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 Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)

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eyesee

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PostSubject: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Aug 09, 2009 9:27 pm

What do you think will the 21st -century corporations look like? (1000words)
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Chris Romarate



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PostSubject: 21st corporations   Sat Aug 15, 2009 3:26 pm

150 years ago, the business corporations was relatively insignificant institution. Today, it is all pervasive like the church, the monarchy,and the communist party and other times and places. The corporations today is a dominate institution.

Corporation is like a jigsaw in the society as a whole. If you remove it, the pictures incomplete but equally, if it's the only path, its not gonna work. The corporation is just like a family unit. People in the corporation work together just for common in. Like the telephone system, yet it reaches almost everywhere its extraordinarily powerful its pretty hard to avoid and its transforms the lives of the people. It balance for the betterment of the people. The eagle, soar, clear-eye, competitive, prepared to strike but not a vulture. Noble, avisionary majestic but the people can believe in and be inspired by that creates such a lift that is source.

Corporations are artifical creations. You might say there are monsters trying to devour as much as profit as possible at anyone's expense. Like a whale, big fish which can swallow you in an instant. The word corporate gets attached in almost a sense of agenda and one hears a lot about the corporate agenda as though it is an agenda which is trying to take over the world.

What is a Corporation? It is a group of invdividuals working together to serve a variety of objectives. The principle one of it is earning large, growing, sustain and legal returns for the people who own the business.

Birth of Corporation
: The history of corporations goes back at least to the sixteenth century, and since then their essential nature has not greatly changed. Before corporations, debts were transgenerational, passed on to descendents, some of whom were placed in debtors' prisons to repay the monies. The early state-chartered corporations of Europe and England were established to sponsor exploration of the New World. Those who sailed forth from England to trade for spices in the East Indies took grave risks in the journey, and even graver ones should they lose their precious cargoes. If they did not sail under the charter of a state corporation, they and their families could be ruined for life if bad weather or piracy struck en route. By establishing the corporate form, limiting shareholders to liabilities no greater than their investment, Europeans were able to create a form of commerce that could absorb the hard knocks of trading and exploring, encouraging both risk-taking and speculative investment at the same time. Those early corporations negotiated their charters with the state, which outlined the terms of their rights as well as the monies that were to be repaid to the crown. As a social technology, this was a brilliant invention, releasing the vigor of enterprise in the world. The charter of limited liability distinguished a corporation from all other forms of enterprise, because it was (and is) actually a gift of the state„a grant, a covenant, a form of permission that citizens, through their government, delegate to the corporation and its shareholders. In the early years of the republic, the citizens of the United States were keen to prevent any institution, foreign or domestic, commercial or religious, from dominating or suppressing their newly won rights. Early corporation charters were carefully drafted by states to ensure this subordination. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, there were only a few hundred corporations in the United States, and many of these were chartered expressly to build canals, turnpikes, or other public infrastructure. Even then, citizens openly and persistently expressed concern that corporations with specific rights granted under charters would nevertheless become so powerful that they could take over newspapers, public opinion, elections and the judiciary. Workers had similar fears about their own status within these new corporations. Thus early state charters were detailed and restrictive. They specified limits on profits, the amounts of indebtedness allowed, the overall capitalization, and how much land a corporation could own. The power of large shareholders was limited by scaled voting, so that large and small investors had equal voting rights. Interlocking directorates were not allowed, and in the case of public works projects, corporations were allowed to retain their original investments with predetermined percentages of profit. When profit projections were reached, the project was turned over to the state. It was the commonly held opinion at that time that corporations were a "creature of the law and may be molded to any shape or for any purpose that the Legislature may deem most conducive for the general good." In many states, clauses of incorporation gave legislatures the right to annul or revoke a charter whenever they chose to, or after a certain period of time (often several decades). Some states even required public votes to continue certain charters.

Despite these efforts, legislatures inevitably began to lose their control over big business, state by state. Government corruption became particularly rampant after the Civil War, and with it came a loosening of laws regulating interlocking trusts, factory towns and sequestered private fortunes. Child labor flourished, along with Pinkerton and other private armies that kept protests in check, workers in line. The Civil War had transferred great amounts of wealth to corporations, and with this concentration of power they began to clamor for "equal rights" and new simplified chartering laws that would treat every corporation equally (This is the means of incorporation we have today: anyone can do it, and for a nominal fee.)

There quickly followed a wholesale reinterpretation of the Constitution by the judiciary, granting new powers and rights to corporations. The primary thrust behind these precedents was the "due process" clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This amendment protected the rights of freed slaves, but it was subsequently interpreted to give corporations the same status before the law as that of a natural person. On that basis, judges reversed hundreds if not thousands of state laws controlling wages, working conditions, ownership and corporate tenure.

In the wake of those decisions, American business was transformed. Unions could be interpreted as "civil conspiracies" and could be enjoined from striking. With the reduction of state power, incentives were reversed and states such as Deleware began attracting business by having the simplest and most lax incorporation procedures and regulations, driving other states to compete by lowering their own standards. The marriage of business and government also undermined„turned upside down, in fact„the Bill of Rights. The First Amendment, guaranting the right of every citizen to engage in free speech, was established to encourage, promote, and preserve democratic traditions. In the late 1700s there were very few ways to communicate except through speech: flyers, books, pamphlets, and broadsides from every conceivable quadrant of the political spectrum. The Founding Fathers wisely understood that the suppression of these political expressions would inevitably lead to tyranny of one sort or another; they did not want any one voice to have sway or dominance over the public discourse. There was little concern at that time that among the voices clamoring to be heard would be that of commerce... and the founders of the American republic still had no concept of the multinational corporation.

By invoking the First Amendment privilege to protect "speech," corporations achieve precisely what the Bill of Rights was intended to prevent: domination of public thought and discourse. Although corporations profess that they are legitimately expressing their democratic rights in their attempt to influence the government, their argument presupposes that all parties, from the single voter to the multinational company, have an equal voice in the political debates surrounding important issues.

Modern Corporations and Multinationals (21st Century): A corporation is a business that is legally independent from its members. Corporations may incur or pay debt, negotiate contracts, sue and be sued. Corporations range in size from local retail stores to a nation's largest corporation. These larger corporations sell stocks to shareholders, and the shareholders legally own the company. Management of the company remains separate from, but accountable to, the ownership. The shareholders are organized with a board of directors who hold regular meetings and make decisions on broad policies governing the corporation. Although many Americans own stock, they normally do not participate in regular board meetings or exert significant control over corporate decisions.

Sometimes corporations with closely related business may share board members, which is called an interlocking directorate. In this arrangement a manufacturer, a financial services company, and an insurance company with shared business also share the same board members. These few individuals, then, exert power over multiple companies whose business is interdependent.

According to a common online encyclopedia, conglomerate is a corporation made up of many smaller companies, or subsidiaries, that may or may not have related business interests. The buying and selling of corporations for profit—rather than for the service or products they provide—form conglomerates. The process of corporate merger often leads to large layoffs because, as companies combine forces, many jobs are duplicated in the other company. For example, a conglomerate may take over a smaller company, including that company's marketing department. The conglomerate will already have a marketing department capable of handling most of the new acquisition's needs. Therefore, as many as half or all of the acquired marketing department employees would lose their jobs. The same situation often occurs when two corporations of a similar size merge.

Other types of corporations include monopolies, oligopolies, and multinationals. Monopolies occur when a single company accounts for all or nearly all sales of a product or service in a market. Monopolies are illegal in the United States because they eliminate competition and can fix prices, which hurts consumers. In other words, monopolies interfere with capitalism. The Philippine government does not allow monopolies but U.S. government does consider some monopolies legal, however, such as utilities where competition would be difficult to implement without distressing other social systems. But even utility monopolies have seen increased competition in recent years. Recently electric power companies have seen deregulation and increased competition in some regions as well.

Oligopolies exist when several corporations have a monopoly in a market. The classic example of an oligopoly would be American auto makers until the 1980s. Ford, Chrysler, and General Motors manufactured nearly all vehicles built in America. As globalization has increased, so has competition, and few oligopolies exist today.

Multinationals are corporations that conduct business in many different countries. These corporations produce more goods and wealth than many smaller countries. Their existence, though, remains controversial. They garner success by entering less-developed nations, bringing industry into these markets with cheaper labor, and then exporting those goods to more-developed countries. Business advocates point to the higher standard of living in most countries where multinationals have entered the economy. Critics charge that multinationals exploit poor workers and natural resources, creating environmental havoc.

Sources: http://www.mecgrassroots.org/NEWSL/ISS19/20CorpBirth.html
http://thecorporation.com/
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Marlie E. Sisneros

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PostSubject: MARLIE E. SISNEROS[ ASSGNMENT NO.6]   Sat Aug 15, 2009 10:38 pm

MARLIE's PAGE:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
still thinking!@bout this!

waht is 21st CEntuRy??

retort:
The 21st century is the current century of the Christian Era or Common Era in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It began on January 1, 2000 and will end December 31, 2099.

with regard with what the corporation would look like in the 21st century??]

retort:
@21st corporation's Point's to Ponder@



Business has its motivations.

THE 21ST CENTURY CORPORATION


The Creative Economy
Let's start with the most important force of all: the growing power of ideas
In my Father's time, most
people worked on farms. Later, industry was ascendant. But the advanced
economies have gotten so efficient at producing food and physical goods
that most of the workforce has been freed up to provide services or to
produce abstract goods: data, software, news, entertainment,
advertising, and the like
. You can see it in the statistics.People are
cranking out computer programs and inventions, while lightly staffed
factories churn out the sofas, the breakfast cereals, the cell phones.


In the
Creative Economy, the most important intellectual property isn't
software or music or movies. It's the stuff inside employees' heads.
When assets were physical things like coal mines, shareholders truly
owned them. But when the vital assets are people, there can be no true
ownership. The best that corporations can do is to create an
environment that makes the best people want to stay.
The corporations that thrive will be the ones that embrace the new demographic trends instead of fighting themStill,
corporations have a way of flourishing under changing circumstances.
While some will go down with the dinosaurs, the corporate form itself
has a good deal of flexibility. Many corporations have already begun to
adjust to the new realities of the Creative Economy--by allowing power
to tilt from the sources of capital toward the sources of ideas, by
embedding themselves in fertile corporate ecosystems, and by adopting
codes of social responsibility to win the trust of a wary public.
Legally, a corporation is a person--a person who is potentially
immortal. Let's see how these ageless characters handle the next 100
years.

Probably in 21st century Corparations in the worldwide search for manpower parallels the increasing
demands of socioeconomic growth and progress. This is true whether in
developed or developing countries.

The demand corresponds to actual and projected needs. And
these needs are many and varied. It is meeting these requirements that
make manpower recruitmnent and mobilization a vital activity, if often
difficult. For the elements of competitive costs, selectiveness,
reliabillity, timely delivery and such other vital consideration come
into play.

Middle East countries for more than two decades now, have
been moving forward in their economic development and modernization. To
move forward, they have been needing a variety of manpower, in the
thousands.

The economic "tigers" of Asia, both established and
emerging have gone into mass manufacturing and industrialization. They,
too, are in need of manpower to support their drive.
North America and Europe, whose economies are mature have their own unending demands for manpower.

The manpower market will always be there. In government
projects. In private companies. For short or long durations. Its
supplies, therefore, must skillfully meet its demands.

. To help raise that manpower requirement. To respond
qualitatively to the need. It is a company meant to serve.

REFERENCE: http://www.philrecruit.com/21stcentury/PREFACE.HTMThe
corp
oration's fate over the next century is as fascinating to
contemplate as it is difficult to predict. But as a general
proposition, there is no reason to think that the corporation has
reached the limits of its adaptive powers. Over the decades, it has
proven a remarkably flexible vehicle for spreading commercial risk (and
reward) and for organizing investment on a great scale over vast
geographic distances. As we speed ahead into a future that is
unknowable by definition, it is useful to pause and glance in the
rearview mirror. Today's corporation is not an empty vessel waiting to
be filled by the future. It is the product of a long and tumultuous
history, of opportunities grasped and crises overcome--and it is all
the stronger for it.
-THe 21st century corporations wpould be dependent on technology!i can sense that in th future in my upper center eye.i Guess this economy of ours and of this world will be moresimple and copmlex, why i say so, simply becausetechnologies and computer generation are complex tomake our lives SIMPLE and FAST ans EASY!
That's because ideas, like germs, are infectious

~FIN~


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juvilynconsejo

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PostSubject: 21st country would look alike   Sun Aug 16, 2009 7:47 pm

For me i have seen that the 21st country would be more improving in the sense that all the possible work will be done by the technology...More high tect kung baga'. I could compare the corporation here with technology of Japan in the year of 2008-2009, it is more amusing and progressing.

To elaborate more, here are some ideas in which a corporation of 21st century should have:

Accessing of data- fostering broader, open access to and wide use of research data will enhance the quality and productivity of science systems worldwide.

Changing innovation processes and the evolution of the relative contribution made by the private and public sectors have emphasized the need for strong industry-science linkages. A well-functioning interface between the innovation and science systems is more necessary than ever to reap the economic and social benefits from public and private investments in research, ensure the vitality and quality of the science system, and improve public understanding and acceptance of science and technology and the importance of innovation.

human resources in terms of technology:

1. fostering a diverse and mobile workforce

2. improving data on the development and mobility

3. reinforcing of capability

To understand more what I am trying to implies here, I will site an example, the institution of University of Southeastern Philippines- Obrero Campus, Davao City. These university is a standard one and even this one of the cheapest school but still its very competent with the other school. In connection with this, when the 21st century comes it doesn't mean that the same equipments, processes and technology being used, of course, when that time comes perhaps the institution will have a new equipments for their new students. And the electricity is already allowed...yepey..

Not only in the hardware, but in terms of software, they have a system that could solve all the problem they have encounter particularly in loading of the networking for the students inconvenience as well as the faculty.

The most important is on how will it be manage. We all know that, the good management will bring the corporation into the highest aim so if the USeP is aiming to be on top it must have the rules to be strictly implemented that can benefit both parties. Moreover the following employees must have the capabilities to do the job and help the organization to be more improving and have a high quality of productivity.

reference:
http://www.oecd.org/document/0,2340,en_2649_34487_25998799_1_1_1_1,00.html


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Joseph Ethel Valdez

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Aug 18, 2009 10:23 am

21st -century corporations look like

Most people overestimate the effects of change in the short term, underestimate them in the long term and fail to spot where change will be greatest. Nowhere is this judgment truer than with new technologies. The Internet stock-market bubble, like the bubble in railway stocks in the nineteenth century, reflected overestimates and misjudgments of the potential impact of new communications. And as with railways, the bubble burst, leaving lots of empty hands but an infrastructure that survived—and changed the world. There will be evolution, rather than revolution and it will take many years to work through. Recall that even though the telephone was first used commercially in the 1870s, telephone banking did not spring up until the 1980s. Consider that the Internet had been in commercial use for a mere seven years by the time recession struck. Profound change rarely comes fast.

In the 21st century, we will see increased communication, dependence and assistance among people around the world. In each hemisphere, people’s dependence upon one another is growing. Business organizations, government agencies and private companies – including non – profit organizations and non – governmental organizations – jointly use products, capital and human resources. They want to expand production, capital and resources together and also expand into other parts of the world. To overcome competitors therefore, new management methods are needed. To achieve targeted results, managers need to have a detailed knowledge and understanding of management-related subjects.

