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 Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)

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Gabrielle Anne Rae Deseo

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PostSubject: 21st Century Corporations   Sun Aug 23, 2009 12:10 am

The 21st Century Corporations??


21st Century Corporations?? Asking me what I think would the 21st century corporations look like, I think it would be better that today. Fast changing technology also brings out changes in the economy and so as the corporation in the world. Fisrt I’ll define what is a corporation.

"A corporation is a legal entity separate from the persons who own it or the persons who manage or operate it. In British tradition it is the term designating a body corporate, where it can be either a corporation sole (an office held by an individual natural person, which is a legal entity separate from that person) or a corporation aggregate (involving more persons). In American and, increasingly, international usage, the term denotes a body corporate formed to conduct business, and this meaning of corporation is discussed in the remaining part of this entry (the limited company in British usage)."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporation

"The most common form of business organization, and one which is chartered by a state and given many legal rights as an entity separate from its owners. This form of business is characterized by the limited liability of its owners, the issuance of shares of easily transferable stock, and existence as a going concern. The process of becoming a corporation, call incorporation, gives the company separate legal standing from its owners and protects those owners from being personally liable in the event that the company is sued (a condition known as limited liability)."
http://www.investorwords.com/1140/corporation.html

As I’ve said a while ago corporation are changing or should I say developing as technology continues to develop. I think corporation will continue to flourish in the coming years.

I found these articles on the web which talks about what the 21st century corporations be.

The Creative Economy
Which companies will thrive in the coming years? Those that value ideas above all else

The Great Transformation
New technology, particularly the Internet, is reshaping the world's business terrain. Now, companies need a whole new set of rules

The New Leadership
The accelerated pace and complexity of business will bring dramatic changes in the corporate hierarchy

Architectural Visions
A look at offices that might have been. Plus, two award-winning architecture firms imagine the 21st century environment in photo essays

The Corporate Ecosystem
The old boundaries--between public and private, foreign and domestic, friend and foe--are blurring. The effect will be liberating

Back to the Future
Globalization presents a formidable challenge--but if the history of the last century is any guide, the corporation will endure

http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_35/b3696001.htm

Designs for the Future
If corporate structures embody an era, what will tomorrow's office look like?
Few institutions embody their era as strikingly as the corporation. In form and function, it reflects the defining technologies and social organization of its time. This is as true of the physical manifestation as internal configuration, which is why corporations have captured the imagination of so many visionaries, especially architects.

The 1913 Woolworth Building, at 60 stories one of the first true skyscrapers, was called ''the cathedral to commerce.'' The Chrysler Building, the Pan Am Building, Rockefeller Center, all in New York, and the Sears Tower, in Chicago, symbolized the organizational hierarchy of the industrial era. Corporations lived in a vertical world.

Today, a synap- tic jump in technology is altering the way business gets done, the way companies are organized, and the way managers operate. Information is replacing physical goods and hard assets as the currency of commerce. The corporation is morphing into a horizontal, if not virtual, universe.

BUSINESS WEEK asked two award-winning architecture firms to envision the 21st century corporation. The firm of Thompson & Rose Architects in Cambridge, Mass., believes humanism, not technology, will generate the ideas and innovation needed for corporate success. New York's Asymptote Architecture thinks execs will live in the air and corporate headquarters will be airport terminals. Wow. Compare both visions to the Emerald City in The Wizard of Oz. We begin with images of things to come from the past.

By BRUCE NUSSBAUM
http://www.businessweek.com/common_frames/ma_0035.htm?/2000/00_35/b3696037.htm


I think the 21st century corporations would have significant changes over the coming years. There would be more coping up in the cost of market items because as what I see as time passes there is always a change in prices depending on its value. Technologies in corporations would of course be more advance than today. There would be new innovations on the latest technology. Talking about technology lets take the internet for instance. Hmmm I think corporations will be more centered on making use of the internet because of its easy way of roaming around the world at the comfort of home or wherever you are. I think in the coming years corporations would be more into e-commerce and e-business because it would be more convenient on the part of companies and so as the clients. In general corporation on the following years would be more techie in terms of their facilities. The organizational areas that will experience major changes in this transformation are: leadership, the organization, assets & resources, operations, personnel, future creation, interpersonal. These characteristics are interdependent. Transformation in these areas is revolutionizing how businesses perform. It does not matter whether the business is a small retail outlet or a Fortune 500 corporation, all organizations will have to concentrate on these areas in order to effectively compete in the market. Creative strategies and tactics are essential to accessing new markets, amazing customers, inspiring employees, and ultimately delivering more value to all stakeholders.

Corporations would generally be modernized and more adaptable to change. Whatever the future corporations be the important thing is that they need to adapt to changes because changes are always constant and if corporations won’t be adapting to these changes they would probably fall.



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Aug 24, 2009 5:49 am

. . . C O N T I N U A T I O N . . .


cat CONNECTIONS.

True 21st century corporations will also learn to manage an elaborate network of external relationships.

That far-reaching ecosystem of suppliers, partners, and contractors will allow them to focus on what they do best and farm everything else out. And it will let them quickly take advantage of fleeting opportunities without having to tie up vast amounts of capital.

Outsourcing and partnering, of course, are hardly new. But in the coming century, such alliances will become more crucial.

Cisco Systems has taken the concept to an extreme. It owns only two of the 34 plants that produce its products. Roughly 90% of the orders come into the company without ever being touched by human hands, and 52% of them are fulfilled without a Cisco employee being involved. ''To my customers, it looks like one big virtual plant where my suppliers and inventory systems are directly tied into an ecosystem,'' says Chambers. ''That will be the norm in the future. Everything will be completely connected, both within a company and between companies. The people who get that will have a huge competitive advantage.''

For some companies, the ecosystem represents not merely the outsourcing of a function or two to save a few bucks. It goes, instead, to the very heart of a company's ability to exist and compete. If not for its dozens of alliances and partnerships, Juno Online Services Inc. (JWEB) in New York, the Internet service provider, could not survive--at least not without hundreds of millions of dollars in additional capital and thousands of extra employees. ''If we had to do it all ourselves, it would be prohibitively expensive,'' says CEO Charles Ardai, who spends 25% of his time on alliances. ''For our customers, it's an invisible experience because of the technology. The coordination among the partners allows for real-time communication and makes it feel more like a single company.''

The 21st century corporation will require an array of new skills, all of which must be mastered for leaders to gain the upper competitive hand. Globalization has opened new markets. Deregulation has broken down industry boundaries. Venture capital has funded thousands of new tech-savvy insurgents who now threaten incumbents. And the ever-ubiquitous Web has brought the potential for remarkable gains in productivity--but also for frightening deflationary pressures. All these forces are fast propelling the creation of new business models in the 21st century, models that will look nothing like the once-healthy and seemingly invincible enterprises of an earlier age.


Cool The New Leadership

The growing complexity of business will force dramatic changes in the corporate hierarchy

In recent years, top corporate executives have reaped a pay bonanza without precedent in the long and sweaty history of working for a living. Is today's boss overpaid? Probably, but to whom much has been given, even more will be expected. The job of leading a company has never been more demanding, and it will only get tougher in the 21st century. The CEO will retain ultimate authority, but the corporation will depend increasingly on the specialized skills of a host of subordinate leaders.

Long live the chief of customer relations, the chief of knowledge, the Web chief! The accelerated pace and complexity of business will continue to force corporations to push authority down through increasingly horizontal management structures. In the future, every line manager will have to exercise leadership's prerogatives--and bear its burdens--to an extent unthinkable a generation ago.

Cool Designs for the Future

If corporate structures embody an era, what will tomorrow's office look like?


Few institutions embody their era as strikingly as the corporation. In form and function, it reflects the defining technologies and social organization of its time. This is as true of the physical manifestation as internal configuration, which is why corporations have captured the imagination of so many visionaries, especially architects.

The 1913 Woolworth Building, at 60 stories one of the first true skyscrapers, was called ''the cathedral to commerce.'' The Chrysler Building, the Pan Am Building, Rockefeller Center, all in New York, and the Sears Tower, in Chicago, symbolized the organizational hierarchy of the industrial era. Corporations lived in a vertical world.

Today, a synap- tic jump in technology is altering the way business gets done, the way companies are organized, and the way managers operate. Information is replacing physical goods and hard assets as the currency of commerce. The corporation is morphing into a horizontal, if not virtual, universe.

BUSINESS WEEK asked two award-winning architecture firms to envision the 21st century corporation. The firm of Thompson & Rose Architects in Cambridge, Mass., believes humanism, not technology, will generate the ideas and innovation needed for corporate success. New York's Asymptote Architecture thinks execs will live in the air and corporate headquarters will be airport terminals. Wow. Compare both visions to the Emerald City in The Wizard of Oz. We begin with images of things to come from the past.


Cool The Ecosystem


A blurring of traditional boundaries will put a premium on creativity--and constant vigilance

The corporate ecosystem of the 21st century will be characterized by a blurring of once-distinct boundaries: between public and private, foreign and domestic, insider and outsider, friend and foe.

The effect will be liberating in many ways. Corporations will be freer to pursue opportunity wherever in the world they find it, and to exploit it according to the requirements of circumstance, not the blind dictates of tradition. Outsourcing will become ever more prevalent, transforming many corporations into superefficient, virtual facsimiles of their old selves. But success will not come easy in this brave new world. The growing fluidity of vital business relationships will require constant vigilance and improvisation by all concerned. Like it or not, corporations also will assume a larger role in education and other public-sector preserves, taking over tasks that government either is unwilling or unable to do itself.

There is no question that advances in information technology aided the cause of corporate creativity and played a central role in the business renaissance of the 1990s. The computer not only has given rise to vast new industries, but has come to pervade almost every aspect of corporate life. This has made possible not only additional decentralization but a restructuring of work itself. And just as the railroad and the telegraph made possible the fusion of local economies into a single national economy, so now new computer and telecommunications technologies are giving birth to a global economy.

That technological barriers to globalization are falling much faster than the political ones is to be expected, if only because the benefits of globalization to this point have been unevenly distributed. Economist Lester C. Thurow makes a persuasive case that large corporations operate in ways that tend to drive the distribution of income in the direction of inequality. CEO wage controls, anyone? In the U.S., there is a good deal of anticorporate sentiment roiling the political fringes, but nothing approaching a frontal challenge to the corporation's primacy. It's a different story overseas, where the legitimacy of the market remains in question across parts of the political spectrum in Europe and elsewhere.

