and then repetitively modified the based input of the receiving part from the customer evaluation. But the Spiral Model is not that similar in all aspects of the Prototyping Model because the development of each version of the system is with awareness of the designed using the steps involved in the Waterfall Model. With each repetitive step around the spiral is more complete versions of the system are built. I can also suggest that they can also use the new software development method of Creating and Combining Model because this type of system development model has all the foundation of the previous model that had been created in the previous times and it can also be useful if the some individuals or teammates who are arguing of some aspects regarding the methods they must use in the development of the system software. In many cases, some parts and processes from various system development models are integrated to support systems development. This happens for the reason that most models were designed to provide a framework for achieving success only under a certain set of conditions. When the conditions change away from the limits of the certain model on what is using, the outcome from using it are no longer predictable. When this circumstance occurs, it is sometimes important to change the existing model to contain the change in conditions, or implement or combine the different system development models to accommodate the new conditions. The choice of a suitable system development model’s turning point mainly on two factors, the organizational environment and the nature of the application. Frank land, from the London School of Economics, recommends that the suitable approach to system design, system analysis, system development, and system implementation could be based on the connection between the information systems and its organizational environment. That is why some of the arguments on the conversation between Juan and Pedro can be pointed out in the combining of their ideas on what system development method they must use to have some peaceful and workable team they can work on. The later development of some software development model method can be very useful in some point on a certain project because in the industry of information system, the technologies are in fast pace changing in organizational environment and the needs of the customers of a faster finished product of new system software that the developers are creating or developing in their industry.

References:
http://it.toolbox.com/wiki/index.php/Prototyping_Model
http://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/reports/survey_of_sysdev/survey_of_sysdev.pdf
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Robert Alan Gemong



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: December 23, 2011, before 01:00pm)    Fri Dec 23, 2011 1:41 pm

Juan: The way to go about the analysis is to first examine the old system, such as reviewing key documents and observing the workers perform their tasks. Then we can determine which aspects are working well and which should be preserved.

Pedro: We have been through these types of projects before and what always ends up happening is that we do not get the new system we are promised; we get a modified version of the old system.

Juan: Well, I can assure you that will not happen this time. We just want a thorough understanding of what is working well and what isn’t.

Pedro: I would feel much more comfortable if we first started with a list of our requirements. We should spend some time up-front determining exactly what we want the system to do for my department. Then you systems people can come in and determine what portions to salvage if you wish. Just don’t constrain us to the old system.

Required:

a.Obviously these two workers have different views on how the systems analysis phase should be conducted. Comment on whose position you sympathize with the most.
b.What method would you propose they take? Why?

As I read the conversation between John Juan, the system professional and Peter Pedro, the department manager, I thought that this situation would happen to me in a later time as I become a system professional. Obviously they don’t have the opinion for the development of their new system. Their approach in dealing with the conduction of a system analysis phase is mainly different aside from the fact that they have the same goal which is to provide a new information system for a certain company. But I likely agree on what John Juan trying to say. I understand that John Juan is basically concerned on how really the old system operates. He also concerned on how efficient its performance towards the users until the company decided to change. By having the requirements needed we must first observe to know what are needed. This phase defines the problem that the customer is trying to solve. The deliverable result at the end of this phase is a requirement document. Ideally, this document states in a clear and precise fashion what is to be built. This analysis answers the questions that start with what, that is connected with the system. The requirement document tries to capture the requirements from the customer's perspective by defining goals and interactions at a level removed from the implementation details. There are several factors that must be checked that would assure the quality of the software and the developed system itself. These factors include security, data integrity, usage difficulty and future upgrades. Analysis Strategy may be looked upon as the starting point of the strategic management process. It consists of the advance work that must be done in order to effectively formulate and implement strategies. Many strategies fail because managers may want to formulate and implement strategies without a careful analysis of the overarching goals of the organization and without a thorough analysis of its external and internal environment. Organizations must have clearly articulated goals and objectives in order to channel the efforts of individuals throughout the organization toward common ends. Goals and objectives also provide a means of allocating resources effectively.

John Juan, a system professional is a well educated person when it comes to system making. He is well rounded with the steps in making an effective system. He is capable enough to determine the clients or users problem, capable to define a system, capable to design a system, capable to implement a system and also capable to evaluate a system. Therefore in line with his profession, he proposed the idea of examining the old system as the first way to go about the analysis of the proposed system. And that idea is just an application on what he learned in his profession.