The biggest changes will inevitably be those that go with the grain of what is already happening. Internet technologies will thus reinforce outsourcing, a trend that has been in progress for at least two decades. They will further reduce inventory, a move that began long ago with just-in-time lean production. They will bolster globalization, allowing companies to manage overseas operations and connect with foreign suppliers in more intricate ways. They will highlight the emphasis on the customer that so many companies strive to achieve. They will accentuate the need for talented and inventive people, who will have an even sharper idea of their financial worth on the world market for human capital. They will enable the flat structures of modern businesses to operate more effectively and make them even less hierarchical.

Indeed, one of the truly remarkable things about these technologies is the extent to which they reinforce trends already under way. This reflects the fact that many of the things they do are not entirely new: Proprietary electronic networks have long allowed large companies to do what smaller firms can now emulate. But such networks, and packaged software applications such as ERP, tend to be cumbersome and expensive, forcing companies to accommodate them. By comparison, the Internet is flexible, accessible, inexpensive, and ubiquitous.

In the future, Internet technologies will give companies new control over their relations with their customers. The Internet will not just widen reach, allowing companies to reach new markets; more important, it will provide ways to deepen existing relationships. Here, as in many other areas, the development of a culture of trust will do the most to deepen the relationship. In addition, companies will develop more sophisticated tools to identify their most profitable customers, to retain them, and to sell them extra products. They will find subtle ways to price discriminate, for example, through developing two familiar concepts, loyalty schemes and clubs.
Given the importance of creativity and new ideas to corporate success, companies must work harder than ever to recruit and retain the right staff and to create a corporate culture that encourages loyalty and effective collaboration. With recruitment, as with customer management, identifying those people likely to contribute most to corporate profitability and concentrate on retaining and developing them will be critical. With staff, as with customers, acquisition costs will encourage companies to care about retention because profits per worker take time to accrue.

One of the earliest and most visible effects of Internet technologies is on purchasing. Here, a genuinely new business model has arisen: the electronic exchange, which will take several different forms, but will be built around a single standard that will allow different industries and different companies within an industry to transact freely with one another. In networks and in marketplaces, applying determined standards is one of the keys to realizing value. In purchasing within individual companies, central discipline will also be essential if companies are to benefit from savings and from new suppliers.
More far-reaching will be the impact on the management of supplier networks. Here, the key will be the power of Internet technologies to make information available simultaneously to many different points in a system. The transformation of the supply chain into an ecosystem will bring the biggest rewards when the whole production process can become more modular, so that different stages that once took place sequentially can now occur simultaneously. That change will speed production, reduce output, and increase the flexibility with which companies can respond to changing customer tastes.

In the past, the costs of transferring information have been one of the main factors determining the structure of the company. Now, that is far less true, and the consequence is that companies can make decisions about whether or not to outsource some process or to decentralize some authority in terms of the business case alone. The pressure to outsource will grow, partly because it will leave companies free to concentrate on what they do best rather than on what they merely do well. It will grow, too, because talent is scarce: Some of the brightest and best may choose to be free agents rather than wage slaves. However, when business is slack, employees may be less enthusiastic about going it alone; and outsourcing will have drawbacks when companies are keen to keep direct control over their quality of service and the reputation of their brands.

The benefits of Internet technologies depend not on their wizardry alone (which in coming years will seem remarkably ordinary and natural just as the phone does now). Companies will reap the full benefits only if they have appropriate structures and cultures. In creating those calls for skillful leadership, leaders must be able to cope not only with change, disruptive and continuous, but also with the pressures on decision makers to digest a ceaseless torrent of new data—a task that the next generation of managers will be better able to do. Leaders must be good at communicating both with the outside world and with their own people, and able to withstand the sense of managing in a fishbowl, visible to all. They must be as adept at making business decisions as at managing public opinion and issues, such as the environment and corporate social responsibility. Running a big company will remain one of the world's most complex and demanding tasks.

References:
http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/2839.html

my blog:
http://jevaldez.blogspot.com/ Arrow


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Jevelyn Labor

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Aug 18, 2009 4:44 pm

Before going to my visioned 21st-century corporations, it would be best to define first the primal sense of the word corporation and discuss its function to elaborate more the future possibilities of the 21st-century corporations.



A group of persons granted a state charter legally recognizing them as a separate entity having its own rights, privileges, and liabilities distinct from those of its members. The process of incorporating should be completed with the state's secretary of state or state corporate counsel and usually requires the services of an attorney.A body that is granted a charter recognizing it as a separate legal entity having its own rights, privileges, and liabilities distinct from those of its members.


THE WAVE OF FUTURE CORPORATIONS


---In the possible wave of our future corporations, there would always be good and bad outcomes of what these corporations do in their decision making. Considerations should be taken into place because of our changing economy. We can never predict on the things to happen in the 21st century.

THE SUCCESSFUL 21st-CENTURY CORPORATION


5W + 1H model -What, When, Why, Where, Who and How-


Successful organizations, adopt effective management system and policies that are able to generate profit through their employees. Cascio (2006, p.27-29), in his book titled 'Managing Human resource: productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits'(published by McGraw-Hill) lists seven practices/dimensions that form part of the 'management systems that produce profits through people' . They are:

* Job Security: Though the life-long employment is no longer possible, successful business organizations continue to offer high degree of employment security for their employees. Unless the organizational and HR policies reflect the organization's commitment to their employees' job security, it will be impossible to get the employees full support and commitment. There are organizations that take extra-ordinary steps to keep their labour force at the optimum number from day one, to avoid any subsequent lay-offs. To these successful organizations, hiring employees is a last option. This is radically different from those firms which hire and fire without any strategic HR planning. Job security to become a reality, HR managers and senior management need to adopt strategic human resource planning.

* Selective Hiring: Not every Tom, Dick and harry get a job. A well planned and carefully administered recruitment and selection is the basis by which selective hiring to managed. According to Cascio, it is only possible to hire selectively when the following requirements are met.
o There is a large number of potential candidates
o Organisation is clear about its human skill requirements: Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Attitudes, personality attributes and Talents.
o Selection focuses on attributes of candidates that are difficult to change. If you can select the right candidate with the (Talent, Abilities, Skills and Knowledge) in the first place, you need not spend your time and resources to train them.

* Decentralisation with Autonomous Teams: The traditional centralized structure depended on command and control approach to get things done. Employees working in teams are able to respond to the unique and demanding business situations much more effectively. Enabling employees to take responsibility and depending on other team members.

* Comparatively high Compensation: Successful 21st century corporations pay well, compared to their competitors. These organizations adopt unique and innovative compensation practices for all their employees

* Comprehensive Training: Management systems that recognize the power of training invariably do well. Despite the fact that they practice selective hiring, successful organization know the importance of keeping their employees knowledge, Skills and Abilities current to suit to the changing needs of the enterprise. They focus both on technical and people related soft skills training. Training is seen by these firms as a competitive tool in terms of recruitment, retention and employee performance. Training is also a powerful tool that enable the employees meet their self actualization need, a top order need identified by Abraham Maslow as part of Hierarchy of Needs theory.

* Active Involvement of Everyone regardless of status: The management systems of successful organization incorporate policies and HR practices that take full advantage of employees' ideas, talents, skills and knowledge. It taps the expertise of everyone in the organization. Recognizing the talents and skills of all employees and enabling and encouraging them to offer solutions and ideas for the well being of the organization, breaks the status barrier that is common among majority of the organizations. Every employee in the firm is made to feel important and their contributions are valued and recognized.

* Practice Open Book: In successful organizations, the access to information is not restricted to a small group of elite managers. Successful corporations share information among the employees, so that they are able to use the information to make better decision. In the modern world, it is difficult to argue that knowledge is power, unless that knowledge is put to practice. To apply the existing knowledge to changing business situations, employees need information. Management systems of organization 'that produces profit through people' recognizes the power of information sharing.

THE UNSUCCESSFUL 21st-CENTURY CORPORATION



Complete ownership over the human race and every thing of value on the planet.


I would like to share something about some corporations concerning on the issues that would affect their future functions in the economy. I watched a video from youtube about the bottom line: the truth about corporations (RISE UP).

Here are some issues:

"I hope we shall crush in its birth and the aristocrasy of monied corporations
which dare already to challenge our government to a trial by strength & big defiance to the loss of our country. "- Thomas Jefferson.

*IBM , Ford, GM, Shell
-sued for supporting and profiting from South Africa's racist apartheid government?

*JP Morgan
- sued for involvement with slave trade

*Exxonmobil
- was also a suspect in the oil-for-food scandal involving Saddam Hussain's government in Iraq

*British american tobacco
- recently discovered to have a secret plant in North Korea

*Shell
- accused of supporting the torture, rape and murder of union leaders and their families in Columbia
- polluting the Niger Delta, destroying fishing and agriculture in an ares of object of poverty

*Chevron
- accused of supporting the torture, rape and murder of union leaders and their families in Columbia
- causing lupus, skin rashes, rheumatic fever, liver problems, kidney problems, tumors, cancer, asthma and eye problem
*Coca Cola
- Who's been drinking water, leading to scabs, eye problems and stomach aches?

*DynCorp International
- employees were caught forcing underage girls into prostitution rings in Bosnia in Richmond, California?
- the whistleblower was fired and no employee faced legal punishment

*Phzr
- has contracts in Iraq, Afghanistan, ad the US/Mexico border overchanging for AIDS medication and trying to block attempts to make cheaper drugs

*Nestle
- how could company get more sick and twisted? try child slavery and toxic baby formula

These corporations rule the world now they would do anything for money because money is equivalent to power and with power anything can be done. I for one believe that they are more powerful than the government itself but that is just my personal opinion. Haha. In these perspectives, we can conclude that if these corporations would stay at its obnoxious level in dealing with their operational ethics 21st century corporations would probably rule over government and people. However, i think everyone should be accountable for their actions. I agree that corporations (or at least their employees) commit crimes. But are they committing crimes because they are corporations? What if a bunch of government employees commit crimes? Does that mean we should abandon government? Again, no. its not a systemic thing. just because some people commit crimes doesn't mean that being a person makes one a criminal.It is a defining characteristic of Western civilization that power-hungry men seek to declare ownership over all things they discover. For most of human history, such ownership efforts were focused on usable land. Owning land that could grow food, after all, was a valuable strategy for staying alive. As mechanized farming methods spread, power-hungry white men sought to own and control a labor force -- and so human slavery was pursued.From agriculture came the recognition of the value of seeds, and it wasn't long before power-hungry men began patenting the seeds they discovered in nature. Corporations like Monsanto even began performing dark experiments on those seeds, inserting "Terminator" genes that caused second-generation seeds to self-destruct, thereby ensuring their continued ownership and control over those seeds.


REFERENCES:

http://ezinearticles.com/?Becoming-Successful-21st-Century-Corporations&id=584009
http://www.businessweek.com/1998/35/b3593034.htm
http://www.summit2020.org/
http://rollback.typepad.com/campaign/2009/02/corporations-court-for-us-arbitration-for-you.html
http://www.globalchange.com/businessethics.htmhttp://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_10712.cfm
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Shiela Marie P. Nara

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Aug 18, 2009 7:31 pm

What do you think will the 21st century corporations look like?


It can be answered in this article.




CORPORATIONS IN HISTORY

The first industrial revolution began when some entrepreneurs in North England used stem engine to drive machines to produce cotton threads.

The second one began when European and American companies embraced innovation such as electricity, engines, production lines, interchangeable parts and integrated corporations.

Today’s revolution is dramatically transformed by the intangibles such as knowledge workers, intellectual capital, collaborative networks and globalization.


What is Corporation?

Corporation simply means a group of people authorized by law to act as one individual or legally means a person who is potentially immortal. As time changes from one generation to the other, corporations do.

Let’s visualize and discuss some of the possible look and feel of the corporations in the 21st century.

Of course I can’t state my own views without further readings related on the topic and getting ideas on the insights of CEOs, venture capitalists, academics, consultants and the dwellers who do the work. By viewing the future of corporations, some specific ideas will also be discussed such as management, workplace, battle for talent and the ecosystem of corporations.

It is said that corporation which value ideas will be the ones who is likely to survive in the 21st century.

”Big corporations must make sweeping organizational changes to get the best from their professionals.” (Lowell L. Bryan and Claudia Joyce, August 2005).


VIRTUAL VALUE: The most important of all (growing power of ideas)

Most of the workforce has been freed up to provide abstract goods such as data, software, news entertainment and other information technology- related goods. Fields such as Biotechnology is said to boom.

People are cranking out computer programs and inventions and technologies. The turn of millennium is a turn from hamburger to software. Software is an idea; hamburger is a cow. It means that companies with intellectual properties are more likely to gain power, prestige and money. It’s already happening. Try to compare:

(end of last year)

Company Employees Market capitalization
Microsoft Corp. (MSFT) 31, 000 $ 600 billion
McDonald’s Corp. (MCD) 310,000 $60 billion

It only implies that idea- based corporations have the possibility to gain more money than other corporations. Thus, the potential for success is far greater. That’s because ideas are infectious.

Also, an idea- generating personalities will mostly gain the power in the 21st century more than the ordinary investors and shareholders. That’s because good ideas are scarce.


FIGHTING ISSUE

Corporations will meet all kinds of difficulties because of ideas themselves. Take for instance the books, music and software are devilishly created and yet diabolically easy to copy. The legal battle over the biggest of the music piracy havens, Napster. Inc., is a sign of the things to come.

Theft of intellectual property is lethal to innovation. Yet overly strict enforcement of intellectual-property protections can dampen innovation as well by letting the property owners get lazy. ''Intellectual property is going to be the big fighting issue'' of the coming decades, predicts Lester C. Thurow, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology economist.

In the Creative Economy, the most important intellectual property isn't software or music or movies. It's the stuff inside employees' heads. The best that corporations can do is to create an environment that makes the best people want to stay.

Education is likely to become even more essential to prosperity in the future. Corporations faced with a shortage of skilled help are likely to respond through a combination of training, exporting work offshore, and looking for ways to ''de-skill'' certain jobs. Fast-food cashiers, for instance, punch buttons for food items rather than keying in prices.


A NEW MIX.

A chronic shortage of skilled help will be accompanied by a change in the mix of people in the workforce.

The corporations that thrive will be the ones that embrace the new demographic trends instead of fighting them. That will mean even more women and minorities in the workforce--and in the boardrooms as well. Ted Childs, who runs IBM's (IBM) global diversity program, claims there are 350,000 unfilled jobs in the U.S. information-technology industry. ''I believe we're in a war for talent,'' he says, ticking off various IBM projects to develop talent among women, blacks, Asians, homosexuals, and other groups. ''None of this is charitable.''

The 21st century may see the emergence of a kind of ''welfare capitalism,'' in which corporations try to recruit and retain employees by providing services that in another era were provided by government agencies or families: assistance with child care and elder care, valet services, and so on.
While some freelance workers will jump from job to job like hired guns, companies like IBM and Sun Microsystems Inc. (SUNW) want to have a core of careerists to provide continuity. ''Enduring relations with employees become an enormous asset, because those employees are what connects the company to its partners,'' says James N. Baron, a professor at Stanford University's Graduate School of Business.

Still, corporations in the 21st century will evolve new forms of close interaction. Silicon Valley is the exemplar of a new kind of interdependence: Skilled engineers jump between companies as easily as switching desks, and as they do, they spread ideas. ''In some ways, Silicon Valley performs as a large decentralized corporation,'' Philip Evans and Thomas S. Wurster of Boston Consulting Group Inc. write in their new book, Blown to Bits.