The momentum of the market is a fearsome thing, but so is the stubborn, fixed force of nationalism. Western Europe's plodding and still incomplete struggle to create a common market suggests that a true integration of worldwide commerce will be a long time coming, if it comes at all. In the end, globalization might well be a puzzle that business is incapable of fully solving. But if the history of the last century is any guide, the corporation will endure regardless and fashion from its failures an unanticipated success.

References:
www.businessweek.com/2000/00_35/b3696001.htm
http://www.lloyds.com/News_Centre/Speeches/Can_the_21st_century_corporation_remain_secure_Lord_Levene_Chairman.htm

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Aug 24, 2009 5:40 pm


Arrow What is a corporation?

In a general sense, a corporation is a business entity that is given many of the same legal rights as an actual person. Corporations may be made up of a single person or a group of people, known as sole corporations or aggregate corporations, respectively.

Source:
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-corporation.htm

A corporation is a legal entity separate from the persons who own it or the persons who manage or operate it. In British tradition it is the term designating a body corporate, where it can be either a corporation sole (an office held by an individual natural person, which is a legal entity separate from that person) or a corporation aggregate (involving more persons). In American and, increasingly, international usage, the term denotes a body corporate formed to conduct business, and this meaning of corporation is discussed in the remaining part of this entry (the limited company in British usage).

Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporation


Arrow The Corporation...



The corporation's fate over the next century is as fascinating to contemplate as it is difficult to predict. But as a general proposition, there is no reason to think that the corporation has reached the limits of its adaptive powers. Over the decades, it has proven a remarkably flexible vehicle for spreading commercial risk (and reward) and for organizing investment on a great scale over vast geographic distances. As we speed ahead into a future that is unknowable by definition, it is useful to pause and glance in the rearview mirror. Today's corporation is not an empty vessel waiting to be filled by the future. It is the product of a long and tumultuous history, of opportunities grasped and crises overcome--and it is all the stronger for it.


Arrow The transformation...


Because of the spark of the rapid development of new technologies, particularly the Internet, the corporation is undergoing a radical transformation that is reaching far across the globe and in every corner of the world. From the early practices, features and structures, corporation in the 21st century will show off beyond what we can imagine.

The Web gives everyone in the organization, the ability to access a mind-boggling array of information in just a click, from anywhere. Instead of seeping out over months or years, ideas can be spread out around the globe in the blink of an eye. That means that the 21st century Corporation must adapt itself to management via the Web. Already, old business models that emphasized fixed assets, working capital, and economies of scale have become increasingly vulnerable to nimbler organizations that employ new technologies to reduce costs.

Leading-edge technology will enable workers on the bottom rungs of the organization to seize opportunity as it arises. Employees will increasingly feel the pressure to get breakthrough ideas to market first. Thus, the corporation will need to nurture an array of formal and informal networks to ensure that these ideas can speed into development. In the near future, companies will call on outside contractors to assemble teams of designers, prototype producers, manufacturers, and distributors to get the job done. Emerging technologies will allow employees and freelancers anywhere in the world to converse in numerous languages online without the need for a translator.

And this rapid flow of information will permeate the organization. We could imagine that orders will be fulfilled electronically without a single phone call or piece of paper. The ''virtual financial close'' will put real-time sales and profit figures at every manager's fingertips via the click of a wireless phone or a spoken command to a computer. And in just a blink of an eye, everything you wanted to know about your company will come in just a second.

Arrow Making a Difference...

In the beginning, the global company was defined as one that simply sold its goods in overseas markets. Later, global companies assumed a manufacturing presence in numerous countries. The company of the future will call on talent and resources--especially intellectual capital--wherever they can be found around the globe, just as it will sell its goods and services around the globe. Indeed, the very notion of a headquarters country may no longer apply, as companies migrate to places of greatest advantage. The new global corporation might be based in the U.S. but do its software programming in Sri Lanka, its engineering in Germany, and its manufacturing in China. Every outpost will be seamlessly connected by the Net so that far-flung employees and freelancers can work together in real time. All this work will be done in an instant. With the use of the internet, speed is the biggest impact in terms of actions, deliberations, and information. And it leaves the old, process-oriented corporation in a total revamp. With everything from product cycles to employee turnover on fast-forward, there is simply not enough time for deliberation.

It is said that the very core of the 21st century Corporation is technology. It simply means that human minds and hands have been removed from an organization's most routine tasks and replaced them with computers and networks. Having this ideal to digitize everything from employee benefits to accounts receivables to product design cuts time, cost, and people from operations, resulting in huge savings and vast improvements in speed.

Despite a handful of leading-edge companies, the true 21st century corporation, at least as it will eventually emerge, does not yet exist. But there is no one company today that embodies all the possibilities and promise of the super efficient 21st century corporation.

The truly great 21st century companies will recognize that the real power of technology is not just the ability to make a business more efficient but also its potential to spark transformative change. Much of that change will involve the company's relationship with its customers. In an era of unprecedented choice, in which prices and product specs for almost anything are only a click away, companies will have to offer a lot more than bargain prices.

True 21st century corporations will also learn to manage an elaborate network of external relationships. That far-reaching ecosystem of suppliers, partners, and contractors will allow them to focus on what they do best and farm everything else out. And it will let them quickly take advantage of fleeting opportunities without having to tie up vast amounts of capital. Outsourcing and partnering, of course, are hardly new. But in the coming century, such alliances will become more crucial.

http://www.businessweek.com/common_frames

bounce bounce bounce


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PostSubject: HRM_ASSIGNMENT 6   Tue Aug 25, 2009 4:07 pm

Assignment 6

Change has always been a challenge, but as the speed of change increased in recent years, so has the difficulty of managing it. Existence of new studies concluded the gap between expected change and the ability of corporations to manage, evolve and develop for the 21st century may come.



“Nothing is permanent in this world except change”.

This statement is very true, as I do believe that everything could change.
I think, the features of the corporations in the near 21st century would look like a lofty and gigantic buildings that are more capable for the usage of highly-technological trends, devices and infrastructures within a digital firm.

Transactions in a corporation will be vastly advanced and more convenient in terms of delivery, productions, and distribution among different users and creditors.

cyclops Through the existence of highly generated technologies, corporations would be competent in the fields of:cyclops

bounce *Dealing with this rapid evolution, the enterprise of the future must be globally integrated.

bounce*Disruptive by nature.

bounce *Hungry for change and able to innovate beyond customer imaginations.

bounce *Rethinking of existing business models, changing pricing structures and “reshaping the way their industry conducts business,” all fueled by the disruptive power of the Internet.

cyclops 21 century corporations may comprises this some ideals:cyclops


bounce *The Great Transformation
-New technology, particularly the Internet, is reshaping the world's business terrain. Now, corporations need a whole new set of rules.

bounce *The New Leadership

-The accelerated pace and complexity of business will bring dramatic changes in the corporate hierarchy.

bounce *Architectural Visions

-A look at offices that might have been. Plus, two award-winning architecture firms imagine the 21st century environment in photo essays.

bounce *The Corporate Ecosystem

-The old boundaries--between public and private, foreign and domestic, friend and foe--are blurring. The effect will be liberating

bounce *Back to the Future

-Globalization presents a formidable challenge--but if the history of the last century is any guide, the corporation will endure

Arrow According to business experts:


“We stand today at an historical moment. Many aspects of the global economy are out of synch with 21st century imperatives. While the character of corporations that produce needed goods and services—the “real economy”—is undergoing intense change, the “financial economy” is fueled more by money shuffling than by long-term wealth creation. The current global financial crisis has exposed a system of untenable leverage and speculative behavior that has left the real economy dangerously short of affordable, reliable and timely capital to meet its investment and operating needs. The result: an erosion of prospects for the creation and prosperity of sustainable companies to meet the pressing social and environmental challenges in the coming decades.”


“When it comes to the merely future development, there are three kinds of people: those who let it happen, those who make it happen, and those who wonder what happened.”
So, we as a mankind, especially to the youths of the contemporary generation, we are capable enough for what we ought to be and to be something in the near future.
Then, whatever our apparitions, wt the end we hold the responsibilities and power to cater and gratify the 21st century would look like to be.

REMARKS:

The growing fluidity of vital business relationships will require constant vigilance and improvisation by all concerned. Like it or not, corporations also will assume a larger role in education and other public-sector preserves, taking over tasks that government either is unwilling or unable to do itself.
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Aug 25, 2009 9:01 pm

21st Century Corporations

A hundred years ago, corporations are very much reliable on man power, meaning, people ware are the ones who made up a single corporation. A corporation as defined in dictionary is an association of individuals, created by law or under authority of law, having a continuous existence independent of the existences of its members, and powers and liabilities distinct from those of its members. This may mean that corporations are made up of stockholders or is owned by many owners, in which the power and liabilities are divided on each of them.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/corporation

It is the most common form of business organization, and one which is chartered by a state and given many legal rights as an entity separate from its owners. This form of business is characterized by the limited liability of its owners, the issuance of shares of easily transferable stock, and existence as a going concern. The process of becoming a corporation, call incorporation, gives the company separate legal standing from its owners and protects those owners from being personally liable in the event that the company is sued (a condition known as limited liability). Incorporation also provides companies with a more flexible way to manage their ownership structure. In addition, there are different tax implications for corporations, although these can be both advantageous and disadvantageous. In these respects, corporations differ from sole proprietorships and limited partnerships.
http://www.investorwords.com/1140/corporation.html

As defined above, corporations are said to be the most known form of business. Stockholders are given equal rights, which mean that every stockholder have separate liabilities. These legal rights can separate the private lives of the owner/s. Due to the separation the owners will not be held personally liable for the corporation during a certain condition that will limit the company's liability.

* EPHEMERAL

Corporations long before the birth of technology is fully dependent on people ware. Everything, from bookkeeping to converting data into information is done manually, in which has taken too much energy and time for employees and even the owners. Even the reach of their productions and services are limited by the distance.

Since technology have been roaming around for over a hundred years now, bookkeeping and conversion of data have become much easier and less energy and time consuming. Due to continuous development of technology, corporations have embraced its full benefit on them. The technology is made up of soft ware, hard ware and people ware. The studies of these have evolved corporations into a much higher level and into a much productive one. Hard wares, which are known locally as machines have enabled human to a more productive persons. Through machines, people are able to give their full time, energy and effort into much more important things on the corporation.

The technologies, particularly the Internet have given corporations a vast and wide reach to embrace its clients and its owners. This time, the evolving technologies have reached every corners of the earth, which forces the corporations to have a new set of rules and culture. Cultures or rules that may include: being computer literate of their employees.

The Internet as stated above has stretched the arms of every corporation to reach its full potential and to deliver its products and services all over and across the world. Now, almost all of the corporations or companies have established their own website, in order for them to advertised their services and products, and as the discovery of the use of the internet, it has even evolve for something helpful for both client and server.