Peter Pedro, a manager who manages the operational and fiscal activities of the department and plan and develop systems and procedures to improve the operating quality and efficiency of the department. He supervises staff in accordance with company policies and procedures. A manager is also responsible for hiring, training, and coaching employees. He is well exposed in layout and performance of a current system or a company. And in any problem existence, a manager is the one who is observant enough. And to relate in his field, he proposed the idea of directly listing the requirements and focus only on the proposed or future system and do not just dwell on the existing or current system in the analysis of the proposed system.
In the conversation as I observed, John Juan just applied a step by step process in the system analysis phase, while Peter Pedro jumped into the realization of listing the new specified system requirements for him to get rid of the existing system. As stated in the dialogue, Peter Pedro already had the experience of trying to make a new system but the assigned analyst just developed the existing one and did not address well his requirements. I come up with this observation because of the references I’ve read about the phases on how to develop a system.



By reviewing the key documents and observing the workers perform their tasks, the problem could be literally understood. From there on they would already know what is really needed to be change and which should remain. It is right that a thorough understanding with the old system must be the first objective for with this they could already identify and elicit requirements needed for the project.

There are many different definitions about systems developed over time. The word “system” can be defined in many ways. First, system is a set of interrelated elements each of which is related directly or indirectly to every other element, and no subset of which is unrelated to any other subset. Second, system in a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes connected or related to each other and to their environment in such a manner as to form an entirety or whole. These definitions seem to place more emphasis on the elements (activities) and do not emphasize the individual\\\'s perceptions. Other system definition is that system is a mental construct of parts and relationships which make up a whole that explains that system is not just activities but concepts, problems, or an organization.

Systems are created to solve problems. One can think of the systems approach as an organized way of dealing with a problem. In this dynamic world, the subject System Analysis and Design, mainly deals with the software development activities.

A collection of components that work together to realize some objective forms a system. Basically there are three major components in every system, namely input, processing and output.

The original purpose of a prototype is to allow users of the software to evaluate developers' proposals for the design of the eventual product by actually trying them out, rather than having to interpret and evaluate the design based on descriptions. Prototyping can also be used by end users to describe and prove requirements that developers have not considered, and that can be a key factor in the commercial relationship between developers and their clients. Interaction design in particular makes heavy use of prototyping with that goal.

In a system the different components are connected with each other and they are inter dependent. For example, Human body represents a complete natural system. We are also bound by many national systems such as political system, economic system, educational system and so forth. The objective of the system demands that some output is produced as a result of processing the suitable inputs.

System development life cycle means combination of various activities. In other words we can say that various activities put together are referred as system development lifecycle. In the System Analysis and Design terminology, the system development life cycle means software development life cycle. Following are the different phases of software development cycle

System study is the first stage of system development life cycle. This gives a clear picture of what actually the physical system is? In practice, the system study is done in two phases. In the first phase, the preliminary survey of the system is done which helps in identifying the scope of the system. The second phase of the system study is more detailed and in-depth study in which the identification of user’s requirement and the limitations and problems of the present system are studied. After completing the system study, a system proposal is prepared by the System Analyst (who studies the system) and placed before the user. The proposed system contains the findings of the present system and recommendations to overcome the limitations and problems of the present system in the light of the user’s requirements.

The analysis phase describes the requirements of the system; it describes all data, functional and behavioral requirements of the software under production or development. By having the requirements needed we must first observe to know what are needed. This phase defines the problem that the customer is trying to solve. The deliverable result at the end of this phase is a requirement document. Ideally, this document states in a clear and precise fashion what is to be built. This analysis answers the questions that start with what, that is connected with the system. The requirement document tries to capture the requirements from the customer's perspective by defining goals and interactions at a level removed from the implementation details. There are several factors that must be checked that would assure the quality of the software and the developed system itself. These factors include security, data integrity, usage difficulty and future upgrades. Analysis Strategy may be looked upon as the starting point of the strategic management process. It consists of the advance work that must be done in order to effectively formulate and implement strategies. Many strategies fail because managers may want to formulate and implement strategies without a careful analysis of the overarching goals of the organization and without a thorough analysis of its external and internal environment. Organizations must have clearly articulated goals and objectives in order to channel the efforts of individuals throughout the organization toward common ends. Goals and objectives also provide a means of allocating resources effectively.

On the basis of result of the initial study, feasibility study takes place. The feasibility study is basically the test of the proposed system in the light of its workability, meeting user’s requirements, effective use of resources and .of course, the cost effectiveness. The main goal of feasibility study is not to solve the problem but to achieve the scope. In the process of feasibility study, the cost and benefits are estimated with greater accuracy.