THE REAL ASSET: IDEAS.

In the same way that the economy is losing weight--software instead of steel--corporations are getting lighter, too. Companies will exercise power by sharing--or withholding--crucial intellectual property.

Global corporations will try to take advantage of their transnational status to operate beyond the control of national governments. They can play governments off one another through their decisions about where to locate factories or research labs.

For all the talk of a brave new world, nation-states aren't going away in the 21st century. So it's a good bet that there will be repeated clashes between corporations and the countries--and people--that play host to them. In response to the globalization of business, governments may coordinate their efforts to regulate corporations on issues ranging from taxation to pollution.

Of course, corporations have always been easy to hate. In 1612, British jurist Sir Edward Coke complained that they ''have no soul.'' In the 1960s, Martin Luther King Jr. warned of the alienation produced by ''gargantuan industry and government, woven into an intricate computerized mechanism.'' The past year's outcries against globalization spell trouble for transnationals ranging from Coca-Cola Co. (KO) to Exxon Mobil Corp. (XON), and there's no sign they're diminishing.

Still, corporations have a way of flourishing under changing circumstances. While some will go down with the dinosaurs, the corporate form itself has a good deal of flexibility. Many corporations have already begun to adjust to the new realities of the Creative Economy--by allowing power to tilt from the sources of capital toward the sources of ideas, by embedding themselves in fertile corporate ecosystems, and by adopting codes of social responsibility to win the trust of a wary public.


To give more insights on the 21st century corporations (this time about the physical goods not the abstract one, here’s an excerpt from the McKinsey conversations with global leaders:

These were taken from http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/home.aspx

McKinsey conversations with global leaders: Jeroen van der Veer of Shell



The former CEO reflects on the oil industry’s future, as well as management lessons learned over a long career.
JULY 2009

Jeroen van der Veer, former CEO of Royal Dutch Shell, retired on June 30 of this year, bringing to a close his 38 years with the company. In this video, the latest in our interview series McKinsey conversations with global leaders, van der Veer shares his thoughts on the future of oil, prospects for alternative energies, and challenges the industry faces in tackling the problems of climate change. Ivo Bozon, a director in McKinsey’s Amsterdam office, conducted this interview in The Hague in June 2009.


In the industry: The future of oil

Jeroen van der Veer: Even if you are in the middle of a short-term economic crisis, I think it is very good to keep your eyes on the long term. So if I think about the long term in the energy industry, we take the year 2050—40 years from now—as a reference year in our mind and then we see three things. Energy demand will double, because we go from 6 [billion] to 9 billion people, and all people like to transport themselves and they like to have electricity at their home. So, even taking energy saving into account, that still works out as doubling of energy demand. Secondly, the classic oil and gas industry—what we normally refer to in our jargon as easy oil, easy gas—is not enough to supply all that demand. And thirdly, CO2, carbon dioxide, is already a problem now. And the solutions to what you can do about CO2? There are no easy solutions

For the complete view on this conversation, just visit
http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com


[color=red]McKinsey conversations with global leaders: John Chambers of Cisco




The CEO and chairman of Cisco Systems explores approaches to decentralized management and leadership and also offers perspective on the future of Web technology and the opportunity that an economic downturn provides for strategically minded companies.

JULY 2009

John Chambers, CEO and chairman of Cisco Systems, leads off our video interview series McKinsey conversations with global leaders. This ongoing project explores vital management issues, industry insights, and topical analysis with CEOs of today’s leading global companies.

In this video, Chambers explores approaches to decentralized management and leadership. He also provides perspective on the future of Web technology and the opportunity that an economic downturn provides for strategically minded companies. James Manyika, a director in McKinsey’s San Francisco office, conducted the interview in San Jose, California, in May 2009.


The big picture: The future of Web technology

The Quarterly:You said you’re going to be aggressive. What does that mean?

John Chambers: Well, aggressive means we’re going to be aggressive in moving into new markets that we traditionally might have moved into slower. It isn’t so much just the economic downturn that causes that; it’s when opportunities open up windows, if you will. You either get through and the window comes shut behind you, or it prevents you from getting through.

For the complete view on this conversation, just visit
http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/McKinsey_conversations_with_global_leaders_John_Chambers_of_C



REFERENCES:
http://www.asiaing.com/the-21st-century-corporation.html
http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_35/b3696003.htm
http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/home.aspx
http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/McKinsey_conversations_with_global_leaders_Jeroen_van_der_Veer
http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/McKinsey_conversations_with_global_leaders_Dan_Vasella_of_Novart
http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/McKinsey_conversations_with_global_leaders_John_Chambers_of_C










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jojimie

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 6:08 am


I believe
In every society some men are born to rule,
And some to advise…



A new environment of business has been emerging over the last decade of the 20th century and it has been accelerating in the 21st century, stimulated by a new economy, new technologies and new understanding about business processes. In today’s interconnected, technology driven world, selling typically takes place in physical, virtual and remote places. It’s now more important than ever that selling environments make the paradigm shift towards 21st century successful business.
There’s low-tech. And there’s high-tech. And then there’s real-tech - businesses that earn a crust by taking ideas from labs and turning them into incredible, world-beating products and services.


“There is one key ingredient that separates the great salespeople from the good ones: the ability to build relationships.

By Jason Karem, sales manager


alien
We know that it costs, on average, six to ten times more to get a new customer than to keep an old customer. Yet most fortune 500 companies lose 50 percent of their customers in five years. Furthermore, the average company communicates only four times per year with current customers and six times per year with prospects. Most people think this the common sense, and it really is, but the problem is that managers get caught between two places: they are so either desperate for business that they become manipulate and pushy, or they are doing so well that they become complacent. Both are dangerous state of mind. When they fail you tend to blame external factors. It must be the competition, the economy, or the weather; people rarely look inward for faults. Then the simple solution seems to be to pour more and info selling and advertising. The reverse is true for managers who are succeeding. No matter which situation you are in, the same arguments exists. To make money you have to have sales that outweigh your expenditures. To have success in the long term, you have to continue either bring in new customers or keep your old customers, or preferably both.
The quality movement has taken business, industry, government and education to new levels of performance and awareness. Once they were accepted as tools that could improve profitability, quality teachings and practices have shown us that believing in separation can be a dangerous thing. Separation from the customer and the awareness of customer needs is disastrous. Believing that the marketing department is separate from new product design and engineering has driven companies out of business. When labor and management see themselves on different sides of the fence with antagonistic interests, both sides inevitably lose. With the quality movement emphasizing cooperation with suppliers, consultation with customers, breaking down barriers between departments, and participative management by employees, it has ushered in a new awareness and a new style which has forever changed the way we know that business must be done.
Quality thinking has paved the way to systems thinking. Concurrent engineering, customer focus groups that included designers before the design have all been major quality contributions. Seeing this kind of interconnectivity and interdependence has turned many business around in the last decade of the 20th century. But for success in the 21st century, for organizations to actually thrive in the new millennium, it will be up to the quality movement to provide leadership once again for making the next crucial steps.
Leaving the rigid metaphor of the machine behind, what can we learn from this new metaphor from the natural world? Organizations which will survive and thrive in the 21st century will have many of the same characteristics as organisms which survive and thrive. What are these, and what will they look like in organizations?
We can do this in a number of ways. We must align the policies and practices of our organization so that people and processes operate for the survival and benefit of the whole organization. Viewing departments as "cost centers" or "profit centers" ignores the actual role the department ought to play in the success of the whole organization, just as requiring the liver to have as much muscle as the stomach. Common practices and policies which seem sensible and effective can also backfire. For instance, the practice of rewarding salespeople on a commission basis can lead in many directions. It might cause salespeople to sell customers more expensive equipment than they need--in the short term--and ruin a company's mid-range product development, as it has for at least one prominent computer corporation. On the other hand, at a prominent copier manufacturer, the policy led salespeople to supply equipment which was less than the customer needed, but seemed to meet competitors prices. Either of these situations lead to customer dissatisfaction and net losses for the company.
alien

"measure what should be measured, not just what can be measured"--and we would like to add "or what HAS BEEN measured in the past." Measuring the wrong thing is often worse than no measurement at all. It shown us how misleading "productivity" measures can be, especially when workers are building up excess inventory just to keep busy.
Organizations must nurture adaptivity not "adaptedness". Past success is a poor predictor of future performance in a changing world. Most Fortune 500 companies are out of business in five to ten years. Using our organism metaphor, we could say that "knowledge and memory" is usually found in the experience of individuals and teams in the organization. "Thinking" corresponds to coordinating memories and experiences among different parts of the organization -- usually known as team problem-solving and simultaneous engineering or concurrent design.
Currently, the most common forms of this sort of activity include profit-sharing, stock options, employee owned corporations, ESOPs, employee benefits packages and voluntary service to local communities. Many areas have cooperative programs with schools and community colleges. We will be called to go much further. The economy is rapidly becoming truly global. The ability to share wealth and improve the standard of living around the world, and benefit as an international community will be a great challenge. Our stability and survival depends on it.

alien

The lesson of the current era is that "Everything is connected to everything else." To survive in this environment with these realizations we need to see HOW things are connected and incorporate the values which support our survival. Success in the 21st Century is truly dependent upon implementation of a very old adage "what goes around, comes around." If we value that understanding, it will change the way we perform in society. So what does this mean for us and our performance in our organizations?
Those who have stirred the quality pot must keep stirring. Quality has served as our springboard into the new age but a great deal more thinking and effort will be required for 21st century success. The quality movement is in the position of being able to lead the charge, and is in a unique position of having the experience to perceive the nature of the changes which must happen. We cannot stop at "quality." We must enter the millennium ready for an even more complete transformation. And quality professionals must be ready to lead the way.

a. 21st Century HRM
B. 21st Century Leadership
c. Change Management
d. Competencies for Competitive Advantage
e. Competitive Advantage
f. Corporate Governance
g. Efficiency and Values
h. Targeting the Gap
I. Globalized Production
j. Information and Knowledge Entrepreneurs
k. Information and Knowledge Entrepreneurs
l. Power Principle
m. Reinventing the Corporation
o. Redesigning the Organization
p. Rethinking Processes


lol! lol! :lol
References:
http://asifjmir.wordpress.com/2008/06/24/21st-century-company/
http://discussionleader.hbsp.com/davenport/2008/04/googlethe_21st_century_company_1.html


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 7:03 am

Idea COMPANIES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Idea


In looking to the future, the managers and business professionals should become aware of the problems and opportunities presented by the use of IT and learn how to effectively confront such managerial challenges. Today’s internetworked e-business plays a vital role in the business success of an enterprise. For example, internet, extranet and intranet can provide much .
We are living in a period of great economic and political volatility. There are new global players entering every field of commercial endeavor and the political power brokers across the globe are changing rapidly.

India, China, Russia, Brazil, Mexico and a great many other countries are growing dramatically, creating new consumer societies and absorbing financial capital and human capital in their activities.

In the process new business models are emerging often being facilitated by the latest technologies.

Many of the issues facing our companies are common across the world. Even, the ability of the world to survive our economic activity is at stake.
Are we innovative enough to survive let alone thrive in this rapidly changing and risky environment.

But one thing will remain constant is that the business starts and end with the customer but exceeding customer expectations and keeping customers will become challenging.
The successful company will be those where strategy is based on change and continuous improvement. They will carry out constant research among their customer and work upon it.
They will make change stimulating instead of something to resist.


.... study still workin study ....


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carla comoda

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PostSubject: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 7:41 am

What do you think will the 21st -century corporations look like?


bounce Technology can be a powerful lever for school reform, at the classroom, school, and district levels. However, too often technology is implemented poorly and then applied in ways that only buttress traditional practice and as what expected in the near future there will be more new technology develops that can influence students to adapt and used this hi-tech gadget.

Here are some new technology being develop during 21st century

Biometrics -for secure mobile connections, Biometric data has been used to tie the device to a person to prevent it from being used illegitimately. But the IST project Secure Phone is taking a new approach.
The world's first hands-free binoculars -HiStar, Inc. has introduced its line of hands-free binoculars.
Scientists discover Nanograss-Scientists discover new method to control liquid using silicon surfaces that resemble blades of grass.
Beyond - the Kitchen of the Future- Beyond Connected Products are coming to your kitchen: networked home products designed to make life simpler, more convenient and fun.
The worlds first hand-held printer- PrintDreams, the developer of the Random Movement Printing technology RMPT(tm), has announced the release of PrintBrush(tm), the world's smallest and only fully format-independent printer.
The Gauntlet- It's not Just Another Gadget, It's the one-size-fits-all Gauntlet - a wireless system that's set to become the next step in Wearable Communications.

Corporations have long insisted that globalization delivers prosperity. But a report commissioned by the Financial Services Forum, an association of CEOs of 20 major financial firms, admits that most benefits have gone to a select few. International operations increasingly account for most sales and business conducted by multinational firms, writes David Wessel for the Wall Street Journal. But workers in developed nations have increasing job insecurity. If benefits bypass ordinary workers, resentment could prompt US legislators to restrict international trade. A huge income gap is unnecessary for the US: The report recommends higher taxes for those gaining the most from globalization, protecting the tax base in communities facing factory closures, and a guarantee of health care and training opportunities for all workers.
The association warns that growing inequality threatens overall US prosperity and released the report to candidates for the 2008 US presidential election. But the warning may be too late, with politicians chasing after votes and surveys reporting that more than two-thirds of Americans anticipate that their children’s lives will be worse off than their own. – YaleGlobal”
Corporation is the most common form of business organization, and one which is chartered by a state and given many legal rights as an entity separate from its owners. This form of business is characterized by the limited liability of its owners, the issuance of shares of easily transferable stock, and existence as a going concern. The process of becoming a corporation, call incorporation, gives the company separate legal standing from its owners and protects those owners from being personally liable in the event that the company is sued (a condition known as limited liability). Incorporation also provides companies with a more flexible way to manage their ownership structure. In addition, there are different tax implications for corporations, although these can be both advantageous and disadvantageous. In these respects, corporations differ from sole proprietorships and limited partnerships.

Many people, ranging from linguistic and academic experts to Internet bloggers, predict that the "twenty X" pronunciation method will eventually prevail, but a time frame as to when this change will occur often differs. The year 2010 "twenty ten" is suggested by many, with the "two thousand x" pronunciation reserved only for the "two thousands" decade of 2000s[5][6] and the Vancouver Olympics, taking place in 2010, is being officially referred to by Vancouver 2010 as "the twenty-ten olympics", while 2011 and 2013 are popular as well. The latest timeframes for change are usually placed at 2020.

id=9482 bounce Basketball Corporation in the 21st century

 Innovation- is the number priority
 Foster individual creativity
 Coordinate rather than command
 Make innovation everybody’s business

id=9482 bounce Basketball 21st century manpower resources

The worldwide search for manpower parallels the increasing demands of socioeconomic growth and progress. This is true whether in developed or developing countries. The demand corresponds to actual and projected needs. And these needs are many and varied. It is meeting these requirements that make manpower recruitment and mobilization a vital activity, if often difficult. For the elements of competitive costs, selectiveness, reliability, timely delivery and such other vital consideration come into play.


id=9482 bounce BasketballHigher education in the 21st Century: Perspectives on an emerging body of literature
This paper summarizes the major themes in the body of writing which purports to describe what higher education will look like in the 21st Century. Some reasons why change might be far more pervasive in the first decade of the 21st Century than in the last three decades of the 20th Century are the increasingly harsh economic environment of higher education, the increasing integration of higher education with the world of business and industry, and the widespread use of information technology. It is suggested that the only constituency from which there will be opposition to the scenarios depicted in the 21st Century higher education literature is faculty of colleges and universities.