To survive and thrive in this century, managers will need to hard-wire a new set of rules and guideposts into their brains. Not so long ago, for example, leaders believed that building assets over the long haul guaranteed competitive advantage. In this new century, success will go to the companies that partner their way to a new future, not those that put heavy assets onto their balance sheets. Leaders once thought that creating intense rivalries among competitors motivated their employees and assured success. But in the days to come, a company's fiercest competitor might also be its most important collaborator. Since the dawn of trade, every business leader has wanted to build an enduring enterprise. In the new century, though, many companies will be intentionally ephemeral, formed to create new technologies or products only to be absorbed by sponsor companies when their missions are accomplished.

Many factors, from the need to expand beyond national borders to the inexorable shift toward intellectual capital, are driving change, but none is more important than the rise of Internet technologies. Like the steam engine or the assembly line, the Net has already become an advance with revolutionary consequences, most of which we have only begun to feel.

Leading-edge technology will enable workers on the bottom rungs of the organization to seize opportunity as it arises. Employees will increasingly feel the pressure to get breakthrough ideas to market first. Thus, the corporation will need to nurture an array of formal and informal networks to ensure that these ideas can speed into development. In the near future, companies will call on outside contractors to assemble teams of designers, prototype producers, manufacturers, and distributors to get the job done. Emerging technologies will allow employees and freelancers anywhere in the world to converse in numerous languages online without the need for a translator.

That rapid flow of information will permeate the organization. Orders will be fulfilled electronically without a single phone call or piece of paper. The ''virtual financial close'' will put real-time sales and profit figures at every manager's fingertips via the click of a wireless phone or a spoken command to a computer. ''We don't have science-fiction writers who have seen and written this future,'' says Lowell Bryan, a consultant who leads McKinsey & Co.'s Global New Economy practice. ''Everything we see leads to greater diversity, greater choice, a far more integrative economy, yet more individualism.''

In the future it is foreseen that corporations will more likely to become web, as in the web of spiders, which is able to criss-cross its reach from different parts of the world.

The following are the said usage of Internet for the future corporations:

It's more about bits, less about atoms.

A corporation’s position on the market is no longer measured by its size, instead, they would only be measured through its profitability, in which profitable enterprises will manage data, or information, instead of focusing only on managing the corporation's physical assets. Good management of information can result to good decision making thus, allows an upstart to beat an established player; it can also give an incumbent vast advantages. By using information to manage themselves and better serve their customers, companies will be able to do things cheaper, faster, and with far less waste.

It's mass customization.

Internet can be way of showcasing consumer’s reaction or suggestion of a certain product or service of a corporation, which will lead to a more reliable and good quality of products or services. This will also give the corporation what their consumer needs and wants.

It's dependent on intellectual capital.

The advantage of bringing breakthrough products to market first will be shorter-lived than ever, because technology will let competitors match or exceed them almost instantly. To keep ahead of the steep new-product curve, it will be crucial for businesses to attract and retain the best thinkers. The old command-and-control hierarchies, with their civil-service-like wages, are fast crumbling in favor of organizations that empower vast numbers of people and reward the best of them as if they were owners of the enterprise.

It's global.

In the beginning, the global company was defined as one that simply sold its goods in overseas markets. But as of today, corporation are able to sold their products and services all across the world.

It's about speed.

All this work will be done in an instant. ''The Internet is a tool, and the biggest impact of that tool is speed,'' says Andrew S. Grove, chairman of Intel Corp. (INTC) ''The speed of actions, the speed of deliberations, and the speed of information has increased, and it will continue to increase.'' That means the old, process-oriented corporation must radically revamp. With everything from product cycles to employee turnover on fast-forward, there is simply not enough time for deliberation or bureaucracy.

* DIGITIZATION.

Just as the smaller companies will use technology to gain economies of scale, larger companies will harness technology to reduce the costs of complexity. At the very core of the 21st century corporation is technology, or what most people today call digitization. Put simply, digitization means removing human minds and hands from an organization's most routine tasks and replacing them with computers and networks. Digitizing everything from employee benefits to accounts receivables to product design cuts time, cost, and people from operations, resulting in huge savings and vast improvements in speed'

* CULTURAL CHANGE.

The potential for productivity gains is everywhere, in every process, in every industry. In the years to come, large incumbent corporations that get it will be the greatest beneficiaries of the Net, not the dot-com insurgents that once garnered all the publicity and market valuations.

Despite a handful of leading-edge companies, the true 21st century corporation, at least as it will eventually emerge, does not yet exist. But there is no one company today that embodies all the possibilities and promise of the super efficient 21st century corporation.

Through this consumers and clients would be able to know the truth about the products or services offered. Frictions will be eliminated and consumers can even decide through other peoples feedback on the said product or service.

* CONNECTIONS

True 21st century corporations will also learn to manage an elaborate network of external relationships. That far-reaching ecosystem of suppliers, partners, and contractors will allow them to focus on what they do best and farm everything else out. And it will let them quickly take advantage of fleeting opportunities without having to tie up vast amounts of capital. Outsourcing and partnering, of course, are hardly new. But in the coming century, such alliances will become more crucial.

* TALENT HUNT

Through technology, corporations would be able to find potential workers all over the world. This would both benefit people and the corporation itself. Due to online job hunting and online job interview, cost will be reduced or even eliminated.
http://www.businessweek.com/common_frames/ma_0035.htm?/2000/00_35/b3696011.htm
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 26, 2009 1:19 am

-----STILL WORKING FOR IT-----


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PostSubject: lah pa xa nahuman!   Thu Aug 27, 2009 12:29 pm

21st Century Corporations



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Alfredo V. Ala-an

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PostSubject: ASSIGNMENT 6   Fri Aug 28, 2009 4:19 am

What do you think will the 21st -century corporations look like? (1000words)

The 21st Century Corporations


What does the 21st century learning look like?

‘Globalisation and technological change are placing greater demands on education and skill development in Australia and the nature of jobs available to young Australians is changing faster than ever. Skilled jobs now dominate jobs growth and people with university or vocational education and training qualifications fare much better in the employment market than early school leavers.’

A new environment of schooling has been emerging over the last decade of the 20th century and it has been accelerating in the 21st century, stimulated by a new economy, new technologies and new understanding about learning. In today’s interconnected, technology driven world, learning typically takes place in physical, virtual and remote places. It’s now more important than ever that learning environments make the paradigm shift towards 21st century education.

Using technology alone may lead to high-tech lectures or technically proficient students, but that falls short of what 21st century learning is all about. This seminar will identify what are the key factors that make 21st century learning one that engages and motivates the learner and educator.
How should education be shaped to meet the needs a 21st century learning models? What do educators need to do to be prepared for 21st century teaching? What are the common issues and visions?

This seminar will feature leading technology companies showcasing their vision of 21st century learning environments and how they are being adapted into the education system across all sectors.


resources: http://www.educationau.edu.au/jahia/Jahia/pid/819

What Does a 21st Century L&D Department Look Like?

A month ago, on April 21, Jay Cross at learntrends co-ordinated a round-the-globe series of online conversations on how learning can impact performance in organisations. Starting on the US West Coast and ending somewhere east of New Zealand, these virtual conversations opened up a whole Pandora’s Box of issues around the challenges and opportunities that learning & development faces if it is to really have an impact of organisational effectiveness.

Jay’s reflections on the event are worth reading.

NEW ROLES FOR LEARNING PROFESSIONALS

Ellen Wagner, Curt Bonk and I spent our 30 minutes facilitating a discussion on the topic of ‘New Roles for Learning Professionals’. Going back through my notes and the archive of the (very animated) chat/discussion that took place, some clear threads emerged on the types of capabilities that a 21st century L&D department need to have.

Here are some of the core capabilities identified:

1. consulting / coaching acumen (as well as learning acumen) that is focused on performance problems and outcomes. The ability to engage with senior (and not-so-senior) line managers to identify the root cause of performance problems, and not simply focus on learning.

2. the ability to ‘speak business’. An understanding of business goals is the ‘so what’ in learning. Everyone in L&D should be able to read and draw conclusions from a balance sheet and P&L account and understand the business drivers that line managers are focused on.

3. a good grasp of technology – across-the-board - but especially emerging technologies, and how they can fit into learning solutions

4. adult learning – an understanding of how adults learn in the workplace, and ‘what works’ in organisational learning.

Along with these, another set of attributes such as: ‘empathy, ’ listening’, ‘tolerance for ambiguity’, ‘basic communication ability’ were identified as essential by participants.

Harold Jarache also made the important point that ‘attitude trumps skills’ for a learning professional. We’ve known that in a more general sense for years – many of us have used the axiom ‘hire for attitude’ when we’re recruiting. I certainly have found it has served me well. I can’t think of any situation where I’ve hired on the basis of attitude where I would have done otherwise in retrospect.

INNOVATION – THE OXYGEN OF L&D

One one other vital high-level capability every L&D practitioner needs to have in spades is the ability and, even more importantly the desire, to innovate. Innovation in designing new approaches and solutions to solve performance problems is the oxygen for L&D. It’s not vitally important whether the innovation involves technology or not – although technology does offer some huge opportunities for solving business problems and we’re just plain stupid if we ignore them – but an L&D department that fails to demonstrate that it continues to be innovative is one that’s quickly becoming irrelevant as a strategic business tool. Such L&D departments deserve to have their funding redirected elsewhere.



resources: http://charles-jennings.blogspot.com/2009/05/what-does-21st-century-l-department.html

Can the 21st century corporation remain secure

Introduction

Texas at risk tomorrow?
21st century companies have no choice but to use technology to connect to the outside world - to communicate with customers, suppliers, partners, and their own employees. Unfortunately with that interconnection comes a range of new security issues.

Briefing reporters in Japan at the end of last year, Donald Rumsfeld referred specifically to the growing threat of "cyber attacks" 13 . These - best defined as viruses and hacking-attacks - are now causing high levels of concern amongst business leaders, with 60 per cent worried that they are at risk 14 .

Experts agree that, at the moment, most cyber-crime results from the intellectual motives of "super-kid" hackers, and very little relates to commercial crime or terrorism 15 . But it is expected that could change.

Terrorist technological capability is widely assumed by intelligence experts and the scope for terrorist abuse is increasingly recognised.

Could it happen in Texas? The government, at least, seems to think so. Last year, the Texas Department of Information Resources successfully carried out one of the first state-wide cyber attack simulations, in preparation for the possibility that terrorists could sabotage critical government computer systems 16 .