Assuming that a new system is to be developed, the next phase is system analysis. Analysis involved a detailed study of the current system, leading to specifications of anew system. Analysis is a detailed study of various operations performed by a system and their relationships within and outside the system. During analysis, data are collected on the available files, decision points and transactions handled by the present system. Interviews, on-site observation and questionnaire are the tools used for system analysis. All procedures, requirements must be analyzed and documented in the form of detailed data flow diagrams (DFDs), data dictionary, logical data structures and miniature specifications. System Analysis also includes sub-dividing of complex process involving the entire system, identification of data store and manual processes.

Based on the user requirements and the detailed analysis of a new system, the new system must be designed. This is the phase of system designing. Normally, the design proceeds in two stages preliminary or general design and Structure or detailed design.
Preliminary or general design: In the preliminary or general design, the features of the new system are specified. The costs of implementing these features and the benefits to be derived are estimated. If the project is still considered to be feasible, we move to the detailed design stage. Structure or Detailed design: In the detailed design stage, computer oriented work begins in earnest. At this stage, the design of the system becomes more structured. Structure design is a blue print of a computer system solution to a given problem having the same components and inter-relationship among the same components as the original problem. Input, output and processing specifications are drawn up in detail. In the design stage, the programming language and the platform in which the new system will run are also decided.
After designing the new system, the whole system is required to be converted into computer understanding language. Coding the new system into computer programming language does this. It is an important stage where the defined procedure is transformed into control specifications by the help of a computer language. This is also called the programming phase in which the programmer converts the program specifications into computer instructions, which we refer as programs. The programs coordinate the data movements and control the entire process in a system. It is generally felt that the programs must be modular in nature. This helps in fast development, maintenance and future change, if required.
a test run of the system is done removing all the bugs, if any. It is an important phase of a successful system. After codifying the whole programs of the system, a test plan should be developed and run on a given set of test data. The output of the test run should match the expected results. Using the test data following test run are carried out Unit test and System test. Unit test: When the programs have been coded and compiled and brought to working conditions, they must be individually tested with the prepared test data. Any undesirable happening must be noted and debugged (error corrections).System Test: After carrying out the unit test for each of the programs of the system and when errors are removed, then system test is done. At this stage the test is done on actual data. The complete system is executed on the actual data. At each stage of the execution, the results or output of the system is analyzed. During the result analysis, it may be found that the outputs are not matching the expected out of the system. In such case, the errors in the particular programs are identified and are fixed and further tested for the expected output.

After having the user acceptance of the new system developed, the implementation phase begins. Implementation is the stage of a project during which theory is turned into practice. During this phase, all the programs of the system are loaded onto the user's computer. Maintenance is necessary to eliminate errors in the system during its working life and to tune the system to any variations in its working environment. It has been seen that there are always some errors found in the system that must be noted and corrected. It also means the review of the system from time to time

In my own opinion, I would propose that the method they should use is the Object oriented since it is easy to understand. The Object-Oriented Lifecycle is an Object-oriented approach that can be used with any lifecycle model. Object-oriented approaches encourage object evolution - analysis objects evolve into design objects, which evolve into implementation objects. Object evolution - simplifies trace ability and verification of implementation. UML defines a notation a set of diagrams, the notation is the graphical stuff to build models; it is the concrete syntax of the modeling language, the meta-model defines the abstract syntax and the static and dynamic semantics of modeling concepts provided in UML Graphical notation for System structure and System behavior. It also covers multiple system views like Static structure (class/object/use case diagrams), Distribution structure (component/deployment diagrams), Interaction (sequence/collaboration diagrams), State change (state-charts), and Use cases/services (Use case/activity diagrams). It is also a tool for systematic development of component-oriented software architectures.
The Use Case Modeling Objectives is to define the functional and operational requirements of the system by defining a scenario of usage that is agreed upon by the end-user and the developer team. Also, to provide a clear and unambiguous description of how the end-user and the system interact. A use case presents a business functionality in many cases, a functional requirement maps directly to a use case. An actor represents whoever or whatever that interacts with a use case. Hence, use cases are determined from the analysis of: functional requirements, and the identification of actors and their tasks.

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http://snailbob.wordpress.com/2011/12/23/dialogue-between-a-systems-professional-john-juan-and-a-manager-of-a-department-targeted-for-a-new-information-system-peter-pedro/

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/
http://www.scribd.com/doc
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: December 23, 2011, before 01:00pm)    

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Assignment 6 (Due: December 23, 2011, before 01:00pm)
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