Refereces:
http://www.21stcentury.co.uk/technology/
http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V65-3V603XP-5&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1029973674&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=e41da817b008ba3854f61643efeda304


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Norena T. Nicdao

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 11:39 am

I think hundred years from now corporations or companies were using an advance or a high technology for the development and improvement of their business. Introduce to the people how the things in the future generation change the business environment of their company. This generation also companies uses a new systems which is very advance than today's generation.

What is Corporation?


A corporation is a legal entity separate from the persons who own it or the persons who manage or operate it. In British tradition it is the term designating a body corporate, where it can be either a corporation sole (an office held by an individual natural person, which is a legal entity separate from that person) or a corporation aggregate (involving more persons). In American and, increasingly, international usage, the term denotes a body corporate formed to conduct business, and this meaning of corporation is discussed in the remaining part of this entry (the limited company in British usage).

Ownership of a corporation is complicated by increasing social and economic interdependence, as different stakeholders compete to have a say in corporate affairs. study of corporate governance and corporate finance.

Source:[url] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporation[/url]


Improving the company's system by implementing a new technology. It is a technology that makes the production of the company easier and improving the quality of their product.

Here are some of the technologies that will possibly come out on the 21st century in a corporation.

• Robot Operated Machine and Manpower

This technology uses a censored robot to operate a machine but with the intervention of a human by giving some command, it is use especially on the dangerous procedure like in the industrial factory. For example in mixing some dangerous chemicals in creating industrial products.

It helps to become faster the production of the goods. It can work 24/7 a day not just like a man that can only work 8 hours a day. It also use to answer the high demands of goods needed.

From the Internet:

What is Robot?

Robot is a virtual or mechanical artificial agent. In practice, it is usually an electro-mechanical machine which is guided by computer or electronic programming, and is thus able to do tasks on its own. Another common characteristic is that by its appearance or movements, a robot often conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own.

General-purpose autonomous robots are robots that can perform a variety of functions independently. General-purpose autonomous robots typically can navigate independently in known spaces, handle their own re-charging needs, interface with electronic doors and elevators and perform other basic tasks. Like computers, general-purpose robots can link with networks, software and accessories that increase their usefulness. They may recognize people or objects, talk, provide companionship, monitor environmental quality, respond to alarms, pick up supplies and perform other useful tasks. General-purpose robots may perform a variety of functions simultaneously or they may take on different roles at different times of day. Some such robots try to mimic human beings and may even resemble people in appearance; this type of robot is called a humanoid robot.

Increased productivity, accuracy, and endurance
A Pick and Place robot in a factory

Many factory jobs are now performed by robots. This has led to cheaper mass-produced goods, including automobiles and electronics. Stationary manipulators used in factories have become the largest market for robots. In 2006, there were an estimated 3,540,000 service robots in use, and an estimated 950,000 industrial robots. A different estimate counted more than one million robots in operation worldwide in the first half of 2008, with roughly half in Asia, 32% in Europe, 16% in North America, 1% in Australasia and 1% in Africa.

Some examples of factory robots:

* Car production: Over the last three decades automobile factories have become dominated by robots. A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots working on fully automated production lines, with one robot for every ten human workers. On an automated production line, a vehicle chassis on a conveyor is welded, glued, painted and finally assembled at a sequence of robot stations.
* Packaging: Industrial robots are also used extensively for palletizing and packaging of manufactured goods, for example for rapidly taking drink cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them into boxes, or for loading and unloading machining centers.
* Electronics: Mass-produced printed circuit boards (PCBs) are almost exclusively manufactured by pick-and-place robots, typically with SCARA manipulators, which remove tiny electronic components from strips or trays, and place them on to PCBs with great accuracy. Such robots can place hundreds of thousands of components per hour, far out-performing a human in speed, accuracy, and reliability.
*Automated guided vehicles (AGVs): Mobile robots, following markers or wires in the floor, or using vision[74] or lasers, are used to transport goods around large facilities, such as warehouses, container ports, or hospitals.

Dirty, dangerous, dull or inaccessible tasks

There are many jobs which humans would rather leave to robots. The job may be boring, such as domestic cleaning, or dangerous, such as exploring inside a volcano.[80] Other jobs are physically inaccessible, such as exploring another planet,[81] cleaning the inside of a long pipe, or performing laparoscopic surgery.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robot

Benefits of a Robotic Machine

* Manpower reduction – unmanned, unattended, remote security and surveillance capability
* Force protection – remote threat assessment capability allowing appropriate response

Source: http://www.gdrs.com/robotics/index.asp?roboticsid=11

• Microchip

Microchip is a technology where is attach to a a certain things.

From the internet:

Microchip Technology (NASDAQ: MCHP) is an American manufacturer of microcontroller, memory and analog semiconductors. The company was founded in 1987 when General Instrument spun off its microelectronics division as a wholly owned subsidiary.. This industry-leading combination of low power consumption and functionality makes these PIC MCUs ideal for any battery-powered or power-constrained application.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microchip_Technology

• Advance Tele-Video Conference Room

It is a technology use to communicate other person from other place by using sophisticated technology. It use satellite signal in order to access other person by seeing her or him personally and hear his or her voice clearly. This technology is a big help for the business transactions, meetings and others in the company.
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Gleizelle Jen Dieparine

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 1:51 pm


What do you think will the 21st -century corporations look like?


      Every century there many things change such that people, culture, technology , and even the businesses corporation. As time gone changes always takes place since people want to be satisfy more and people want to explore more things for the better living. People, culture , individual’s life may change because of technology approaches. and even businesses corporation takes the changes for the services. For the pass years corporation had encountered much problem with there managing people ,data records, management and monitoring of there assets, liabilities and owners equity of their corporation . Problems such loss of data , unrecognized spending of money, monitoring unreliable workers. In these people learned possible effect for these problems that really effective nowadays.

       With regards of 21st century ,I’m sure that these century would be focusing in e enhancement. More reliable IT /IS , more efficient internet services, providing less effort of transaction, monitoring to every branches of the corporation may take place to the corporation . Corporation may prioritized people that has much knowledge about there business and can endure the IT/IS change . The 21st century corporation will require an array of new skills, all of which must be mastered for leaders to gain the upper competitive hand. Globalization has opened new markets. Deregulation has broken down industry boundaries. Venture capital has funded thousands of new tech-savvy insurgents who now threaten incumbents. And the ever-ubiquitous Web has brought the potential for remarkable gains in productivity--but also for frightening deflationary pressures. All these forces are fast propelling the creation of new business models in the 21st century, models that will look nothing like the once-healthy and seemingly invincible enterprises of an earlier age. The infrastructure will be more high-tech .
     
      But then these things has much effect for the global warming . Without using technology in proper way, can destroy our mother nature. Less managing of things that made .Every thing that made here will have there end so used technology wisely .

Lets define corporation and what people think about 21st century corporation and some things that is involced in this topic


Corporation

The most common form of business organization, and one which is chartered by a state and given many legal rights as an entity separate from its owners. This form of business is characterized by the limited liability of its owners, the issuance of shares of easily transferable stock, and existence as a going concern. The process of becoming a corporation, call incorporation, gives the company separate legal standing from its owners and protects those owners from being personally liable in the event that the company is sued (a condition known as limited liability). Incorporation also provides companies with a more flexible way to manage their ownership structure. In addition, there are different tax implications for corporations, although these can be both advantageous and disadvantageous. In these respects, corporations differ from sole proprietorships and limited partnerships.

21st Century Corporation Opinions

Positive

  21st Century Business is independently produced by Multi-Media Productions (USA), Inc. and is distributed worldwide on CNBC as paid programming and the Fox Business Network as paid programming. Additionally, the series airs internationally in Canada and on Asia Television and can be accessed 24/7 via 21CBTV.com. 21st Century Business can also be seen on various Internet Television outlets such as YouTube, iTunes Podcast, MSN Video, Yahoo! Video and many more.
   21st Century Business is independently produced by Multi-Media Productions (USA), Inc. and is distributed worldwide on CNBC as paid programming and the Fox Business Network as paid programming. Additionally, the series airs internationally in Canada and on Asia Television and can be accessed 24/7 via 21CBTV.com.   21st Century Business can also be seen on various Internet Television outlets such as YouTube, iTunes Podcast, MSN Video, Yahoo! Video and many more.


Negative

  Make no mistake about it: the 21st century is one of the most stressful periods of human history, so far as the average citizen is concerned. Despite vast improvements in many areas of life for most everyone (as well as an explosion in personal opportunity for fame and fortune such as the world has never seen before), the domination of largely unbridled pure economics and virtually unrestrained technological development on human affairs at this time makes for daily stresses probably unimaginable by 20th century natives, or those born in the subsequent 22nd century. For instance, a substantial portion of the most developed geopolitical blocs actually cut back many traditional social programs such as Social Security, pensions, and subsidies for child care, public education, and medical insurance (or else decimate them through woefully misguided privatization attempts) in the late 20th/early 21st centuries. Of course, these cutbacks often result in mass unrest and dissatisfaction among the populace of those states, which creates yet another source of instability and stress for many citizens-- until the political backlash manages to reverse the courses of many governments on the issues. The immense uncertainty about many matters is bad enough, but what certainty does exist is often still worse...

  The often barely restrained financial markets of the late 20th century may offer cautionary tales for the much freer global markets of the 21st-- especially where geopolitical governments increasingly bow to the regulatory wishes of mega-corporations (regardless of social welfare). The former markets were volatile, "...prone to speculative ruin...[and]...more vulnerable to self-inflicted calamity..." due in large part to a given market's regulation by governments being inversely proportional to that market's size. Laissez-faire economies may have no natural defense against excessive and destabilizing speculation. In the late 20th century there was no single institution of sufficient power and wisdom to temper global excesses in the financial markets as certain national concerns could do for inidividual countries


How, exactly, will these forces reshape the 21st century corporation? The organizations that flourish will have several defining features.

-- It's management by Web.
That means not just Web as in Internet but the web-like shape of successful organizations in the future. If there are a pair of images that symbolize the vast changes at work, they are the pyramid and the web. The organizational chart of large-scale enterprise had long been defined as a pyramid of ever-shrinking layers leading to an omnipotent CEO at its apex. The 21st century corporation, in contrast, is far more likely to look like a web: a flat, intricately woven form that links partners, employees, external contractors, suppliers, and customers in various collaborations. The players will grow more and more interdependent. Fewer companies will try to master all the disciplines necessary to produce and market their goods but will instead outsource skills--from research and development to manufacturing--to outsiders who can perform those functions with greater efficiency.

Managing this intricate network of partners, spin-off enterprises, contractors, and freelancers will be as important as managing internal operations. Indeed, it will be hard to tell the difference. All of these constituents will be directly linked in ways that will make it nearly impossible for outsiders to know where an individual firm begins and where it ends. ''Companies will be much more molecular and fluid,'' predicts Don Tapscott, co-author of Digital Capital. ''They will be autonomous business units connected not necessarily by a big building but across geographies all based on networks. The boundaries of the firm will be not only fluid or blurred but in some cases hard to define.''

It's more about bits, less about atoms.
The most profitable enterprises will manage bits, or information, instead of focusing solely on managing atoms (the corporation's physical assets). Sheer size will no longer be the hallmark of success; instead, the market will prize the ability to efficiently deploy assets. Good bit management can allow an upstart to beat an established player; it can also give an incumbent vast advantages. By using information to manage themselves and better serve their customers, companies will be able to do things cheaper, faster, and with far less waste.

It's mass customization.
The previous 100 years were marked by mass production and mass consumption. Companies sought economies of scale to build large factories that produced cookie-cutter products, which they then sold to the largest numbers of people in as many markets as possible. The company of the future will tailor its products to each individual by turning customers into partners and giving them the technology to design and demand exactly what they want. Mass customization will result in waves of individualized products and services, as well as huge savings for companies, which will no longer have to guess what and how much customers want.

It's dependent on intellectual capital.
The advantage of bringing breakthrough products to market first will be shorter-lived than ever, because technology will let competitors match or exceed them almost instantly. To keep ahead of the steep new-product curve, it will be crucial for businesses to attract and retain the best thinkers. Companies will need to build a deep reservoir of talent--including both employees and free agents--to succeed in this new era. But attracting and retaining an elite workforce will require more than huge paychecks. Corporations will need to create the kind of cultures and reward systems that keep the best minds engaged. The old command-and-control hierarchies, with their civil-service-like wages, are fast crumbling in favor of organizations that empower vast numbers of people and reward the best of them as if they were owners of the enterprise.

It's global.
In the beginning, the global company was defined as one that simply sold its goods in overseas markets. Later, global companies assumed a manufacturing presence in numerous countries. The company of the future will call on talent and resources--especially intellectual capital--wherever they can be found around the globe, just as it will sell its goods and services around the globe. Indeed, the very notion of a headquarters country may no longer apply, as companies migrate to places of greatest advantage. The new global corporation might be based in the U.S. but do its software programming in Sri Lanka, its engineering in Germany, and its manufacturing in China. Every outpost will be seamlessly connected by the Net so that far-flung employees and freelancers can work together in real time.

It's about speed.
All this work will be done in an instant. ''The Internet is a tool, and the biggest impact of that tool is speed,'' says Andrew S. Grove, chairman of Intel Corp. (INTC) ''The speed of actions, the speed of deliberations, and the speed of information has increased, and it will continue to increase.'' That means the old, process-oriented corporation must radically revamp. With everything from product cycles to employee turnover on fast-forward, there is simply not enough time for deliberation or bureaucracy.

The 21st century corporation will not have one ideal form. Some will be completely virtual, wholly dependent on a network of suppliers, manufacturers, and distributors for their survival. Others, less so. Some of the most successful companies will be very small and very specialized; others will be gargantuan in size, scope, and complexity.

Some enterprises will last no longer than the time it takes for a new product or technology to reach the market. Once it does, these temporary organizations will pass their innovations on to host companies that can leverage them more quickly and at less expense. The reason: Every company has capabilities, but also disabilities, as Harvard Business School's Clayton M. Christensen puts it. The disabilities--things like deeply held beliefs, rituals, and traditions--often smother radical thinking. Some biotech upstarts, for example, have already served as external labs for large, powerful pharmaceutical companies. Some technology ventures have drawn seed capital from Cisco Systems Inc. (CSCO), only to be acquired by the network giant once the technology has been proven.


CULTURAL CHANGE.


The potential for productivity gains is everywhere, in every process, in every industry. The bigger the company and the larger its costs, the greater the opportunity to see tremendous efficiencies. In the years to come, large incumbent corporations that get it will be the greatest beneficiaries of the Net, not the dot-com insurgents that once garnered all the publicity and market valuations.

Despite a handful of leading-edge companies, the true 21st century corporation, at least as it will eventually emerge, does not yet exist. John F. Welch Jr. of General Electric Co. may have created the archetypal ''learning organization,'' a highly diverse company that shares ideas across its many boundaries. Chambers of Cisco Systems may boast the most networked organization in the world, a company in which nearly all its administrative functions are conducted over the Internet. Michael S. Dell may have built the most efficient supply-chain network ever, a model that requires virtually no inventory. But there is no one company today that embodies all the possibilities and promise of the superefficient 21st century corporation.





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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 1:52 pm

WHAT IS CORPORATION?