It's a threat which businesses need to take increasingly seriously too. For example, most oil and gas companies use process control software which, as many of you know, controls safety valves and with which a hacker could wreak havoc.

From a business perspective, the indirect risks are perhaps of just as great importance: loss of customers, and damage to the corporate brand and reputation if such an attack becomes public news.

Texas-targeted risk solutions
But enough of the threats. What can Texas do to manage its risks better?

The good news is that awareness amongst companies both around the world and here in Texas has improved significantly since 9/11. But there is much that remains to be done.

Contingency planning
First, let me start with contingency planning. Any underwriter will tell you that preparedness is key. Yet you may be surprised to know that many businesses actually aren't ready to face disaster when it strikes.

In one recent survey, almost 40 per cent of Western companies admitted that they do not have adequate plans in place to protect against terrorist attacks 17 .

The same is true of cyber-risk. A third of organisations admit that they cannot tell whether their systems are under attack, and believe that their ability to respond to incidents is inadequate 18 .

Some think that contingency planning is too expensive, but in fact the most important steps for surviving a crisis often cost little. Being unprepared can be the most expensive strategy of all. Careful thought and enough time are the important factors. But it is clear that companies must invest more - as much in terms of time as money - in contingency planning, to better prepare themselves against the broadest spectrum of risks which we all fear.

Improved security
Improved security is another step which companies can take relatively easily, but which can make all the difference, according to the experts in our market.

One of the first acts of US Congress back in 1790 was to launch ten cutters to patrol the eastern seaboard and guard major ports from illegal trade and smuggling: this was the foundation of the United States Coast Guard 19 . Moving forward 200 years, that challenge has changed.

In December last year, the Department of Homeland security announced that almost 32 million dollars would go towards improving defences along the Texan coast - with the Port of Houston Authority receiving the largest grant 20 .It's all part of a co-ordinated strategy which, to insurers, seems like a very sound strategy.

But there is no room for complacency. Further investment, even closer co-operation between government departments here as well as internationally, and plugging any gaps in federal law, are all vital.

All business leaders have a role to play too. Many companies have improved their security measures since 9/11, but there is little consistency and standards vary greatly. So where are the weak links? Our underwriters talk about perimeter control, checking of ID, close circuit TV monitoring, and a greater presence of security personnel as the main examples.

In order to improve security, companies will need to allocate funding, educate employees, and work better together with their industry peers to share information and develop solutions across their own corporate boundaries.

Sometimes people fear that additional security just leads to more red tape. But only 16 per cent of global companies feel that security measures introduced since 9/11 have had a negative impact on their business. Even better, over half believe that they have actually helped them to deliver their business goals 21 . It's an investment, and a change of culture, that's clearly worth making.

Greater consideration of insurance
Third, Texas businesses should consider insurance very carefully. The insurance markets learnt the hard way, following the Twin Towers disaster, that terrorism is a risk which needs to be separately priced - and priced at a level commensurate with the risk.

However, many companies are currently not buying coverage. Maybe they feel removed from the risk. Maybe they feel unable to bear the cost, or have still not got used to the idea of having to pay for it 22 .

A new survey by Marsh, a leading insurance broker who works closely with the Lloyd's market, shows that 46 per cent of US companies are buying terrorism cover 23 . The good news is that's nearly double the number buying it this time last year, but the bad news is that over half of corporations remain uninsured - and smaller companies in particular are much less likely to have insurance in place.

Amazingly, and this has particular resonance for Houston, energy companies are the least likely to buy terrorism insurance. Only 18 per cent of energy companies surveyed said they had coverage in place - compared to around 70 per cent of public entities and real estate companies.

The range of risks which terrorism brings is also expanding. Take 9/11, where some 25 per cent of the total 40 billion dollar loss related to business interruption 24 . In today's business environment, the impact of a business temporarily ceasing operation in one location can often be felt right across the world. And in a society where litigation is such a preoccupation, some companies are increasingly concerned about the liabilities they could face in the event of a terrorist attack, and we are seeing emergence of a new terrorism liability market to cover these risks. The hotel industry protecting its guests is one example, but pollution liability following terrorism is another - and so it is as relevant an issue for oil installations as for hotels. Of course, developing innovative solutions for new, complex and difficult risks has always been an area where the Lloyd's market excels, and Lloyd's is a leader in these fields.

Closer attention to risk management by the board
Finally, however, insurance is only part of the solution. In the end, closer attention to risk management is critical. Companies need to recognise that the risk environment has changed, and they cannot rely on 20th century management techniques to solve 21st century problems.

The whole area of cyber risk is one where the insurance market can and does offer solutions, but any insurer will look very closely at the risk management procedures in place before offering coverage. As one Lloyd's expert involved in this field puts it, if best practice is in place it mitigates the risk in 90 per cent of cases 25 .

Whether it's a question of more insurance; or using risk experts to help your business manage security, today's risks no longer fit into easy categories, and in the wake of Sarbanes-Oxley, responsibility for decision making on corporate risk lies in the boardroom.

We seem slow to learn the lesson. Although attitudes towards risk management are changing, it appears that much of the impetus for change is coming from regulatory pressures - rather than being a commercial motivation to manage risk better 26 . A culture of risk awareness has yet to emerge in the boardroom it seems - in only 31 per cent of corporations do all major decisions involve interaction with the risk management team.


resources:http://www.lloyds.com/News_Centre/Speeches/Can_the_21st_century_corporation_remain_secure_Lord_Levene_Chairman.htm

Conclusion:

My conclusion about this 21'st century look like is just this is the beginning of extreme high-tech, fast emerging technologies and we can't stop it because everything in this world is changing. Because of this i think there are only two faces that the 21st century corporations experiencing first is the advantages of this wonderful new discoveries of technologies and the second is the abusing of this technology and use this technologies to their own benefits like being selfish,terrorist(hacking) and thats very dangerous.
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PostSubject: 21st Century Corporation   Fri Aug 28, 2009 5:35 am

What do you think will the 21st -century corporations look like?

In the 1980s many organizations gained competitive advantage through downsizing and financial restructuring. The 1990s confront us with the need to get back to basics. Large organizations are searching for a competitive advantage by being faster than their competitors in satisfying customer needs. These competitive organizations are capable of ongoing adaptation to environmental demands. In this article the authors speculate on the way these self-renewing organizations are organized, the managerial processes that enable them to capitalize on speed, and the characteristics of the leaders who manage them.

As we envision what the corporation of the 21st century should look like in order to thrive in a global and dynamic economy, it’s critical for universities and policy makers to have a comprehensive understanding about the new realities inside corporations. Creating or running a company with significant employee ownership is not simple, but has been demonstrated to be a successful model with benefits to all—employees, shareholders, and customers. Business schools play a critical role in helping individuals as well as organizations understand the components of employee
ownership, defining the possibilities of implementing ownership-based practices, and most importantly training today’s business leaders and our next generation leaders to strengthen the commitment both of employees and employers to the health and success of the 21st century Corporation. New and faster technology, redefined values, and shifting customer demands are changing the way businesses operate in the twenty-first century. Human resources and business leaders are faced with the challenge of redefining their strategies on leadership, talent, and diversity, while evaluating their operational effectiveness.

The Human Resources organization in most companies is changing dramatically, which usually translates into smaller, more centralized, with more technology-enabled services and systems. Few companies are exactly where they want to be, but in many firms, HR looks quite different in size and delivery model than it did just a few years ago. And it appears certain that it will look even more different in just a couple of years. There was much discussion in the 1990s about the demise of HR, and about the need to become more strategic. Although I agree with the push to align the HR business with company goals and strategy, what many companies have also done is cleanup the operational side of the HR business. They have improved the efficiency and effectiveness of myriad services and products, and have strengthened their credibility as a viable contributor to the bottom line. The continuing development and use of Web and self-service information technology is bringing the Human Resources function into the 21st century. The structure and role of the HR organization has been slowly moving, in most Fortune 500 companies, toward a more management-oriented and business strategy-driven function. The HR organization in many Fortune 500 companies has used proven information technology for many years, with IVR (interactive voice response), and ACD (automated call distribution) being good examples. But in most cases, the technology was used in isolated parts of the HR function such as benefits administration and program/policy descriptions, and thus had limited impact on the overall organization. More recently, HR has begun to employ ERPs (enterprise resource programs, such as PeopleSoft and SAP), browserbased portals with text, data, and simplified point-and-click use, and outsourced service applications, which now enables the HR organization to transform how it works and supports the entire enterprise. The year 2000 became the unintended impetus that helped many HR organizations move away from outmoded legacy mainframe systems and initiated the gradual use of more advanced information technologies. The continued pressure on cost reduction and process improvement has forced many HR organizations to take big steps into manager and employee self-service, and to move rapidly into Web-based HR portals. (It has been estimated that an employee transaction through the Web costs about one-tenth of an IVR telephone call, and one-one hundredth of a manual transaction through a personnel administrator.) These portals are bringing together both internal systems and external “outsourced” systems for easy use by the manager and the employee. In addition, the portal permits the inexpensive provision of other employee services such as discount travel, child care, financial services, legal advice, wellness resources, etc., making it a more attractive 24/7 stop for the average employee and their families. Full integration of various HR applications has not yet occurred, but the potential is becoming a reality. But more importantly, the portal permits world-wide use of Web-based applications such as strategy deployment efforts, knowledge management, project management, global mass communications, and distance learning for virtually the entire workforce. These systems now have a more direct tie to work teams and projects, as people collaborate from common networks and systems. The use of this information technology has enabled the HR organization to concentrate resources and to form centralized areas of HR expertise. Most organizations are still in some part of a transition from the traditional local HR “generalist” model to a “virtual” organization with 24/7 access. I expect there will always be some level of human intervention and personal touch service to the workforce through the HR organization. But information technology continues to play a larger role in HR service delivery, and has become both an enabler and a driver for a more effective and efficient HR organization. The question as to how fast this happens in a particular enterprise appears to be largely driven by a company’s vision, mission and values.

http://www.orcworldwide.com/readroom/Schaeffer-0310-11.pdf
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PostSubject: assignment 6   Fri Aug 28, 2009 11:51 am

Idea Idea Idea

Corporations on 21st Century


What does corporations really mean? Or what is it for and its components?

In forming a corporation, prospective shareholders exchange money, property, or both, for the corporation's capital stock. A corporation generally takes the same deductions as a sole proprietorship to figure its taxable income. A corporation can also take special deductions. For federal income tax purposes, a C corporation is recognized as a separate taxpaying entity. A corporation conducts business, realizes net income or loss, pays taxes and distributes profits to shareholders.

The profit of a corporation is taxed to the corporation when earned, and then is taxed to the shareholders when distributed as dividends. This creates a double tax. The corporation does not get a tax deduction when it distributes dividends to shareholders. Shareholders cannot deduct any loss of the corporation.
In 21st century, the world has encountered many problems which are caused by different factors.

As the world starts to globalize, it is accompanied by criticism of the current forms of globalization, which are feared to be overly corporate-led. As corporations become larger and multinational, their influence and interests go further accordingly. Being able to influence and own most media companies, it is hard to be able to publicly debate the notions and ideals that corporations pursue. Some choices that corporations take to make profits can affect people all over the world. Sometimes fatally.

Today we know that corporations, for good or bad, are major influences on our lives. For example, of the 100 largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations while only 49 are countries, based on a comparison of corporate sales and country GDPs .In this era of globalization, marginalized people are becoming especially angry at the motives of multinational corporations, and corporate-led globalization is being met with increasing protest and resistance.

Corporations, as we tend to think of them, have been around for a few centuries, the earliest of which were chartered around the sixteenth century in places like England, Holland etc. Technically speaking, a corporation is what Robbins describes as a “social invention of the state” (Robbins: p.98). That is, a state grants a corporate charter, permitting private financial resources being used for public purposes. As Arrighi points out, this initial creation of private finance and merchants, etc was to aid in the expansion of a state to which it belonged, and as Arrighi and Smith detail, served to expand colonial and imperial interests to start with, as well as help in war efforts between empires.

Some suggestions that could more improve our economic status:

• Sustained economic growth as the way to human progress
• Free markets without government “interference” would be the most efficient and socially optimal allocation of resources
• Economic globalization would be beneficial to everyone
• Privatization removes inefficiencies of public sector
• Governments should mainly function to provide the infrastructure to advance the rule of law with respect to property rights and contracts.

I think the corporations and infrastructures as of our time which is the 21st century are more advance and expensive.


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http://shecapacillo.blogspot.com/


Last edited by Sheila Capacillo on Wed Sep 02, 2009 12:13 am; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Aug 28, 2009 12:21 pm

21st century corporation??? ----- let me think...


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alma cabase

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sat Aug 29, 2009 9:18 pm

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Sep 07, 2009 12:29 pm

Modernization have been the keyword of every corporation. But as 80's and 90's enter, computerization has its dominance. As we enter the new millennium, the basis of every developmental, progressive and soar high corporations is cybernization. But as the corporation grows and bloom in the context of modernization, computerization and cybernization, it must understand the importance of the world of order and the world of person.

The new millennium was ushered in by a dramatic technological revolution. We now live in increasingly diversed, globalized, and complex media-saturated society.

In this assignment, we are to take what corporations look like in the 21st century, but it is not enough to say that we are already living there. Technically, it is the 21st century, but corporations are not there, and the challenge now is to reinvent corporations for the 21st century. And making such a paradigm shift is not easy.

So what does 21st century Corporation looks like? For me, it is bold. It breaks the mold. It is flexible, creative, challenging and complex. It addresses a rapidly changing world filled with fantastic new problems as well as exciting new possibilities.

“Sparked by new technologies, particularly the Internet, the corporation is undergoing a radical transformation that is nothing less than a new Industrial Revolution. This time around, the revolution is reaching every corner of the globe and in the process, rewriting the rules laid down by Sloan, Henry Ford, and other Industrial Age giants. The 21st century corporation that emerges will in many ways be the polar opposite of the organizations they helped shape.”

Many factors, from the need to expand beyond national borders to the inexorable shift toward intellectual capital, are driving change, but none is more important than the rise of Internet technologies. Like the steam engine or the assembly line, the Net has already become an advance with revolutionary consequences, most of which we have only begun to feel.

The Net gives everyone in the organization, from the lowliest clerk to the chairman of the board, the ability to access a mind-boggling array of information--instantaneously, from anywhere. Instead of seeping out over months or years, ideas can be zapped around the globe in the blink of an eye. That means that the 21st century corporation must adapt itself to management via the Web. It must be predicated on constant change, not stability, organized around networks, not rigid hierarchies, built on shifting partnerships and alliances, not self-sufficiency, and constructed on technological advantages, not bricks and mortar. Already, old business models that emphasized fixed assets, working capital, and economies of scale have become increasingly vulnerable to nimbler organizations that employ new technologies to reduce costs.

“Leading-edge technology will enable workers on the bottom rungs of the organization to seize opportunity as it arises. Employees will increasingly feel the pressure to get breakthrough ideas to market first. Thus, the corporation will need to nurture an array of formal and informal networks to ensure that these ideas can speed into development. In the near future, companies will call on outside contractors to assemble teams of designers, prototype producers, manufacturers, and distributors to get the job done. Emerging technologies will allow employees and freelancers anywhere in the world to converse in numerous languages online without the need for a translator. ''The gap between what we can imagine and what we can achieve has never been smaller,'' says Gary Hamel, a consultant and author of Leading the Revolution.”

“That rapid flow of information will permeate the organization. Orders will be fulfilled electronically without a single phone call or piece of paper. The ''virtual financial close'' will put real-time sales and profit figures at every manager's fingertips via the click of a wireless phone or a spoken command to a computer. ''We don't have science-fiction writers who have seen and written this future,'' says Lowell Bryan, a consultant who leads McKinsey & Co.'s Global New Economy practice. ''Everything we see leads to greater diversity, greater choice, a far more integrative economy, yet more individualism.''”

What, exactly, does 21st century corporation look like? The organizations that flourish will have several defining features.

To thrive in this new century, companies are going to need a whole new set of rules

“EPHEMERAL. To survive and thrive in this century, managers will need to hard-wire a new set of rules and guideposts into their brains. Not so long ago, for example, leaders believed that building assets over the long haul guaranteed competitive advantage. In this new century, success will go to the companies that partner their way to a new future, not those that put heavy assets onto their balance sheets. Leaders once thought that creating intense rivalries among competitors motivated their employees and assured success. But in the days to come, a company's fiercest competitor might also be its most important collaborator. Since the dawn of trade, every business leader has wanted to build an enduring enterprise. In the new century, though, many companies will be intentionally ephemeral, formed to create new technologies or products only to be absorbed by sponsor companies when their missions are accomplished.”

-- It's management by Web. That means not just Web as in Internet but the web-like shape of successful organizations in the future. If there are a pair of images that symbolize the vast changes at work, they are the pyramid and the web. The organizational chart of large-scale enterprise had long been defined as a pyramid of ever-shrinking layers leading to an omnipotent CEO at its apex. The 21st century corporation, in contrast, is far more likely to look like a web: a flat, intricately woven form that links partners, employees, external contractors, suppliers, and customers in various collaborations. The players will grow more and more interdependent. Fewer companies will try to master all the disciplines necessary to produce and market their goods but will instead outsource skills--from research and development to manufacturing--to outsiders who can perform those functions with greater efficiency.

DIGITIZATION. Just as the smaller companies will use technology to gain economies of scale, larger companies will harness technology to reduce the costs of complexity. McKinsey's Bryan points out that technology allows Bank of America to manage a continent-wide bank of $700 billion in assets as effectively as it once managed a single-state bank with $7 billion.

At the very core of the 21st century corporation is technology, or what most people today call digitization. Put simply, digitization means removing human minds and hands from an organization's most routine tasks and replacing them with computers and networks. Digitizing everything from employee benefits to accounts receivables to product design cuts time, cost, and people from operations, resulting in huge savings and vast improvements in speed. Everything a company does involves what Bryan calls ''interaction costs,'' the expenses incurred to get different people and companies to work together to create and sell products. In the U.S. alone, Bryan surmises, such interaction fees account for over half of all labor costs. Digitization lowers these expenses dramatically. ''You are going to see unbelievable speed and efficiencies,'' says John T. Chambers, Cisco's CEO. ''Truly efficient companies, particularly in the first couple of waves of change, will be able to drive [overall] productivity at 20% to 40% a year.''

CULTURAL CHANGE. The potential for productivity gains is everywhere, in every process, in every industry. The bigger the company and the larger its costs, the greater the opportunity to see tremendous efficiencies. In the years to come, large incumbent corporations that get it will be the greatest beneficiaries of the Net, not the dot-com insurgents that once garnered all the publicity and market valuations.

Despite a handful of leading-edge companies, the true 21st century corporation, at least as it will eventually emerge, does not yet exist. John F. Welch Jr. of General Electric Co. may have created the archetypal ''learning organization,'' a highly diverse company that shares ideas across its many boundaries. Chambers of Cisco Systems may boast the most networked organization in the world, a company in which nearly all its administrative functions are conducted over the Internet. Michael S. Dell may have built the most efficient supply-chain network ever, a model that requires virtually no inventory. But there is no one company today that embodies all the possibilities and promise of the superefficient 21st century corporation.

The truly great 21st century companies will recognize that the real power of technology is not just the ability to make a business more efficient but also its potential to spark transformative change. Much of that change will involve the company's relationship with its customers. In an era of unprecedented choice, in which prices and product specs for almost anything are only a click away, companies will have to offer a lot more than bargain prices.