In the late seventeenth century, Stewart Kyd, the author of the first treatise on corporate law in English, defined a corporation as,

"a collection of many individuals united into one body, under a special denomination, having perpetual succession under an artificial form, and vested, by policy of the law, with the capacity of acting, in several respects, as an individual, particularly of taking and granting property, of contracting obligations, and of suing and being sued, of enjoying privileges and immunities in common, and of exercising a variety of political rights, more or less extensive, according to the design of its institution, or the powers conferred upon it, either at the time of its creation, or at any subsequent period of its existence."


Cool Management by Web

To thrive in this new century, companies are going to need a whole new set of rules


Sparked by new technologies, particularly the Internet, the corporation is undergoing a radical transformation that is nothing less than a new Industrial Revolution. This time around, the revolution is reaching every corner of the globe and in the process, rewriting the rules laid down by Sloan, Henry Ford, and other Industrial Age giants. The 21st century corporation that emerges will in many ways be the polar opposite of the organizations they helped shape.

Indeed, if you've worked as a manager for at least a decade, you can forget much of what you've learned so far. Prepare to toss out your business-school case studies and set aside many of the time-honored principles that have guided generations of managers. The vast changes reshaping the world's business terrain are that far-reaching, that fundamental, and that profound. ''We're not witnessing just a little change in our economy,'' says David Ticoll, chief executive of Digital 4Sight Systems & Consulting Ltd., a business think tank and consulting firm. ''This is an epochal change in the history of production.''

cat EPHEMERAL.

To survive and thrive in this century, managers will need to hard-wire a new set of rules and guideposts into their brains.

Not so long ago, for example, leaders believed that building assets over the long haul guaranteed competitive advantage. In this new century, success will go to the companies that partner their way to a new future, not those that put heavy assets onto their balance sheets. Leaders once thought that creating intense rivalries among competitors motivated their employees and assured success. But in the days to come, a company's fiercest competitor might also be its most important collaborator. Since the dawn of trade, every business leader has wanted to build an enduring enterprise.

In the new century, though, many companies will be intentionally ephemeral, formed to create new technologies or products only to be absorbed by sponsor companies when their missions are accomplished.

Many factors, from the need to expand beyond national borders to the inexorable shift toward intellectual capital, are driving change, but none is more important than the rise of Internet technologies. Like the steam engine or the assembly line, the Net has already become an advance with revolutionary consequences, most of which we have only begun to feel.

The Net gives everyone in the organization, from the lowliest clerk to the chairman of the board, the ability to access a mind-boggling array of information--instantaneously, from anywhere. Instead of seeping out over months or years, ideas can be zapped around the globe in the blink of an eye.

That means that the 21st century corporation must adapt itself to management via the Web. It must be predicated on constant change, not stability, organized around networks, not rigid hierarchies, built on shifting partnerships and alliances, not self-sufficiency, and constructed on technological advantages, not bricks and mortar. Already, old business models that emphasized fixed assets, working capital, and economies of scale have become increasingly vulnerable to nimbler organizations that employ new technologies to reduce costs.


Leading-edge technology will enable workers on the bottom rungs of the organization to seize opportunity as it arises. Employees will increasingly feel the pressure to get breakthrough ideas to market first. Thus, the corporation will need to nurture an array of formal and informal networks to ensure that these ideas can speed into development.

In the near future, companies will call on outside contractors to assemble teams of designers, prototype producers, manufacturers, and distributors to get the job done. Emerging technologies will allow employees and freelancers anywhere in the world to converse in numerous languages online without the need for a translator. ''The gap between what we can imagine and what we can achieve has never been smaller,'' says Gary Hamel, a consultant and author of Leading the Revolution.

That rapid flow of information will permeate the organization. Orders will be fulfilled electronically without a single phone call or piece of paper. The ''virtual financial close'' will put real-time sales and profit figures at every manager's fingertips via the click of a wireless phone or a spoken command to a computer. ''We don't have science-fiction writers who have seen and written this future,'' says Lowell Bryan, a consultant who leads McKinsey & Co.'s Global New Economy practice. ''Everything we see leads to greater diversity, greater choice, a far more integrative economy, yet more individualism.''


cyclops How, exactly, will these forces reshape the 21st century corporation?

The organizations that flourish will have several defining features.

-- It's management by Web. That means not just Web as in Internet but the web-like shape of successful organizations in the future.

The 21st century corporation, in contrast, is far more likely to look like a web: a flat, intricately woven form that links partners, employees, external contractors, suppliers, and customers in various collaborations.

The players will grow more and more interdependent. Fewer companies will try to master all the disciplines necessary to produce and market their goods but will instead outsource skills--from research and development to manufacturing--to outsiders who can perform those functions with greater efficiency.

''Companies will be much more molecular and fluid,''
predicts Don Tapscott, co-author of Digital Capital. ''They will be autonomous business units connected not necessarily by a big building but across geographies all based on networks. The boundaries of the firm will be not only fluid or blurred but in some cases hard to define.''

-- It's more about bits, less about atoms. The most profitable enterprises will manage bits, or information, instead of focusing solely on managing atoms (the corporation's physical assets). Sheer size will no longer be the hallmark of success; instead, the market will prize the ability to efficiently deploy assets. Good bit management can allow an upstart to beat an established player; it can also give an incumbent vast advantages. By using information to manage themselves and better serve their customers, companies will be able to do things cheaper, faster, and with far less waste.

-- It's mass customization. The previous 100 years were marked by mass production and mass consumption. Companies sought economies of scale to build large factories that produced cookie-cutter products, which they then sold to the largest numbers of people in as many markets as possible. The company of the future will tailor its products to each individual by turning customers into partners and giving them the technology to design and demand exactly what they want. Mass customization will result in waves of individualized products and services, as well as huge savings for companies, which will no longer have to guess what and how much customers want.

-- It's dependent on intellectual capital. The advantage of bringing breakthrough products to market first will be shorter-lived than ever, because technology will let competitors match or exceed them almost instantly. To keep ahead of the steep new-product curve, it will be crucial for businesses to attract and retain the best thinkers. Companies will need to build a deep reservoir of talent--including both employees and free agents--to succeed in this new era. But attracting and retaining an elite workforce will require more than huge paychecks. Corporations will need to create the kind of cultures and reward systems that keep the best minds engaged. The old command-and-control hierarchies, with their civil-service-like wages, are fast crumbling in favor of organizations that empower vast numbers of people and reward the best of them as if they were owners of the enterprise.

-- It's global. In the beginning, the global company was defined as one that simply sold its goods in overseas markets. Later, global companies assumed a manufacturing presence in numerous countries. The company of the future will call on talent and resources--especially intellectual capital--wherever they can be found around the globe, just as it will sell its goods and services around the globe. Indeed, the very notion of a headquarters country may no longer apply, as companies migrate to places of greatest advantage. The new global corporation might be based in the U.S. but do its software programming in Sri Lanka, its engineering in Germany, and its manufacturing in China. Every outpost will be seamlessly connected by the Net so that far-flung employees and freelancers can work together in real time.

-- It's about speed. All this work will be done in an instant. ''The Internet is a tool, and the biggest impact of that tool is speed,'' says Andrew S. Grove, chairman of Intel Corp. (INTC) ''The speed of actions, the speed of deliberations, and the speed of information has increased, and it will continue to increase.''

That means the old, process-oriented corporation must radically revamp. With everything from product cycles to employee turnover on fast-forward, there is simply not enough time for deliberation or bureaucracy.

cat DIGITIZATION.

Just as the smaller companies will use technology to gain economies of scale, larger companies will harness technology to reduce the costs of complexity.

McKinsey's Bryan points out that technology allows Bank of America to manage a continent-wide bank of $700 billion in assets as effectively as it once managed a single-state bank with $7 billion.

At the very core of the 21st century corporation is technology, or what most people today call digitization. Put simply, digitization means removing human minds and hands from an organization's most routine tasks and replacing them with computers and networks. Digitizing everything from employee benefits to accounts receivables to product design cuts time, cost, and people from operations, resulting in huge savings and vast improvements in speed.

Everything a company does involves what Bryan calls ''interaction costs,'' the expenses incurred to get different people and companies to work together to create and sell products. In the U.S. alone, Bryan surmises, such interaction fees account for over half of all labor costs. Digitization lowers these expenses dramatically. ''You are going to see unbelievable speed and efficiencies,'' says John T. Chambers, Cisco's CEO. ''Truly efficient companies, particularly in the first couple of waves of change, will be able to drive [overall] productivity at 20% to 40% a year.''

cat CULTURAL CHANGE.

The potential for productivity gains is everywhere, in every process, in every industry.

The bigger the company and the larger its costs, the greater the opportunity to see tremendous efficiencies. In the years to come, large incumbent corporations that get it will be the greatest beneficiaries of the Net, not the dot-com insurgents that once garnered all the publicity and market valuations.

For companies that have begun to grasp the possibilities, the payoff can be enormous. Enron Corp. (ENE), a onetime natural-gas pipeline company, is a good example. The Houston business employed the Net to make itself into a highly profitable energy and telecommunications service. Enron's Web-based trading platform, EnronOnline, now trades some 900 contracts per day for commodities including oil, natural gas, electricity, and even broadband telecommunications capacity. Earnings--up 30% in the second quarter--are skyrocketing, along with the company's stock price. Enron has created for itself an entirely new core competence: Web-based trading that could bring the company into financial products, chemicals, and data storage.

Many view Enron's transformation through the narrow lens of technology. The lesson for 21st century leaders, however, isn't just about clever application of the latest software. It's about culture and mind-set. By refusing to limit itself to the traditional notions of what an energy company should do, Enron has pioneered completely new businesses. And it's not just the bosses who are thinking up all the good ideas. Enron is a company of risk-taking entrepreneurs who share a broad definition of the businesses' boundaries.

The truly great 21st century companies will recognize that the real power of technology is not just the ability to make a business more efficient but also it’s potential to spark transformative change.
Much of that change will involve the company's relationship with its customers. In an era of unprecedented choice, in which prices and product specs for almost anything are only a click away, companies will have to offer a lot more than bargain prices.


cat DELIVERING THE GOODS.

In the hands of a creative leader, even the most prosaic Industrial Age enterprises can reap quantum efficiencies by applying the new management principles of the 21st century corporation.

No company proves that better than Cemex (CX), which operates in one of the most mundane, commodity-driven businesses in the world: cement. Based in Monterrey, Mexico, Cemex was a modestly profitable business in 1985 when Lorenzo H. Zambrano, a Stanford University MBA whose grandfather founded the company, became chief executive. Cemex' biggest problem in an asset-intensive, low-efficiency business was unpredictable demand.

Roughly half of its orders were changed by customers, often just hours before delivery. Dispatchers took orders for 8,000 grades of mixed concrete and forwarded them to six plants. The phones were often jammed with calls from customers, truckers, and dispatchers, resulting in lost orders and frustrated customers.

Then Cemex went digital, vastly reducing delivery and production problems. More important, the makeover helped management refocus efforts from managing assets to managing information. ''Technology allows you to do business in a much different fashion than before,'' says Zambrano. ''We used it not only to deliver a product but to sell a service.''

. . . C O N T I N U E D on the NEXT PAGE. . .


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 2:01 pm

The 21st -century corporations look like…
What would a corporation look like that was designed to seamlessly integrate both social and financial purpose? Its goal is to develop and disseminate corporate designs where social npurpose moves from the periphery.

New Principles for Corporate Design
1. The purpose of the corporation is to harness private interests to serve the public interest.
2. Corporations shall accrue fair returns for shareholders, but not at the expense of the legitimate interests of other stakeholders.
3. Corporations shall operate sustainably, meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
4. Corporations shall distribute their wealth equitably among those who contribute to its creation.
5. Corporations shall be governed in a manner that is participatory, transparent, ethical, and accountable.
6. Corporations shall not infringe on the right of natural persons to govern themselves, nor infringe on other universal human rights.


Setting the Stage
Debates surrounding the future of the corporation typically are defined as stark choices between government regulation and free markets. Corporation 20/20 posits a third path: system
redesign. It is a path that recognizes the historical and legitimate public role in corporate design; the necessity of respecting universal values while recognizing the drawbacks of overly intrusive government; and the creative potential but inherent limitations of voluntarism and unfettered markets. Reaching beyond mainstream corporate social responsibility (CSR), Corporation 20/20 will chart a path that embeds social purpose in the organizational “genetics” of corporate structure while helping to build high-performing organizations.

Failures in accountability and governance during the last few years have severely undermined public trust in business. A disenchanted investor class has given rise to an unprecedented activism by institutional shareholders. At the same time, the clamor for reform of corporate governance has been growing in many nations. Several promising new voluntary and quasi-binding international agreements regarding human rights, transparency and governance have emerged, alongside a number of company- and sector-specific efforts to strengthen accountability. Meanwhile, groups in California, Minnesota and the UK are advancing legislation to reconstitute corporate purpose via changes in directors’ duties. The making of a movement is palpable.

As pressures for reform intensify, many observers view incremental change as insufficient to achieve the needed transformations in the character and purpose of the corporation. Ironically, the greatest failures in corporate conduct have occurred simultaneously with rapid expansion of the CSR movement. From its roots in the 1970s, CSR has grown into a substantial force in many industrial nations, while emerging economies such as Brazil, South Africa and India are becoming increasingly engaged through their adaptation of emerging CSR concepts and practices. Codes
of conduct are nearly universal at major companies, and the scrutiny of labor, governance, and environmental and reporting practices is accelerating.

Yet, for all apparent progress,
it is clear that formidable barriers persist to embedding social purpose in corporations. For companies that are publicly traded, one reality overwhelms all others: relentless pressure to deliver short-term shareholder gains. For privately owned companies, access and cost of capital are no less formidable obstacles to the pursuit of long-term wealth creation.

Former Medtronic CEO Bill George, who led his company to a global position in medical technology, describes the problem of capital pressure succinctly “It starts with the New York Stock Exchange...with security analysts. They call and ask, ‘Are you going to make the numbers? We’ve got you down for 34 cents – you going to make it?’ And you ask yourself, do I want to go on CNBC and be made fun of because I only made 32 cents? Your stock gets inordinately punished...If your earnings are up 15 percent but they expected 20 percent, then your stock will go down – not 5 percent, but 25 percent. Then you’re vulnerable to a takeover.”

As those inside and outside of business rethink the nature and purpose of corporations, three conditions have impeded progress in translating unease into a broad-based movement for fundamental change. One is the limited awareness of how received wisdoms embedded in economic and management theory—amoral individuals, unwavering economic rationality, productivity and competitiveness above all other values—shape both management theory and corporate conduct. A second is the lack of an overarching framework – visions of how the future corporation must be
designed – to provide a shared platform for various reform streams. Third is the absence of a cohesive movement built on common values and progressive principles that transcend size, sector and location of individual corporations.

Amidst unprecedented growth in the scale, reach and footprint of corporations, sufficient evidence exists to support the possibility of a latent but powerful movement to reshape the purpose of corporations in a form that aligns with 21st century imperatives.

Goals
The goal of Corporation 20/20 is to create a forum of leading thinkers, practitioners and advocates; construct positive and plausible visions of the future corporate form, and translate such visions into broad-based advocacy.

Recruitment
To attract new participants from diverse backgrounds including business, civil society, finance, law, labor and media.

Dialogue
To facilitate convergence around new visions of the future corporations. Electronic dialogues on a wide range of topics are ongoing and archived on www.Corporation2020.org.