The 21st century corporation will require an array of new skills, all of which must be mastered for leaders to gain the upper competitive hand. Globalization has opened new markets. Deregulation has broken down industry boundaries. Venture capital has funded thousands of new tech-savvy insurgents who now threaten incumbents. And the ever-ubiquitous Web has brought the potential for remarkable gains in productivity--but also for frightening deflationary pressures. All these forces are fast propelling the creation of new business models in the 21st century, models that will look nothing like the once-healthy and seemingly invincible enterprises of an earlier age.
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Thu Oct 01, 2009 5:26 am

The History of the Corporation
By Lee Drutman
How did corporations become the dominant institutions in our society, powerful behemoths with a
hand in every almost every aspect of our lives?
The history of corporations in America is indeed a fascinating tale, the story of how a small legal
construction designed to harness human ingenuity and entrepreneurship for the public good has
been transformed into a largely unaccountable force that has, in some instances, grown larger than
entire nations.
The modern corporation dates back to 1601, when Queen Elizabeth I created the East India Trading
Company. At the time, the concept of a corporation was quite different than today. Corporations were
small, quasi-government institutions chartered by the crown for a specific purpose. The idea was to
bring together investors interested in financing large projects, such as exploration. (Many American
colonies were originally governed by corporations, such as the Massachusetts Bay Company). Kings
and queens kept a close watch on these corporations and didn’t hesitate to revoke charters if they
weren’t happy with the way things were being run. Investors were liable for any harm or loss caused
by the company.
As the American colonies developed and won their independence, corporations remained in the
background. Sure, there were a few notable anti-corporate protests, like the Boston Tea Party (the
Sons of Liberty dumped 342 crates of British East India Company tea into the ocean), but the vast
majority of Americans at the time lived and worked on small family farms. The real threat was the
unilateral, unaccountable power of King George III, and the founders of a new nation, skeptical of that
kind of power, formed a government of checks and balances to prevent any one branch from getting
too powerful. Although corporations were not mentioned once in the Constitution or the Bill of Rights,
Thomas Jefferson famously noted that representative government’s purpose was “to curb the excesses
of the monied interests.” Had the Founders realized how powerful corporations would become, likely
they would have created checks on their power.
Post-Revolution America developed largely along the ideals of Jefferson’s yeoman farmer, with
American industrialism lagging behind its European counterparts. Corporations remained small
institutions, chartered at the state level for specific purposes, such as banking or seafaring. Corporations
could only exist for a limited time, could not make any political contributions, and could not own stock
in other companies. Their owners were responsible for criminal acts committed by the corporation
and the doctrine of limited liability (shielding investors from responsibility for harm and loss caused by
the corporation) did not yet exist. Often corporate charters went to the wealthy or well-connected. But
these small corporations did move America into the industrial era, encouraging entrepeneurism on a
grander scale. Governments kept a close watch on how these corporations were being run, regularly
revoking charters if corporations were not serving the public interest. For example, in 1832, President
Andrew Jackson refused to extend the charter of the Second Bank of the United States and the State
of Pennsylvania revoked 10 banks’ charters.
Slowly, though, corporations were gaining power. In 1819, the Supreme Court ruled in the case of
Dartmouth College v. Woodward that states could not alter a contract granted by a previous legislature,
leaving Dartmouth’s King George III-granted charter in tact and creating a framework of protection for
corporations against government encroachment.
As industrialization began reshaping America, great fortunes began accumulating in the hands of
canal owners and financiers and later railroad and steel magnates. And as great fortunes accumulated,
Session II, Reading 1, Page 1
Citizen Works Corporate Power Discussion Groups
a new wealthy class began influencing policymaking, changing the rules governing the corporations
they owned. Charters grew longer and less restrictive. The doctrine of limited liability – allowing
corporate owners and managers to avoid responsibility for harm and losses caused by the corporation
– began to appear in state corporate laws. Charter revocation became less frequent, and government
functions shifted from keeping a close watch on corporations to encouraging their growth. For example,
between 1861 and 1871, railroads received nearly $100 million in financial aid, and 200 million acres
of land.
As corporations grew in size and influence, however, their accounting structure remained the same.a
For a small corporation driven by investors, it made sense to measure corporate performance by
measuring financial profits and losses. But for a corporation with thousands of employees and millions
of customers, a corporation that was receiving public subsidies and encroaching on communities, a
more extensive reporting system that measured the impact of the corporation on people’s lives might
have made sense. This never developed, however, and the profit-generating mentality remained the
dominant driving force behind corporations.
The growing industrialization of America in the second half of the 19th century meant more citizens
were leaving the countryside farms for work in the cities. A wave of immigration swelled the ranks of
the urban workers, creating a new class that depended on factory jobs to earn a living and depended
on factory products to survive. The era of self-sufficiency was ending and the era of corporate market
dominance was beginning.
Meanwhile, corporations were expanding their power through both courts and legislatures, both of
which were increasingly packed with sympathizers. In 1886, corporations emerged from the Supreme
Court case of Santa Clara v. Southern Pacific Railroad as “persons” under the law and thus could use
the 14th Amendment to protect their equal rights. This meant that corporations were now entitled to
free speech, protection from searches and seizures, and could not be discriminated against. Suddenly,
corporations (artificial persons) had the same rights as real people.
At the state level, checks on corporate power were quickly eroding. In 1889, New Jersey became the
first state to permit corporations to own equity in one another, perhaps as an attempt to attract more
business. A “race to the bottom” quickly followed, with states all over the country madly gutting their
corporate laws to be the most business-friendly state. In 1896, New Jersey passed the revolutionary
“General Revision Act,” permitting unlimited size and market share, removing all time limits on corporate
charters, reducing shareholder powers, and allowing all kinds of mergers, acquisitions, and purchases.
Not to be outdone, Delaware passed its “General Incorporation Law” in 1899, which set the standard
by essentially allowing corporations to write all their own rules of governance. Today, nearly 60% of all
Fortune 500 companies are incorporated in Delaware
Meanwhile, between 1895 and 1904, the first great merger wave consolidated 1,800 companies into
137 mega corporations or “trusts.” When all was said and done, the corporation was transformed
from a quasi-public, state-controlled organization limited in size to a gigantic unlimited private
organization with limited responsibility and limited accountability.
Corporations were now the dominant institutions of society, and as their excesses provoked public
sentiment, the government set out to deal with the problem. Presidents like Teddy Roosevelt and
Woodrow Wilson now turned to a regulatory system and applied anti-trust laws to corporations that
were getting too big, engaging in a tug-of-war with corporations over who was in charge. By the
1920s, however, a string of pro-business presidents (Harding, Coolidge, Hoover) gave up on cracking
down on corporate power. Instead, Coolidge proclaimed in 1925: “The business of America is business.”
Session II, Reading 1, Page 2
Citizen Works Corporate Power Discussion Groups
Meanwhile, as corporations grew larger and larger and more and more people began to own stock, a
new problem emerged – the owners (now an increasingly diffuse network of individual investors) no
longer controlled the corporation. Instead, managers were running the company at their whims,
accountable to no one. In the days of the robber barons, magnates like J.P. Morgan and Cornelius
Vanderbilt ran the companies they owned with pride, insisting that their benevolent leadership would
benefit the public. Now, with ownership increasingly divorced from management, owners took little
interest in how their company was being run and managers had few consequences for mismanagement.
This meant that managers could more easily use the corporations to enrich themselves at the expense
of workers or employees, as they increasingly did. A.A. Berle and Gardiner C. Means first noted this
problem in their groundbreaking work The Modern Corporation and Private Property, published in
1932.
In 1929, the stock market crashed, ending a speculative bubble and pushing the country into a great
depression where unemployment would reach 25%. Like the stock bubble of the ‘90s, the bubble of
the ‘20s featured a new technology (the automobile and the radio) and lots of financial speculation.
The Great Depression changed the corporate power equation again. For the first time, government
became the dominant economic force by creating a massive public works program as well as attempting
to control wages and prices. The New Deal worked toward stronger government control of industry,
but it was a control that favored large, stable corporations over the unpredictability of competition.
The New Deal favored government mechanisms to reduce the risks of capitalism. This helped the
entrenched corporate powers to stay strong. However, organized labor grew more powerful as well,
creating a more balanced corporate framework.
America emerged from World War II as the dominant global power and the world’s major exporter.
This helped U.S. corporations to become increasingly wealthy. In the 1950s and 1960s, large
corporations dominated, but organized labor and government remained strong countervailing forces,
creating an economy that was at least somewhat equitable and balanced (compared to today). In
1954, Union membership peaked at 34 percent of the workforce.
By the 1970s, however, a new free market idealism was developing. In 1970, Nobel Prize-winning
economist Milton Friedman wrote that “There is one and only one social responsibility of business —
to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits”, signaling the birth of a
new American myth. When Ronald Reagan became president in 1980, he put much of this into policy,
kicking off two decades worth of deregulation, eliminating key public controls over corporations. He
also cut taxes on corporations and the wealthy, draining the public coffers. Organized labor became
weaker as industrial jobs went overseas and employees began to jump around more and more. Big
business was now increasingly free to do as it wanted with minimal government oversight. Market
populism prospered with mega-mergers everywhere and CEO pay skyrocketing. (By 2000, corporations
were merging at the rate of more than 100 a day, approximately 5 times the rate in 1995. Meanwhile,
CEO pay clocked in at 531 times average employee pay in 2000; in 1980, the ratio was 42-to-1.)
Corporate political donations also grew rapidly; in 2000, business interests donated $1.2 billion to
federally elected candidates, accounting for 75% of all political donations. With 20,000 lobbyists in
Washington, corporations have become experts at getting their money’s worth in legislation and lax
regulation in return for cash contributions.
And that’s where we are today. Corporations stand as the dominant institutions in our society. They
provide the products and services upon which most of us have come to depend. Through advertising,
public relations, and mass media, they shape our views of the world and our views of each other.
They handle our finances and our health care, even our ability to communicate with each other. They
Session II, Reading 1, Page 3
Citizen Works Corporate Power Discussion Groups
provide most of our jobs. They wield more influence over the legislative process than any government
branch was ever supposed to wield. They increasingly provide many essential services, including
water, electricity, and health care. Even public schools, universities, and churches have turned to
corporations for funding, opening up once sacred spaces to commercialization. Meanwhile most
natural countervailing force against corporate power, organized labor, has become increasingly
powerless. Today, only 10% of the private workforce is organized, a 60-year low.
Yet, hopefully by examining and understanding the history of corporations in America, we can
understand that it doesn’t have to be this way. Corporations were not always the dominant institutions
in society. Corporations did not always enjoy constitutional rights, unlimited size, and unlimited lifetimes.
Naturally, we cannot go back to the past, nor should we overly romanticize a prior era. We must
instead learn from the past and draw inspiration from American traditions like democracy that have
proven far more durable than corporate dominance.



MODERN CORPORSTION: 21st Century

A corporation is a hierarchical organization. It has a boss--today the he (almost always a he) called the CEO, whose theoretical power is autocratic throughout the scope of the corporation, and subject only to the periodic continued approval of the Board of Directors and the annual meeting of the shareholders. But we were all told a decade ago, when the Soviet Union collapsed, that hierarchical organizations simply did not work as modes of organizing economic life--that you needed a market in order to achieve anything better than low-productivity, bureaucracy-ridden economic stagnation.

What, then, are all these large corporations--ATT and IBM, General Motors and Toyota, Microsoft and USX--doing? What methods of corporate control have saved them from turning into smaller versions of the unproductive Soviet economy?

That our economy is populated by large corporations shapes how we live. Our social being cannot but be shaped by the one-third of our waking lives spent at work. Our politics would be very different without corporations both as sources of pressure an influence on politicians and as intermediaries serving the purposes of politicians.

It should not be surprising that the continued existence and, indeed, economic dominance of large corporations is due to a number of different forces. Very, very few things in this world have a single cause. The corporation flourishes because it is useful to (and thus favored by) the government, because we have a set of institutions to govern corporations that greatly limit the power of the forces that destroyed the Soviet planned economy, because our technology requires increasingly fine coordination of different aspects of the production process, and because our corporations are embedded in a market economy that imposes a substantial amount of competitive pressure on corporations. Even small lapses relative to its competitors in a corporation's efficiency as a productive organization can destroy the corporation as a profit-making organization--and corporations that are not profit-making organizations do not survive.

The balance among these four factors is next to impossible to assess. But all are strong and growing stronger. The past two centuries have seen the growth of the modern corporation from next to nothing to its present size and strength. There are no signs that the next century will see the modern corporation as an insitution shrink.

ADVANCEMENT:

Industrial Evolution

Suppose a firm was too small to be an efficient producer in its line of business. Then, Coase argued, it would go out of business: either it would be so inefficient as to keep losing money, and so go bankrupt, or sooner or later some financier would scent the profits to be earned by merging it into a larger firm that could realize the economies of efficient scale

Economies of Coordination

Economists believe that a a centrally-planned and administratively-allocated organization of production is likely to be most efficient when the costs of failing to produce the exact right amount of a commodity are high
Thus the large corporation has its place wherever the waste from failing to exactly coordinate the quantities produced is relatively large. It may not be necessary to have such exact coordination. In much of the economy substitutes for a good are common, alternatives are available, and efficiency is best pursued by trying to match the value of the last unit of the product produced to its cost in terms of resources. But whenever the cost of producing one too few is large, and the value of the one too many that is produced is zero, then administrative coordination of production is very valuable indeed.

Corporate Governance

Begin with the law. In law, the Chief Executive Officer--the CEO--of a corporation is not its boss. The CEO is, himself (and in large corporations it is almost always a himself), simply another somewhat special employee of a corporation. In law the real corporation is made up of the stockholders: they are the "body," the "corpus." They have assembled, committed their money to entering this joint business together (or bought stock from those who committed their money to this joint business), and hired employees to conduct the details of the business while the shareholders attend to the reast of their affairs.

Or consider the corporation as a sociological entity: a place where you see your friends, engage in your status games, and first learn and then express your culture: what it is that your kind of people like to do. Your workplace is more than a third of your waking life. To lose or to change one's job is an event of much more importance than deciding to go to a different grocery store because you like its loss leaders.


The modern corporation has drifted far indeed from its origins, when it was a way for the king to create a collective identity for merchants and their towns--those who were neither lord, knight, peasant, priest, or monk--so that they could be fitted into the feudal system.


http://econ161.berkeley.edu/Econ_articles/Command_Corporations.html


http://www.citizenworks.org/corp/dg/s2r1.pdf
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Oct 06, 2009 12:17 pm

Hmm!! The 21st century look like?

for me the 21st century look like the modern corporation compare to the corporation in the past century, because the 21st century is the technology era in which the corporation are aiming for a good and competitive corporation through the help of technology. A technology gives a big contribution to the corporation specifically for the fast and reliable transaction, with this reason the company can provide a good relationship to the world of business..

The advancement in information technology generates huge potential for moving business and production up the value-chain, and improving the quality of life of citizens. At the same time, it brings about new challenges in areas such as information security, protection of intellectual property rights and privacy in the digital environment and the appropriate mode of regulation in the face of increasing media convergence. Leading digital economies need to embrace both opportunities and challenges brought by the technology development in order to stay in the forefront of the league.

The Digital 21 Strategy was first published in 1998 as the blueprint for Technology development. It was updated on a regular basis to take into account technological and socio-economic changes.

Achieving the vision of enhancing Company's status as a leading digital corporation requires collaboration amongst all stakeholders in the community, including the Government. That is why the formulation of the Digital 21 Strategy has all along been integrated with a thorough public consultation process to strive for a balanced view on the future direction of technology development in a corporation.

The 2008 Digital 21 Strategy has now been finalized after undergoing public consultation. It contains five key action areas:

* Facilitating a digital economy;
* Promoting advanced technology and innovation;
* Developing Company's for a good in technological cooperation and trade;
* Enabling the next generation of public services; and
* Building an inclusive, knowledge-based society.

With the advent of information societies, a robust information infrastructure, just as essential physical infrastructure, is crucial to supporting and propelling the growth of economies. I believe Company's has a solid Information and Communication Technology foundation which allows the company to move further ahead. The penetration rates for broadband Internet connection and mobile phones can be become competitive. A technology can built up a substantial e-business presence over the years and will endeavor to increase the user-friendliness of the company electronic public services. The initiative to install Wi-Fi hotpots in major Business premises to provide free access to broadband Internet further demonstrates the commitment to enhancing the Communication Technology capabilities of the community.

Rapid economic development in the Mainland, particularly with the emphasis on technological advancement in the Nation's 11th Five-Year Plan, opens up immense opportunities for the corporation to serve as a hub for fostering cooperation amongst local, Mainland and overseas Information and Communication Technology enterprises. The availability of excellent professional and financial services, a rigorous intellectual property protection regime and advanced infrastructure such as Cyberport and Science Park enable corporation to play this unique role.

The ability to leverage technology is an important attribute of a world city in the modern era. The Commerce and Economic Development is firmly committed to furthering the technology development of a corporation having regard to the aspirations and needs of the businesses and citizens.


http://www.info.gov.hk/digital21/eng/strategy/2008/Foreword.htm
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Oct 11, 2009 10:21 pm

human resources in terms of technology:

1. fostering a diverse and mobile workforce

2. improving data on the development and mobility

3. reinforcing of capability

To understand more what I am trying to implies here, I will site an example, the institution of University of Southeastern Philippines- Obrero Campus, Davao City. These university is a standard one and even this one of the cheapest school but still its very competent with the other school. In connection with this, when the 21st century comes it doesn't mean that the same equipments, processes and technology being used, of course, when that time comes perhaps the institution will have a new equipments for their new students. And the electricity is already allowed...yepey..

Not only in the hardware, but in terms of software, they have a system that could solve all the problem they have encounter particularly in loading of the networking for the students inconvenience as well as the faculty.

The most important is on how will it be manage. We all know that, the good management will bring the corporation into the highest aim so if the USeP is aiming to be on top it must have the rules to be strictly implemented that can benefit both parties. Moreover the following employees must have the capabilities to do the job and help the organization to be more improving and have a high quality of productivity.

reference:
http://www.oecd.org/document/0,2340,en_2649_34487_25998799_1_1_1_1,00.html


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PostSubject: HRM Assignment 6   Tue Oct 13, 2009 4:43 am

What do you think will the 21st -century corporations look like?

We are currently living in the 21st century – the Information Age. Corporation targets to go global, where technology plays the most important role. The Corporation is undergoing radical transformation, the new Industrial Revolution.

The corporation's fate over the next century is as fascinating to contemplate as it is difficult to predict. But as a general proposition, there is no reason to think that the corporation has reached the limits of its adaptive powers. Over the decades, it has proven a remarkably flexible vehicle for spreading commercial risk (and reward) and for organizing investment on a great scale over vast geographic distances. As we speed ahead into a future that is unknowable by definition, it is useful to pause and glance in the rearview mirror. Today's corporation is not an empty vessel waiting to be filled by the future. It is the product of a long and tumultuous history, of opportunities grasped and crises overcome--and it is all the stronger for it.

The Net gives everyone in the organization, the ability to access a mind-boggling array of information in just a click, from anywhere. Instead of seeping out over months or years, ideas can be spread out around the globe in the blink of an eye. That means that the 21st century Corporation must adapt itself to management via the Web. Already, old business models that emphasized fixed assets, working capital, and economies of scale have become increasingly vulnerable to nimbler organizations that employ new technologies to reduce costs.

Leading-edge technology will enable workers on the bottom rungs of the organization to seize opportunity as it arises. Employees will increasingly feel the pressure to get breakthrough ideas to market first. Thus, the corporation will need to nurture an array of formal and informal networks to ensure that these ideas can speed into development. In the near future, companies will call on outside contractors to assemble teams of designers, prototype producers, manufacturers, and distributors to get the job done. Emerging technologies will allow employees and freelancers anywhere in the world to converse in numerous languages online without the need for a translator.

And this rapid flow of information will permeate the organization. We could imagine that orders will be fulfilled electronically without a single phone call or piece of paper. The ''virtual financial close'' will put real-time sales and profit figures at every manager's fingertips via the click of a wireless phone or a spoken command to a computer. And in just a blink of an eye, everything you wanted to know about your company will come in just a second.

In the beginning, the global company was defined as one that simply sold its goods in overseas markets. Later, global companies assumed a manufacturing presence in numerous countries. The company of the future will call on talent and resources--especially intellectual capital--wherever they can be found around the globe, just as it will sell its goods and services around the globe. Indeed, the very notion of a headquarters country may no longer apply, as companies migrate to places of greatest advantage. The new global corporation might be based in the U.S. but do its software programming in Sri Lanka, its engineering in Germany, and its manufacturing in China. Every outpost will be seamlessly connected by the Net so that far-flung employees and freelancers can work together in real time. All this work will be done in an instant. With the use of the internet, speed is the biggest impact in terms of actions, deliberations, and information. And it leaves the old, process-oriented corporation in a total revamp. With everything from product cycles to employee turnover on fast-forward, there is simply not enough time for deliberation.

It is said that the very core of the 21st century Corporation is technology. It simply means that human minds and hands have been removed from an organization's most routine tasks and replaced them with computers and networks. Having this ideal to digitize everything from employee benefits to accounts receivables to product design cuts time, cost, and people from operations, resulting in huge savings and vast improvements in speed.

The truly great 21st century companies will recognize that the real power of technology is not just the ability to make a business more efficient but also its potential to spark transformative change. Much of that change will involve the company's relationship with its customers. In an era of unprecedented choice, in which prices and product specs for almost anything are only a click away, companies will have to offer a lot more than bargain prices.

True 21st century corporations will also learn to manage an elaborate network of external relationships. That far-reaching ecosystem of suppliers, partners, and contractors will allow them to focus on what they do best and farm everything else out. And it will let them quickly take advantage of fleeting opportunities without having to tie up vast amounts of capital. Outsourcing and partnering, of course, are hardly new. But in the coming century, such alliances will become more crucial.

Because of the spark of the rapid development of new technologies, particularly the Internet, the corporation is undergoing a radical transformation that is reaching far across the globe and in every corner of the world. From the early practices, features and structures, corporation in the 21st century will show off beyond what we can imagine.

Reference:

http://www.businessweek.com/common_frames
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PostSubject: 21st –century corporations   Tue Oct 13, 2009 12:31 pm

21st –century corporations

Hmmm…Thinking of it…what would be 21st- century corporations look like...