Laboratories
To apply emerging 20/20 concepts to companies, business sectors, government, labor and civil society for the purposes of testing interim ideas and mutual learning between Corporation 20/20 and its collaborators.

Working Groups
To advance both concepts and tasks. WGs will focus on design principles and prototype designs across a range of organizations, e.g., large publicly listed corporations, large privately/family-controlled corporations and small/medium size corporations.

Paper Series
A series of papers that explores key issues in corporate redesign, e.g., evolution of the corporation, internal transformation, law reform, new models of capitalization, rethinking charters and stakeholder governance, and archetypes of the future corporation.

Summit
A June 2009 Summit will focus on the theme of "Restoring the Primacy of the Real Economy". The event marks five years of visioning, design and advocacy activities by Corporation 20/20. Summit sessions will focus on the global financial crisis and its relationship to sustainable business. How must the global finance system be reconstructed such that it delivers affordable, stable and timely capital to companies committed to building a sustainable future.

Communications
On-line database of research papers and articles, an electronic newsletter, op-ed pieces, press releases, interviews, and an enhanced website are part of Corporation 20/20's communications plan.

Resources
Standardized Corporation 20/20 presentations, information packages, speakers' lists and reading lists will equip participants and other interested parties to disseminate 20/20’s vision and products.

Some of this information may also found @ http://www.corporation2020.org/overview_setting_stage.htm

You may also visit my site @ http://deshai08.blogspot.com/


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PostSubject: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Aug 19, 2009 11:24 pm

As defined by Wikipedia,

○ A corporation is a legal entity separate from the persons who own it or the persons who manage or operate it.



We stand today at a moment. Many aspects of the global economy are out of synch with 21st century imperatives. While the character of corporations that produce needed goods and services—the “real economy”—is undergoing intense change,the “financial economy” is fueled more by current global financial crisis.

We come to assume an ideal corporation of tomorrow.



Where The Creative Economy exist!

○ The Great Transformation
New technology, particularly the Internet, is reshaping the world's business terrain. Now, companies need a whole new set of rules.

○ The New Leadership
The accelerated pace and complexity of business will bring dramatic changes in the corporate hierarchy

○ Architectural Visions
A look at offices that might have been. Plus, two award-winning architecture firms imagine the 21st century environment.



DESIGNS FOR THE FUTURE:
The Jetsons might not recognize the world we live in today. Two award-winning architecture firms, Thompson & Rose Architects and Asymptote Architecture, present alternative views of what the future may hold.



Rooftop gardens offer a natural retreat to meet, talk, or be alone. They're also widely accessible, blurring the distinciton between what's thought of as "inside" and "outside"




The corporate headquarters will saucer down and "hover" on legs over existing parking lots. It will not contribute to suburban sprawl. In fact, the buildings may be more "natural" than much of their environment.

○ The Corporate Ecosystem
The old boundaries--between public and private, foreign and domestic, friend and foe--are blurring. The effect will be liberating

○ Back to the Future
Globalization presents a formidable challenge--but if the history of the last century is any guide, the corporation will endure.




Here's more!

Check out this advantages of having corporations in the near time...
* No State Income Taxes
* Privacy allowed
* Shareholders are not listed with the state
* Nominee officers are legal
* Citizenship not required
* State tax not being considered
* Lower Startup Costs

How amazing things are brought by our imaginations! But who knows?! this stuff wont be imagined without basis of turning all of it into reality...



_FIN_
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Gabrielle Anne Rae Deseo

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PostSubject: Assignment 6   Thu Aug 20, 2009 12:07 am

bounce

oOps,. sorry fOr the inconvenience,. hehe I have posted my final entry for this assignment in the next page because i forgot of this reserved space,. my apologies,.

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Stihl Lhyn Samonte

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PostSubject: HRM Assignment 6   Thu Aug 20, 2009 10:55 am

21st -Century Corporation

What is Corporation???

A legal entity separate from the persons who own it or the persons who manage or operate it. In British tradition it is the term designating a body corporate, where it can be either a corporation sole (an office held by an individual natural person, which is a legal entity separate from that person) or a corporation aggregate (involving more persons). In American and, increasingly, international usage, the term denotes a body corporate formed to conduct business, and this meaning of corporation is discussed in the remaining part of this entry (the limited company in British usage).

For me, I think our future would be more improving in terms of new technologies….

• Modern Inventions
We are now getting close to a decade into the 21st century. The last 100 years or so have really seen the rise of some of the greatest inventions that have ever come our way. There are also some notable 21st Century inventions, although there are not as many as we have seen in previous years. The inventions of the 21st century mainly revolve around things such as the personal computer and the Internet. These things will continue to be developed and improved upon throughout the coming century.

One of the most notable 21st Century inventions, if you would like to call an invention is that of Google. This is probably a company that has had an impact on more people's lives than any other. Yes, Microsoft certainly has their place in history as well as other companies, such as IBM but Google is a thriving company that continues to bring out new products and ideas on a regular basis. For example, page rank is one of the inventions of the 21st century that most of us tend to gloss over. The fact of the matter is, page rank is one of the determining factors that show how well a website is going to rank in the Google index. Without page rank, the results that you get from the search engine would be far less accurate.
Another one of the 21st Century inventions is a type of artificial heart. Known has the AbioCor heart, it is one of the first fully artificial hearts that is in existence. The first patient that receive one of these hearts lived for 151 days after the transplant. There are still some problems with this particular technology, such as the heart being rather large but as new methods of miniaturization of components take place, the heart may become smaller. It certainly is a large step forward in the replacement of such a vital organ.
The inventions of the twentyfirst century will no doubt continue to give us things that we need in order to thrive. It will be interesting to see where the new agent technology that we are now living in will take us.

• THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION
The impact of global climate change is not limited to specific areas of our lives. With its social, cultural, economic and psychological implications, climate change represents a shift towards a new era, which concerns all levels of the global community: markets and mindsets, global cooperations and democracy. To embrace this complexity the
The global economy of the coming recovery may well look very different from the global economy of the last expansion. Every business cycle leaves its mark on both the nature of business and the role of government in the economy. Not since the 1930s have we seen the government policy response to a recession as transformative as the response by the U.S. government to the current recession. Going forward, the U.S. government is going to have a much larger role with the issues of governance, green economics, energy and transparency taking center stage.

• Becoming Successful 21st Century Corporations

The Globalisation and Internet are the two major forces that are responsible for the radical changes that are going on among the business firms in Asia. Successful 21st century corporations responded
well to the threats and opportunities of the business environment. What makes these corporations different? Its the effective management systems in place that is responsible for their success.

• New Leadership
In recent years, top corporate executives have reaped a pay bonanza without precedent in the long and sweaty history of working for a living. Is today's boss overpaid? Probably, but to whom much has been given, even more will be expected. The job of leading a company has never been more demanding, and it will only get tougher in the 21st century. The CEO will retain ultimate authority, but the corporation will depend increasingly on the specialized skills of a host of subordinate leaders. Long live the chief of customer relations, the chief of knowledge, the Web chief! The accelerated pace and complexity of business will continue to force corporations to push authority down through increasingly horizontal management structures. In the future, every line manager will have to exercise leadership's prerogatives--and bear its burdens--to an extent unthinkable a generation ago.

bounce Thank You!!!! Basketball



Sources:
http://www.inventionpop.com/21stcenturyinventions.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporation
http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/Water/emerging_global.asp
http://www.deloitte.com/view/
http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_35/b3696014.htm



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Thu Aug 20, 2009 12:00 pm

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Thu Aug 20, 2009 3:54 pm

<-----at next page---->


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neil rey c. niere

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PostSubject: Assignment 6   Thu Aug 20, 2009 5:01 pm

What do you think will the 21st -century corporations look like? (1000words)


A corporation is created (incorporated) by a group of shareholders who have ownership of the corporation, represented by their holding of common stock. Shareholders elect a board of directors (generally receiving one vote per share) who appoint and oversee management of the corporation. Although a corporation does not necessarily have to be for profit, the vast majority of corporations are setup with the goal of providing a return for its shareholders. When you purchase stock you are becoming part owner in a corporation.

A legal entity that is separate and distinct from its owners. Corporations enjoy most of the rights and responsibilities that an individual possesses; that is, a corporation has the right to enter into contracts, loan and borrow money, sue and be sued, hire employees, own assets and pay taxe
s.

http://www.answers.com/topic/corporation


From time to time our corporation here in our country grew in larger. In which, it is more improving now. Corporations are, in fact, involved in virtually every type of human activity today, legal and otherwise.


The 21st -century corporations look like are the following:
• Economical power have emerged
• Landmarks are moving
• Trade is global
• Technology is overall
• Economical models are rising
• Innovation is the number one priority
• Foster individual creativity
• Make innovation everybody’s business


How?

• To promote personal and unformed interactions
• To give input and issue proportions
• Multiply interactions opportunities within implement collaborative platforms
• Build and join clusters and networks
• Social networks or networking
• Set up a global vision


The most important aspect of a corporation is limited liability. That is, shareholders have the right to participate in the profits, through dividends and/or the appreciation of stock, but are not held personally liable for the company's debts. Globalisation is the new buzzword that has come to dominate the world since the nineties of the last century with the end of the cold war and the break-up of the former Soviet Union and the global trend towards the rolling ball. The frontiers of the state with increased reliance on the market economy and renewed faith in the private capital and resources, a process of structural adjustment spurred by the studies and influences of the World Bank and other International organisations have started in many of the developing countries. Also Globalisation has brought in new opportunities to developing countries. Greater access to developed country markets and technology transfer hold out promise improved productivity and higher living standard. But globalisation has also thrown up new challenges like growing inequality across and within nations, volatility in financial market and environmental deteriorations. Another negative aspect of globalisation is that a great majority of developing countries remain removed from the process. Till the nineties the process of globalisation of the Indian economy was constrained by the barriers to trade and investment liberalisation of trade, investment and financial flows initiated in the nineties has progressively lowered the barriers to competition and hastened the pace of globalisation


A thousand years from now, our time will be remembered as the Second Dominion of the Corporation. During the early 20th century, enterprises bearing imprimaturs like Corp., Ltd., AG and S.A. gained control of the vast physical wealth in what used to be called the Free World.
Then with the advent of new economic policies in the Soviet Union and China during the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the corporate conquest neared completion. Virtually the entire planet had become organized and regimented -- in short ruled -- by corporations.
This accomplishment is beyond the power of any individual or any other type of organization in human history. It not only overshadows the authority of the world's social, political and religious forces, it transcends them, so that all people may find utility in its embrace. While most business and management schools continue to teach the functions of a corporation separately—production, marketing, finance, personnel—the reality is that for a corporation to endure each division must work with the others to create an effective system.


By the end of the 19th century the forces of limited liability, state and national deregulation, and vastly increasing capital markets had come together to give birth to the corporation in its modern-day form.The well-known Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad decision began to influence policymaking. The decline of restrictions on mergers and acquisitions encouraged a wave of corporate consolidation: from 1898 to 1904, 1800 U.S. corporations were consolidated into 157. The modern corporate era had begun.
The 20th century saw a proliferation of enabling law across the world, which helped to drive economic booms in many countries before and after World War I. Starting in the 1980s, many countries with large state-owned corporations moved toward privatization, the selling of publicly owned services and enterprises to corporations. Deregulation (reducing the regulation of corporate activity) often accompanied privatization as part of a laissez-faire policy. Another major postwar shift was toward the development of conglomerates, in which large corporations purchased smaller corporations to expand their industrial base. Japanese firms developed a horizontal conglomeration model, the keiretsu, which was later duplicated in other countries as well.



http://www.slideshare.net/Jeanyveshuwart/whats-a-21st-century-global-corporation?type=powerpoint

http://www.astonisher.com/archives/corporation_intro.html


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Ariel Serenado

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Aug 21, 2009 1:07 am

Before discussing my thoughts on the subject matter, I would like to define some terms.

Corporation

- A corporation is a legal entity separate from the persons who own it or the persons who manage or operate it. In British tradition it is the term designating a body corporate, where it can be either a corporation sole (an office held by an individual natural person, which is a legal entity separate from that person) or a corporation aggregate (involving more persons). In American and, increasingly, international usage, the term denotes a body corporate formed to conduct business. Corporations exist in a product of corporate law, and their rules balance the interests of the management w2ho operate the corporation. People work together in corporations to produce value and generate income. In modern times, corporations have become an increasingly dominant part of economic life. People rely on corporations for various reasons such as for employment, for their goods and services, for the value of the benefits that these people may acquire as they get involve in the corporations, for economic growth and academic advantage, and for social involvement and development.

The term 21st Century Corporation (21CC) refers to any corporate, professional service, an organization may be cultural, social or membership driven, or any type of organization that:

1. Has a mission to fulfill.
2. Must operate in the midst of a global economy, rapid technological changes, economic uncertainty, cultural and demographic transitions.
3. Is impacted by external factors – social, technological, environmental, economics and technological. Specifically, increasing government regulations, social trends or competition.
4. Is consistently seeking new innovative ideas to cultivate opportunities to increase market share, number of customers, profits or value for its stakeholders.
5. Needs to learn how to learn and how to manage knowledge.

Though I am not really into that business but as a student I have those foresights on the status of the 21st century companies, and as to how they will look like. For me, with the 21st century corporations, Innovation is really the no. 1 priority especially that everyone is resorting to any least possible way just to fend for themselves.

Corporations today, no matter how they are structured and organized, must find ways to internalize and manage both sets of concerns simultaneously. In essence, they must simultaneously build internally contradictory and inconsistent structures, competencies and cultures: fostering more efficient and reliable processes while encouraging the experiments and explorations needed to re-create the future. The challenge is that such innovative activities are all too often seen by those running the organization as a threat to its current priorities, practices and basis of success. Organizations have experienced a significant transformation in the last decade. Progressive organizations have led this change: others have reached to the change; and the remaining ones continue to do business as usual. The market will be dominated by organizations that lead change and are able to adapt to change. Those entities that function in a reactive state will become second tier players in the market. Organizations refusing or unable to rapidly adapt to change will cease to exist. The 21CC embodies a mindset that future growth will rely on being adept at identifying opportunities and thwarting threats. Organizational flexibility will be the objective for the 21CC allowing it to meet these challenges. Continuity will be achieved not from having a massive size of the traditional 20th Century organizational infrastructure, but on an infrastructure this is adaptable to the environment. Sustain growth and evolution will be realized by developing what TSC refers to as “pliable adaptability” which is the ability to change with change. The ability to change with change is fundamental to any evolutionary process. Pliable adaptability will be at the root of every winning organization’s competitive advantage. This ability to adapt primes an organization or identifying and exploiting opportunities for growth, finding new revenue the sources and creating value for customers and other stakeholders.

In a 21CC, corporations will shift from satisfying existing needs to anticipating needs, will not only serve customers but will lead them, will shift from a product-focus to a benefit or value-added-focus, and will shift from focusing on core businesses to focusing on core competencies. The organizational areas that will experience major changes in this transformation are: leadership, the organization, assets and resources, operations, personnel, future creation, interpersonal. These characteristics are independent. Transformation in these areas is revolutionizing how businesses perform. It does not matter whether the business is a small retail outlet; all organizations will have to concentrate on these areas in order to effectively in the market. Creative strategies and tactics are essential to accessing new markets, amazing customers, inspiring employees, and ultimately delivering more value to all stakeholders.

What will drive that continuous organizational evolution allowing an organization to achieve pliable adaptability? Pliable adaptability will be achieved from having a well formulated and executable strategy; superior operational effectiveness; understanding of corporate competencies and capabilities; innovation framework for delivering breakthrough ideas and concepts, knowledge of customer needs – now and in the future; capable of learning; willingness to change.

An organization will not be able to succeed in the 21st century without being flexible and an organization cannot be flexible without focusing. Having a strategic management process is the core of being able to achieve pliable adaptability. Since 21st century corporations will achieve pliable adaptability, this thing associates the following changes that will incorporate the global imperatives--economic, environmental, and social idea of how is the 21st century be look like:

1. Satisfy existing needs to anticipating needs.

2. Serving the people at the same time leading them.

Since leadership is being stressed out, there has been many reflections released on how the leadership needs of 21st century corporations be managed. Some of these reflections are as follows:

  • Listen to the Cry for Accountability.
Across the world of business, there is a blood cry for 'accountability'. With the most revered role models run aground--and more being bailed out--it is high time we open our windows to let the feedback in, even though we know it will not be pretty. Leadership is accountable to customers, investors, shareholders, regulators - but most of all, to our own people. As navigators, we are accountable for keeping the ship on course - more so in stormy weather. So rather than blot out the questions, we need to put into place systems and processes that foster transparency and make leaders more accountable.

  • Get into the trenches.
Emerging leaders are moving up to the top floors. To corner suites. Away from the shop floors and the real action. We need to roll up our sleeves and get back into the trenches. I cannot repeat myself often enough - we need to demolish the 'CEO office'. We need to break down the walls of hierarchy, for our future role as leaders is not about leading from the top, but co-innovating at the front lines.

  • Get emotional.
Have we perhaps forgotten the price of Marie Antoinette's statement "If they don't have bread, let them eat cake?" With the increasing commoditization of people as "resources selling time," we risk not seeing people as individuals any more. And these individuals - employees and customers alike - are hurting and wary of the future. As leaders, we need to feel their pain and find the right solution. Its no longer about improving the top-line by simply reminding our sales force to up sell and say: "Will you have fries with that?" We need to understand the real pain points of our customers and help them find real solutions to their business problems.

  • Chase the rainbow.
As everyone watches the thunder, emerging leaders are the ones who will look hard into the dark and spot the light at the end of the tunnel. There is a rainbow waiting to break out, and abundant opportunities beyond. The sooner you spot it the greater the advantage your organization can reap.

  • From Me to We.
Collaboration is the need of the hour. In the US, President-Elect Barack Obama has proven just that by co-opting the strength of his former arch rival, Hillary Clinton. History has shown us that, be it the thawing of the Cold War or the formation of the European Union, dealing with cross border terrorism or cross border recession, the power of collaboration is our only answer. The world needs the collective strength of all countries, organizations and individuals to pull together today.

  • Nimble feet.
The world will continue to flirt with unpredictability for a while ahead. As leaders, we need to stay agile, alert and nimble footed to change tactics mid-course with our eyes unwavering from the goal.

  • Keep it Simple.
The sub-prime crisis has made the world wary of complex financial instruments and foggy conditions. Somewhere along the way, complexity has gained respect in the world of business. It is time to wipe the mist off the glass and master the art of converting complexity into simplicity.

  • Ask the right questions.
Leadership today has changed from providing all the answers to asking the right questions. Keep an open mind and let fresh minds provide you with fresh ideas. The battle between grey hair and grey matter has never been fiercer, as Generation Y stakes its claim to leadership. Innovation is the passport to success and 'Green' might just be the color that pulls businesses out of the red.

  • Adapt to the new work order.
Business today works across geographical borders on the back of a cross-culture, cross-currency, cross-product, cross-time zones workforce. Markets too have transformed, with the West no longer the only or even predominant market. So in 2009, emerging leaders will have to adapt to the reality of time zones, to multiple cultures, multiple currencies, multiple pricing. We in India, and particularly in the IT services industry, have learned this lesson very quickly. In fact, insights into how to run a global corporation will come out of the Indian multinationals.

  • Yes we can I think we have all realized by now that there are no question marks about this.
Change comes to those who believe in it. As leaders, our greatest responsibility is to bring back confidence and the forward momentum and catalyze the positive energy of our people today to light the way to a brighter tomorrow.


3. Shift from a product-focus to a benefit or value-added-focus.

Diverting the manner of giving much focus on the product as to its components to a manner of giving much importance on the values and positive response of the products towards consumers.

4. Shift from focusing on core businesses to focusing on core competencies.

A business that sells investment consulting services didn't get into business because they were good at marketing, because they were good at sales, or because they knew how to write software. They got into business because they felt they had a compelling opportunity to offer investors. That's why the business might choose to outsource marketing to an agency, outsource sales, and call on a software development firm to set up their systems. This allows them to focus on what they are best at, and allow experts to handle the other functions of their business.

Sources:

http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporation
http://www.globalissues.org/issue/50/corporations
http://www.ezinearticles.com/?Becoming-Successful-21st-Century-Corporations&id=584009
http://www.articlesbase.com/outsourcing-articles/outsource-your-business-focus-on-core-competencies-783742.html
http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=57552533176&topic=7310
http://www.jussemper.org/Resources/Corporate Activity/corporation2020.html

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brian c. namuag

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PostSubject: Assignment # 6   Fri Aug 21, 2009 3:30 am



It is my understanding that in the past 200 years, technology has advanced at an astonishing rate. Man’s advances in modern science have led to several cures for once common fatal diseases. I believe fundamentally, as humans, we have a desire to live eternally. In part, technology exists for that reason. Also, technology exists to “better our lives”. Just how much “better” our lives have become over the centuries could be argued? I see two sides to this issue. One train of thought says that technology has brought us leisure, comfort and knowledge. Another train of thought proclaims that we have become slaves to our jobs and the dependence of technology. Cogs in a great combine.

The technology which surrounds almost everyone in the modern society, affects both work and leisure activities. Technology contains information that many would rather it did not have. It influences minds in good and bad ways, and it allows people to share information which they would otherwise not be able to attain. Even if a person does not own a computer or have credit cards, there is information on a computer somewhere about everyone. The technology which is just now beginning to be manipulated and harnessed is affecting the minds of small children and adolescents in ways that could be harmful. It is affecting our immediate future. It also gives another form of communication and exchange of information which was not available before, information that is both good and bad. Technology is one of the principal driving forces of the future; it is transforming our lives and shaping our future at rates unprecedented in history, with profound implications which we can't even begin to see or understand.

Many different elements affect how satisfied we are with our lives. The impact of technology on these elements can change how safe, healthy and happy people feel. Throughout history, people have looked for better ways to meet their needs and to satisfy their expectations. Technology has improved the way people feed, clothe and shelter themselves. Technology has also changed other aspects of everyday life, such as health care, education, job satisfaction, and leisure time activities. People have used technology since them first chipped stone blades to improve their hunting. Yet some people call the current age the Technological Age because of society's dependence on technology. For the first time in human history, almost all the goods and services people use depend on technology.

The products of technology are available to almost everyone in society. The economy of a country influences how the people of the county live. Technology is often considered the key to a nation's economic growth. Most economists would say that it is one of the factors in economic growth, but they would probably disagree about its importance. Many economists think that if technology sparks growth in one sector of the economy in the form of increased productivity, growth will also occur in other sectors of the economy. Jobs may be lost in one industry, such as agriculture but new jobs may emerge in other sectors of the economy. There may be more jobs or, in some case, completely new kinds of jobs. Technology may also be used to solve urgent problems.

Our growing population is using up infinite supplies of natural resources. Innovations in technology can allow for more efficient use of limited or scarce resources. More products might be made from the same amount of raw material using new techniques. Technology can increase productivity to help countries compete with other countries in selling goods and services. Some say that without technological improvements, the economy would grow slowly or not at all.

What is Corporation?


Corporations exist as a product of corporate law, and their rules balance the interests of the management who operate the corporation; creditors who loan it goods, services or money; shareholders that invest their capital and the employees who contribute their labor. People work together in corporations to produce value and generate income. In modern times, corporations have become an increasingly dominant part of economic life. People rely on corporations for employment, for their goods and services, for the value of the pensions, for economic growth and social development.
The defining feature of a corporation is its legal independence from the people who create it. If a corporation fails, shareholders normally only stand to lose their investment and employees will lose their jobs, but neither will be further liable for debts that remain owing to the corporation's creditors unless they have separately varied this, e.g. with personal guarantees. This rule is called limited liability, and it is why the names of corporations in the UK end with "Ltd.".

The Great Transformation

Sparked by new technologies, particularly the Internet, the corporation is undergoing a radical transformation that is nothing less than a new Industrial Revolution. This time around, the revolution is reaching every corner of the globe and in the process, rewriting the rules laid down by Sloan, Henry Ford, and other Industrial Age giants. The 21st century corporation that emerges will in many ways be the polar opposite of the organizations they helped shape.

The New Leadership
In recent years, top corporate executives have reaped a pay bonanza without precedent in the long and sweaty history of working for a living. Is today's boss overpaid? Probably, but to whom much has been given, even more will be expected. The job of leading a company has never been more demanding, and it will only get tougher in the 21st century.

The Enduring Corporation
Government also expects much more from the corporation than it did a generation ago. For some time now, corporations have been America's largest distributors of health care and private pension benefits. In recent years government also has increasingly looked to business to regulate employee behavior in the workplace in new ways, giving rise to the so-called nanny corporation.

The Ecosystem

The corporate ecosystem of the 21st century will be characterized by a blurring of once-distinct boundaries: between public and private, foreign and domestic, insider and outsider, friend and foe. The effect will be liberating in many ways. Corporations will be freer to pursue opportunity wherever in the world they find it, and to exploit it according to the requirements of circumstance, not the blind dictates of tradition. Outsourcing will become ever more prevalent, transforming many corporations into superefficient, virtual facsimiles of their old selves. But success will not come easy in this brave new world.

Designs for the Future
Few institutions embody their era as strikingly as the corporation. In form and function, it reflects the defining technologies and social organization of its time. This is as true of the physical manifestation as internal configuration, which is why corporations have captured the imagination of so many visionaries, especially architects.




Sources:
http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_35/b3696001.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/21st_Century


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Maria Theresa F. Rulete

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 6 (Due: August 19, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Aug 21, 2009 12:52 pm





A corporation is defined as a legal entity or structure created under the authority of the laws of a state, consisting of a person or group of persons who become shareholders. The entity's existence is considered separate and distinct from that of its members.
Like a real person, a corporation can enter into contracts, sue and be sued, pay taxes separately from its owners, and do the other things necessary to conduct business. Since a corporation is an entity in its own right, it is liable for its own debts and obligations. As a result, providing that corporate formalities are followed, the corporation's owners (the shareholders) enjoy limited liability, and are legally shielded from the corporation's liabilities and debts.
The existence of a corporation is not dependent upon who the owners or investors are at any one time. Once formed, a corporation continues to exist as a separate entity, even when shareholders die or sell their shares. A corporation continues to exist until the shareholders decide to dissolve it or merge it with another business.
Corporations are subject to the laws of the state of incorporation, and to the laws of any other state in which the corporation conducts business. Corporations may thus be subject to the laws of more than one state. All states have corporation statutes that set forth the ground rules as to how corporations are formed and maintained.
Sparked by new technologies, particularly the Internet, the corporation is undergoing a radical transformation that is nothing less than a new Industrial Revolution. This time around, the revolution is reaching every corner of the globe and in the process, rewriting the rules laid down by Sloan, Henry Ford, and other Industrial Age giants. The 21st century corporation that emerges will in many ways be the polar opposite of the organizations they helped shape.

The organizations that flourish will have several defining features.

-- It's management by Web. That means not just Web as in Internet but the web-like shape of successful organizations in the future. If there are pair of images that symbolize the vast changes at work, they are the pyramid and the web. The organizational chart of large-scale enterprise had long been defined as a pyramid of ever-shrinking layers leading to an omnipotent CEO at its apex. The 21st century Corporation, in contrast, is far more likely to look like a web: a flat, intricately woven form that links partners, employees, external contractors, suppliers, and customers in various collaborations. The players will grow more and more interdependent. Fewer companies will try to master all the disciplines necessary to produce and market their goods but will instead outsource skills--from research and development to manufacturing--to outsiders who can perform those functions with greater efficiency.

-- It's more about bits, less about atoms. The most profitable enterprises will manage bits, or information, instead of focusing solely on managing atoms (the corporation's physical assets). Sheer size will no longer be the hallmark of success; instead, the market will prize the ability to efficiently deploy assets. Good bit management can allow an upstart to beat an established player; it can also give an incumbent vast advantages. By using information to manage themselves and better serve their customers, companies will be able to do things cheaper, faster, and with far less waste.

-- It's mass customization. The previous 100 years were marked by mass production and mass consumption. Companies sought economies of scale to build large factories that produced cookie-cutter products, which they then sold to the largest numbers of people in as many markets as possible. The company of the future will tailor its products to each individual by turning customers into partners and giving them the technology to design and demand exactly what they want. Mass customization will result in waves of individualized products and services, as well as huge savings for companies, which will no longer have to guess what and how much customers want.

-- It's dependent on intellectual capital. The advantage of bringing breakthrough products to market first will be shorter-lived than ever, because technology will let competitors match or exceed them almost instantly. To keep ahead of the steep new-product curve, it will be crucial for businesses to attract and retain the best thinkers. Companies will need to build a deep reservoir of talent--including both employees and free agents--to succeed in this new era. But attracting and retaining an elite workforce will require more than huge paychecks. Corporations will need to create the kind of cultures and reward systems that keep the best minds engaged. The old command-and-control hierarchies, with their civil-service-like wages, are fast crumbling in favor of organizations that empower vast numbers of people and reward the best of them as if they were owners of the enterprise.

-- It's global. In the beginning, the global company was defined as one that simply sold its goods in overseas markets. Later, global companies assumed a manufacturing presence in numerous countries. The company of the future will call on talent and resources--especially intellectual capital--wherever they can be found around the globe, just as it will sell its goods and services around the globe. Indeed, the very notion of a headquarters country may no longer apply, as companies migrate to places of greatest advantage. Every outpost will be seamlessly connected by the Net so that far-flung employees and freelancers can work together in real time.

-- It's about speed. All this work will be done in an instant. The Internet is a tool, and the biggest impact of that tool is speed. The speed of actions, the speed of deliberations, and the speed of information has increased, and it will continue to increase. That means the old, process-oriented corporation must radically revamp. With everything from product cycles to employee turnover on fast-forward, there is simply not enough time for deliberation or bureaucracy.

The 21st century corporation will not have one ideal form. Some will be completely virtual, wholly dependent on a network of suppliers, manufacturers, and distributors for their survival. Others, less so. Some of the most successful companies will be very small and very specialized; others will be gargantuan in size, scope, and complexity.

Some enterprises will last no longer than the time it takes for a new product or technology to reach the market. Once it does, these temporary organizations will pass their innovations on to host companies that can leverage them more quickly and at less expense. The reason: Every company has capabilities, but also disabilities. The disabilities--things like deeply held beliefs, rituals, and traditions--often smother radical thinking.