Great Transformation
In this new century, success will go to the companies that partner their way to a new future, not those that put heavy assets onto their balance sheets. Leaders once thought that creating intense rivalries among competitors motivated their employees and assured success. But in the days to come, a company's fiercest competitor might also be its most important collaborator. Since the dawn of trade, every business leader has wanted to build an enduring enterprise. In the new century, though, many companies will be intentionally ephemeral, formed to create new technologies or products only to be absorbed by sponsor companies when their missions are accomplished.

How, exactly, will these forces reshape the 21st century corporation? The organizations that flourish will have several defining features.

Arrow It's management by Web.
That means not just Web as in Internet but the web-like shape of successful organizations in the future. If there are pair of images that symbolize the vast changes at work, they are the pyramid and the web. The organizational chart of large-scale enterprise had long been defined as a pyramid of ever-shrinking layers leading to an omnipotent CEO at its apex. The 21st century corporation, in contrast, is far more likely to look like a web: a flat, intricately woven form that links partners, employees, external contractors, suppliers, and customers in various collaborations. The players will grow more and more interdependent. Fewer companies will try to master all the disciplines necessary to produce and market their goods but will instead outsource skills--from research and development to manufacturing--to outsiders who can perform those functions with greater efficiency.
It's more about bits, less about atoms. The most profitable enterprises will manage bits, or information, instead of focusing solely on managing atoms (the corporation's physical assets). Sheer size will no longer be the hallmark of success; instead, the market will prize the ability to efficiently deploy assets. Good bit management can allow an upstart to beat an established player; it can also give an incumbent vast advantages. By using information to manage themselves and better serve their customers, companies will be able to do things cheaper, faster, and with far less waste.

Arrow It's mass customization. The previous 100 years were marked by mass production and mass consumption. Companies sought economies of scale to build large factories that produced cookie-cutter products, which they then sold to the largest numbers of people in as many markets as possible. The company of the future will tailor its products to each individual by turning customers into partners and giving them the technology to design and demand exactly what they want. Mass customization will result in waves of individualized products and services, as well as huge savings for companies, which will no longer have to guess what and how much customers want.

Arrow It's dependent on intellectual capital. The advantage of bringing breakthrough products to market first will be shorter-lived than ever, because technology will let competitors match or exceed them almost instantly. To keep ahead of the steep new-product curve, it will be crucial for businesses to attract and retain the best thinkers. Companies will need to build a deep reservoir of talent--including both employees and free agents--to succeed in this new era. But attracting and retaining an elite workforce will require more than huge paychecks. Corporations will need to create the kind of cultures and reward systems that keep the best minds engaged. The old command-and-control hierarchies, with their civil-service-like wages, are fast crumbling in favor of organizations that empower vast numbers of people and reward the best of them as if they were owners of the enterprise.

Arrow It's global. In the beginning, the global company was defined as one that simply sold its goods in overseas markets. Later, global companies assumed a manufacturing presence in numerous countries. The company of the future will call on talent and resources--especially intellectual capital--wherever they can be found around the globe, just as it will sell its goods and services around the globe. Indeed, the very notion of a headquarters country may no longer apply, as companies migrate to places of greatest advantage. The new global corporation might be based in the U.S. but do its software programming in Sri Lanka, its engineering in Germany, and its manufacturing in China. Every outpost will be seamlessly connected by the Net so that far-flung employees and freelancers can work together in real time.

Arrow It's about speed. All this work will be done in an instant. ''The Internet is a tool, and the biggest impact of that tool is speed,'' says Andrew S. Grove, chairman of Intel Corp. (INTC) ''The speed of actions, the speed of deliberations, and the speed of information has increased, and it will continue to increase.'' That means the old, process-oriented corporation must radically revamp. With everything from product cycles to employee turnover on fast-forward, there is simply not enough time for deliberation or bureaucracy.

The Rise of Corporations
Today we know that corporations, for good or bad, are major influences on our lives. For example, of the 100 largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations while only 49 are countries, based on a comparison of corporate sales and country GDPs. In this era of globalization, marginalized people are becoming especially angry at the motives of multinational corporations, and corporate-led globalization is being met with increasing protest and resistance. How did corporations ever get such power in the first place?
Corporations, as we tend to think of them, have been around for a few centuries, the earliest of which were chartered around the sixteenth century in places like England, Holland etc. Technically speaking, a corporation is what Robbins describes as a “social invention of the state” (Robbins: p.98). That is, a state grants a corporate charter, permitting private financial resources being used for public purposes. As Aright points out, this initial creation of private finance and merchants, etc was to aid in the expansion of a state to which it belonged, and as Aright and Smith detail, served to expand colonial and imperial interests to start with, as well as help in war efforts between empires.
The advantage of having a corporation over being an individual investing in trade voyages etc, was that an individual’s debts could be inherited by descendants (and hence, one could be jailed for debts of other family members, for example). A corporate charter however, was limited in its risks, to just the amount that was invested. A right not accorded to individuals.
Corporations had therefore the potential, from the onset, to become very powerful. Even Abraham Lincoln recognized this:
I see in the near future a crisis approaching that unnerves me and causes me to tremble for the safety of my country. ... corporations have been enthroned and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until all wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic is destroyed.”

References

http://www.globalissues.org/article/234/the-rise-of-corporations
http://www.businessweek.com/common_frames/ma_0035.htm?/2000/00_35/b3696011.htm



new blog: http://jags-in-love.blogspot.com/2009/10/21st-century-corporations.html


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Oct 14, 2009 5:29 pm

As time goes by, Corporations have a long-run due to the success of technologies in our era. People tend to rely more over in the technology. In my own point of view, 21st century corporations would set new rules over people managing it. Small companies would vanish constantly and big corporations would be put on the top. Now let’s discuss what a corporation is.

A corporation is a legal entity separate from the persons who own it or the persons who manage or operate it. In British tradition it is the term designating a body corporate, where it can be either a corporation sole (an office held by an individual natural person, which is a legal entity separate from that person) or a corporation aggregate (involving more persons). In American and, increasingly, international usage, the term denotes a body corporate formed to conduct business, and this meaning of corporation is discussed in the remaining part of this entry (the limited company in British usage).

Corporations exist as a product of corporate law, and their rules balance the interests of the management who operate the corporation; creditors who loan it goods, services or money; shareholders that invest their capital and the employees who contribute their labor. People work together in corporations to produce value and generate income. In modern times, corporations have become an increasingly dominant part of economic life. People rely on corporations for employment, for their goods and services, for the value of the pensions, for economic growth and social development.

The defining feature of a corporation is its legal independence from the people who create it. If a corporation fails, shareholders normally only stand to lose their investment (and possibly, in the unusual case where the shares are not fully paid up, any amount outstanding on them - and not even that in the case of a No liability company), and employees will lose their jobs, but neither will be further liable for debts that remain owing to the corporation's creditors unless they have separately varied this, e.g. with personal guarantees. This rule is called limited liability, and it is why the names of corporations in the UK end with "Ltd." (or some variant like "Inc." and "plc").

Despite not being natural persons, corporations are recognized by the law to have rights and responsibilities like actual people. Corporations can exercise human rights against real individuals and the state,[1] and they may be responsible for human rights violations.[2] Just as they are "born" into existence through its members obtaining a certificate of incorporation, they can "die" when they lose money into insolvency. Corporations can even be convicted of criminal offences, such as fraud and manslaughter.[3] Five common characteristics of the modern corporation, according to Harvard University Professors Hansmann and Kraakman are:

* delegated management, in other words, control of the company placed in the hands of a board of directors
* limited liability of the shareholders (so that when the company is insolvent, they only owe the money that they subscribed for in shares)
* investor ownership, which Hansmann and Kraakman take to mean, ownership by shareholders.[4]
* separate legal personality of the corporation (the right to sue and be sued in its own name)
* transferrable shares (usually on a listed exchange, such as the London Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange or Euronext in Paris)

Ownership of a corporation is complicated by increasing social and economic interdependence, as different stakeholders compete to have a say in corporate affairs. In most developed countries excluding the English speaking world, company boards have representatives of both shareholders and employees to "codetermine" company strategy. Calls for increasing corporate social responsibility are made by consumer, environmental and human rights activists, and this has led to larger corporations drawing up codes of conduct. In Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States, corporate law has not yet stepped into that field, and its building blocks remain the study of corporate governance and corporate finance.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporations
Corporations
As the world starts to globalize, it is accompanied by criticism of the current forms of globalization, which are feared to be overly corporate-led. As corporations become larger and multinational, their influence and interests go further accordingly. Being able to influence and own most media companies, it is hard to be able to publicly debate the notions and ideals that corporations pursue. Some choices that corporations take to make profits can affect people all over the world. Sometimes fatally.

THE RISE OF CORPORATIONS
Today we know that corporations, for good or bad, are major influences on our lives. For example, of the 100 largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations while only 49 are countries. In this era of globalization, marginalized people are becoming especially angry at the motives of multinational corporations, and corporate-led globalization is being met with increasing protest and resistance. How did corporations ever get such power in the first place? What was the impact of giving corporations the same right as individuals in 1886 in the United States?

CORPORATIONS AND HUMAN RIGHTS
Large, transnational corporations are becoming increasingly powerful. As profits are naturally the most important goal, damaging results can arise, such as violation of human rights, lobbying for and participating in manipulated international agreements, environmental damage, child labor, driving towards cheaper and cheaper labor, and so on. Multinational corporations claim that their involvement in foreign countries is actually a constructive engagement as it can promote human rights in non-democratic nations. However, it seems that that is more of a convenient excuse to continue exploitative practices.

21ST-century corporations
Corporations in the 21st century would be basically continued to grow as the world starts to globalize. Human rights would reduce as man power will continued to its peak. It’s hard to tell the truth but the main subject of the corporations which is the Human itself will imbalance to its duty. For me, it’s a challenge to have and it’s a risk to take. When it comes to environment, corporation would leave a big problem into our society if they don’t take the actions. Let’s read some information below.

CORPORATIONS AND WORKER’S RIGHTS
For many companies, the largest cost is often the work force. Hence, where profits are the bottom line, it is only natural for companies to seek out the cheapest labor possible. However, when international agreements are often designed to foster an environment where cheaper and cheaper labor is promoted, the workers themselves are often not paid enough to live on. When a nation tries to provide regulatory steps to improve workers conditions (which does mean more costs to the companies), multinational corporations naturally pick up and go to other places where there are less measures in place. In this way, improving working conditions will always be difficult, as it is not in the interest of the large companies.
http://www.globalissues.org/issue/50/corporations
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