The corporate ecosystem of the 21st century will be characterized by a blurring of once-distinct boundaries: between public and private, foreign and domestic, insider and outsider, friend and foe. The effect will be liberating in many ways. Corporations will be freer to pursue opportunity wherever in the world they find it, and to exploit it according to the requirements of circumstance, not the blind dictates of tradition. Outsourcing will become ever more prevalent, transforming many corporations into super efficient, virtual facsimiles of their old selves. But success will not come easy in this brave new world. The growing fluidity of vital business relationships will require constant vigilance and improvisation by all concerned. Like it or not, corporations also will assume a larger role in education and other public-sector preserves, taking over tasks that government either is unwilling or unable to do itself.

The most important force of all: the growing power of ideas. People are cranking out computer programs and inventions, while lightly staffed factories churn out the sofas, the breakfast cereals, the cell phones. The turn of the millennium is a turn from hamburgers to software. Software is an idea; hamburger is a cow. There will still be hamburger makers in the 21st century, of course, but the power, prestige, and money will flow to the companies with indispensable intellectual property. You can see it already. In an economy based on ideas rather than physical capital, the potential for breakaway successes is far greater. That's because ideas, like germs, are infectious. They can spread to a huge population seemingly overnight. And once the idea--say, a computer program--has been developed, the cost of making copies is close to zero and the potential profits enormous. With the possibility of gargantuan returns, it's no wonder that idea-based corporations have easy access to capital.

The sheer abundance of capital could be bad for the capitalists themselves, including ordinary investors in the stock market. That's because the commodity they supply--money--is no longer scarce. What's scarce are the good ideas. Thus, shareholders are likely to lose some power in the 21st century, while entrepreneurs and idea-generating employees gain it. Huge bonuses and option grants to key employees are early evidence of the trend.

True 21st century corporations will also learn to manage an elaborate network of external relationships. That far-reaching ecosystem of suppliers, partners, and contractors will allow them to focus on what they do best and farm everything else out. And it will let them quickly take advantage of fleeting opportunities without having to tie up vast amounts of capital. Outsourcing and partnering, of course, are hardly new. But in the coming century, such alliances will become more crucial.

The 21st century Corporation will require an array of new skills, all of which must be mastered for leaders to gain the upper competitive hand. Globalization has opened new markets. Deregulation has broken down industry boundaries. Venture capital has funded thousands of new tech-savvy insurgents who now threaten incumbents. And the ever-ubiquitous Web has brought the potential for remarkable gains in productivity--but also for frightening deflationary pressures. All these forces are fast propelling the creation of new business models in the 21st century; models that will look nothing like the once-healthy and seemingly invincible enterprises of an earlier age.
The truly great 21st century companies will recognize that the real power of technology is not just the ability to make a business more efficient but also it’s potential to spark transformative change. Much of that change will involve the company's relationship with its customers. In an era of unprecedented choice, in which prices and product specs for almost anything are only a click away, companies will have to offer a lot more than bargain prices.

The rising importance of ideas creates all kinds of difficulties for corporations. Books, music, and software are devilishly difficult to create--and diabolically easy to copy. And now so is the Internet, thanks to services that enable people to download music, movies, and software for free. Theft of intellectual property is lethal to innovation. Yet overly strict enforcement of intellectual-property protections can dampen innovation as well by letting the property owners get lazy. To keep the Creative Economy growing, governments will have to strike a delicate balance: enforce patents, copyrights, trademarks, and noncompete clauses to preserve incentives to create, but not so much that it suppresses competition.

The most important intellectual property isn't software or music or movies. It's the stuff inside employees' heads. When assets were physical things like coal mines, shareholders truly owned them. But when the vital assets are people, there can be no true ownership. The best that corporations can do is to create an environment that makes the best people want to stay.

Of course, not everyone will benefit equally from the shift to an information-based economy. And education is likely to become even more essential to prosperity in the future. The five fastest-growing occupations are all computer-related. Corporations faced with a shortage of skilled help are likely to respond through a combination of training, exporting work offshore, and looking for ways to ''de-skill'' certain jobs. Fast-food cashiers, for instance, punch buttons for food items rather than keying in prices.

The power to exert influence is nearly unlimited because there's no ceiling on how many people can be made to depend on idea-based assets. Global corporations will try to take advantage of their transnational status to operate beyond the control of national governments. They can play governments off one another through their decisions about where to locate factories or research labs. And many use unrealistic transfer prices to shift income from high-tax jurisdictions to low-tax ones.

http://www.businessweek.com/

http://www.allbusiness.com/

My Blog: http://etelur.blogspot.com/2009/10/corporation-is-defined-as-legal-entity.html




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John Paul Pulido

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PostSubject: Assignment 6   Fri Aug 21, 2009 10:17 pm

The 21st century is the current century of the Christian Era or Common Era in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It began on January 1, 2001 and will end December 31, 2100.

In the early stage of the century is a major problem to some corporations because of what we call the recession. Almost all companies here and abroad are experiencing resizing. Resizing, or the reduction of employees by a certain company so that they can survive for a long long time of service to the people.

Recession' effect to IT Industry:

21st century brought a new disaster in each and every field of life as they have affected every nook and corner of the social life. This century had been terrible too according IT sectors point of view. All was good enough at the beginning but as soon as the years passed by there had been recession in the US market. The recession was on account of a “law” in United States of America.The law was to give loan to a person or company by any bank whenever anybody or any company has to increase their firm when their ideas are good enough to establish a business that has got some sort of evergreen environment. But no one was in the position even to think that this law at last will affect the bank itself in spite of being adding profit. The approximation of the total 11 billion dollar BPO sector that mostly depends on the Outcome of the United Sates had been affected badly on account of the recession. As the top news now a days mostly in the form of headline is about 2.5 Lakhs of people are unemployed because of recession.

To overcome this and to give relief to the endangered IT sector employee and the respective company, the government must have to give relaxation of tax for the coming five to ten years.

In the mid stage of the century, the corporations may survive from the recession and will start to build a new progressive companies. Companies affected by the recession will slowly gain it's reputation and pride. More technology will be discovered and more infrastructure will be built.

Thoughts of Zuse Orman about the recession:

With soaring gas prices, plummeting home prices and a stock market on a roller coaster ride, millions of Americans fear their jobs, homes and savings are in jeopardy. The word recession is making headlines, leaving many people panicked about their financial futures.

Money expert Suze Orman says recessions are a natural part of economic life. "People should be concerned more than worried," she says. "This is not the first time that we have had a recession. A recession is nothing more than a contraction. I'd like you to think about it like your breath. You breathe, you expand. And then you have to contract in order to have breath, in order to have life. Money is the same way. It has to expand and it has to contract for the economy to have life."

Suze says recessions will come and go—so it is important to be prepared. "People think, 'The economy did this to me. When is the economy going to change?' As if the economy is going to save them. And what have I always said? Only you can save yourself. Nobody can ever save you."

After all, the world may survive for this recession.

References:
http://century21-spain.com/?p=184
http://www.oprah.com/slideshow/oprahshow/slideshow1_ss_saving_20080331_284


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Russel John Serrano

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PostSubject: Assignment 6 ::HRM::   Sat Aug 22, 2009 10:06 pm


The 21st-century Corporation




Business
and industry



  • Musical Industry: The early 21st century has
    had a profound impact on the condition of music distribution. Recent
    advents in digital technology have fundamentally altered industry and
    marketing practices as well as players in unusual rapidity.

[size=9]THE 21ST CENTURY CORPORATION -- THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION


EPHEMERAL.
To survive and thrive in this century, managers will need to hard-wire a new set of rules and guideposts into their brains. Not so long ago, for example, leaders believed that building assets over the long haul guaranteed competitive advantage. In this new century, success will go to the companies that partner their way to a new future, not those that put heavy assets onto their balance sheets. Leaders once thought that creating intense rivalries among competitors motivated their employees and assured success. But in the days to come, a company's fiercest competitor might also be its most important collaborator. Since the dawn of trade, every business leader has wanted to build an enduring enterprise. In the new century, though, many companies will be
intentionally ephemeral, formed to create new technologies or products only to be absorbed by sponsor companies when their missions are
accomplished.

Many factors, from the need to expand beyond national borders to the inexorable shift toward intellectual capital, are driving change, but none is more important than the rise of Internet technologies. Like the steam engine or the assembly line, the Net has already become an advance with revolutionary consequences, most of which we have only begun to feel.

DIGITIZATION.
Just as the smaller companies will use technology to gain economies of scale, larger companies will harness technology to reduce the costs of complexity. McKinsey's Bryan points out that technology allows Bank of America to manage a continent-wide bank of $700 billion in assets as effectively as it once managed a single-state bank with $7 billion.

At the very core of the 21st century corporation is technology, or what most people today call digitization. Put simply, digitization means removing human minds and hands from an organization's most routine tasks and replacing them with computers and networks. Digitizing everything from employee benefits to accounts receivables to product design cuts time, cost, and people from operations, resulting in huge savings and vast improvements in speed. Everything a company does involves what Bryan calls ''interaction costs,'' the expenses incurred to get different people and companies to work together to create and sell products. In the U.S. alone, Bryan surmises, such interaction fees account for over half of all labor costs. Digitization lowers these expenses dramatically. ''You are going to see unbelievable speed and efficiencies,'' says John T. Chambers, Cisco's CEO. ''Truly efficient companies, particularly in the first couple of waves of change, will be able to drive [overall] productivity at 20% to 40% a year.''


CULTURAL CHANGE.
The potential for productivity gains is everywhere, in every process, in every industry. The bigger the company and the larger its costs, the greater the opportunity to see tremendous efficiencies. In the years to come, large incumbent corporations that get it will be the greatest beneficiaries of the Net, not the dot-com insurgents that once garnered all the publicity and market valuations.

Despite a handful of leading-edge companies, the true 21st century corporation, at least as it will eventually emerge, does not yet exist. John F. Welch Jr. of General Electric Co. may have created the archetypal ''learning organization,'' a highly diverse company that shares ideas across its many boundaries. Chambers of Cisco Systems may boast the most networked organization in the world, a company in which nearly all its administrative functions are conducted over the Internet. Michael S. Dell may have built the most efficient supply-chain network ever, a model that requires virtually no inventory. But there is no one company today that embodies all the possibilities and promise of the superefficient 21st century corporation.

FEEDBACK.
High-tech bells and whistles aside, how does this differ from previous efforts to ''delight'' customers? Wingspan invites customers to refine the bank's offerings. ''Our customers have a great desire to improve the bank, and we act on their ideas,'' says Clearly. Customer feedback led to software changes that allowed users to access all their accounts at once, with a single sign-on. In response to customer suggestions, the bank is working on a way to allow deposits at ATMs and to improve downloads of financial data from Wingspan servers to customers' Quicken software.

The best-of-breed companies will go even further. They'll invite customers in as collaborators, binding them ever tighter to the corporation. Procter & Gamble Co. (PG) spin-off reflect.com LLC, an online cosmetics merchant, is a harbinger of what's possible. By answering a series of queries ranging from color preferences to skin type, consumers can custom-design up to 50,000 different formulations of cosmetics and perfumes. When they're done, they can even design the packaging

for the products. Procter & Gamble charges a premium price for the custom-blended blushers and lipsticks, and why not? Customers mixing their own shades aren't likely to try comparison shopping.

Reflect.com is one of many efforts to create enduring relationships with customers in an age of commoditization. ''The next level up is where the consumer is really designing from scratch,'' says Ticoll of Digital 4Sight. ''Organizations will learn from these new
opportunities.''

DELIVERING THE GOODS.
In the hands of a creative leader, even the most prosaic Industrial Age enterprises can reap quantum efficiencies by applying the new management principles of the 21st century corporation. No company proves that better than Cemex (CX), which operates in one of the most mundane, commodity-driven businesses in the world: cement. Based in Monterrey, Mexico, Cemex was a modestly profitable business in 1985 when Lorenzo H. Zambrano, a Stanford University MBA whose grandfather founded the company, became chief executive. Cemex' biggest problem in an asset-intensive, low-efficiency business was unpredictable demand. Roughly half of its orders were changed by customers, often just hours before delivery. Dispatchers took orders for 8,000 grades of mixed concrete and forwarded them to six plants. The phones were often jammed with calls from customers, truckers, and dispatchers, resulting in lost orders and frustrated customers.

Then Cemex went digital, vastly reducing delivery and production problems. More important, the makeover helped management refocus efforts from managing assets to managing information. ''Technology allows you to do business in a much different fashion than before,'' says Zambrano. ''We used it not only to deliver a product but to sell a service.''

CONNECTIONS.
True 21st century corporations will also learn to manage an elaborate network of external relationships. That far-reaching ecosystem of suppliers, partners, and contractors will allow them to focus on what they do best and farm everything else out. And it will let them quickly take advantage of fleeting opportunities without having to tie up vast amounts of capital. Outsourcing and partnering, of course, are hardly new. But in the coming century, such alliances will become more crucial.

Cisco Systems has taken the concept to an extreme. It owns only two of the 34 plants that produce its products. Roughly 90% of the orders come into the company without ever being touched by human hands, and 52% of them are fulfilled without a Cisco employee being involved. ''To my customers, it looks like one big virtual plant where my suppliers and inventory systems are directly tied into an ecosystem,'' says Chambers. ''That will be the norm in the future. Everything will be completely connected, both within a company and between companies. The people who get that will have a huge competitive advantage.''

TALENT HUNT.
They also gave a small upstart immediate scale and reach. Juno, for instance, boasts fewer than 300 direct employees yet has nearly 700 technicians in customer service alone because of its alliances. ''If we did all of this stuff ourselves, we would have to have at least 1,000 people to work on content alone,'' estimates Ardai.

Vast changes in technical and organizational structure, however, will only get leaders so far on their journey toward 21st century leadership. Nearly everyone agrees it still comes down to that most precious commodity: talented people. Attracting, cultivating, and retaining them
will be the indispensable ingredient that will drive the ideas, products, and growth of all companies like never before. As management guru Gary Hamel puts it: ''We have moved from an economy of hands to an economy of heads. Therefore, the price of imagination, the premium for it, will go up.'' Increasingly, companies will need to scour the world for the best intellectual capital, then create the kinds of challenging environments that will allow stars to flourish.

INCUBATOR.
As a private company, Trilogy can't offer stock options. Instead, it offers the chance to create and run new businesses. Liemandt throws out a daunting challenge to every incoming class: Within two years, the students will be responsible for the creation of at least 20% of new revenues. ''They treat the university as an R&D incubator,'' says Noel M. Tichy, a University of Michigan management professor. Trilogy, for example, has spun out six companies, including one that's selling hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of cars online annually.

To make sure he doesn't lose touch with his employees, Liemandt uses the Net to establish one-on-one conversations with them. Trilogy's 1,500 employees go online to read--and respond to--the mission statements of top managers. Periodically, they're asked to assess managers online. ''Energy and excitement is why people do startups,'' says Liemandt. ''But as the company gets larger, people don't feel as engaged. They feel as if they are spoken to instead of being engaged in a collaboration. The net provides a ten-to-twenty-fold increase in the level of interaction you can have.''

The 21st
century corporation will require an array of new skills, all of which must be mastered for leaders to gain the upper competitive hand. Globalization has opened new markets. Deregulation has broken down industry boundaries. Venture capital has funded thousands of new tech-savvy insurgents who now threaten incumbents. And the ever-ubiquitous Web has brought the potential for remarkable gains in productivity--but also for frightening deflationary pressures. All these forces are fast propelling the creation of new business models in the 21st century, models that will look nothing like the once-healthy and seemingly invincible enterprises of an earlier age.



+---------------------------------------+

http://www.businessweek.com/common_frames/ma_0035.htm?/2000/00_35/b3696011.htm





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