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 Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)

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Michelle Adlawan

Posts : 34
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Join date : 2009-06-23
Age : 27
Location : Lupon, Davao Oriental

PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Oct 13, 2009 6:10 am

It took me quite a while to furnish my answer to this last assignment in MIS 1. I went reading a lot of sites pertaining to what sir means with “Information Environment”. I asked my classmates about it and visit forums from the previous year. And somehow, I was enlightened. ^____^

From what I’ve understand and as I browse meanings in the internet, information environment is a place wherein information is being gathered, processed, used, stored, and updated according to the specifications of the one in need of such information. It is known that there are a lot of information resources all over the world that can be used to support researchers, learners, teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required because people are in need of information in achieving their respective goals and ideals. Therefore, there is the need to ensure that quality information isn't lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. Information environment could be anywhere whether it’s a business or school setting. As long as it conveys proper settings for learning information and resources that is used and published. There are a lot of information environment nowadays and honestly, while making this post, I still got to think on what information environment I should choose. But since I’ve reached this top, well maybe then, I have to decide.

Honestly, I am a frustrated blogger. Yes, that’s true…ridiculous if you think about it. How do I say so? Well seriously, I love to write or should I say express my own thoughts and emotions in writing. However, I still get the hang up of being so reluctant with my work. I also suffer being so clumsy and lazy when I desire to do such tasks. (I’m working to minimize my problems though.) In my way of inclining my frustration in my own satisfaction, the information environment I chose is the blog sites in the internet.

“The fundamental principle behind the Web was that once someone somewhere made available a document, database, graphic, sound, video, or screen at some stage in an interactive dialogue, it should be accessible (subject to authorization, of course) by anyone, with any type of computer, in any country. And it should be possible to make a reference – a link – to that thing, so that others could find it.”

- Tim Berners-Lee: “Weaving the Web” – 1999

Blog is a platform by which you can tell people what you know and what you want to tell with them. Blogging is a proof to be an immensely useful platform for the individuals to speak out their minds to the outside world. Years ago, there was no such thing as a “blog;” but today blogs have become very influential components of the Internet, and their importance is growing exponentially. The word “blog” is a shortened form of “web log,” and it stands for a web site that keeps a log (much like a diary) of people’s thoughts, their actions, and their reactions to other people’s thoughts and actions. Today, there are millions of blogs on the Internet. Some blogs are personal blogs which for some people it is a medium of showing their selves in telling their interests and goals. It can also be a psychologically fulfilling tool for self expression. For teenagers to elderly people, they use blogs as a journal for radical views on politics, government, system, technology, nature etc. Blogs often become a source for them to communicate with others, especially those who have the same line of interest and also help in expanding their social circle. It provides means or place for public expression of opinion. Some blogs are built for business and corporate purposes. It becomes a substantial tool to enhance communication and culture within the corporation where people share their views about their work and experience which provides learning to the other employees as well. It can also be an eminent opportunity to communicate with their clients. This adds to their marketing, branding and public relations purposes. Blogs proof to be an official platform where business can display official information like company news, new product launch etc. Moreover, blogs also can be used as tools for creating on-line communities of people interested in the same subjects – or in each other.

Consequently, as a mean part of this information environment, it is my role to take responsibility in creating posts that is substantial to the readers. The reader would somehow able to know some information and facts regarding posts from my blog. I definitely believe that timely information is significant to readers who value current news and facts. During the years, some blogs have become “news sources,” publishing stories like newspapers, radio stations and TV stations. Knowing that people (many or few) consume your content (read your blog) causes a sense of responsibility (to varying degrees). It is similar to an actor or a journalist discovering that people admire or enjoy their work and instantly receive an additional motivation to do their very best. Not everyone in life knows what it's like to have an audience but blogs are changing that and soon, everyone who chooses to will have an audience. It will be a decision of choice instead of circumstance on posting subsequent topics into your blog. Being an IT student, being equip with updates of the new technology should also be considered in creating posts in the blog. For the readers’ sake, it is their rights to acknowledged with the latest news and events.

In performing this role, it is just to consider the help from the principles of information organization and representation. Information organization is important for people to find and understand information. This is done in order for the information to collected and recorded, retrieved, evaluated and selected, understood, processed and analyzed, applied, and rearranged and reused. Blogging is a conventional way of redistribution of information to the readers and other bloggers. The content that the blogger published could quite possibly be someone's media consumption tomorrow and maybe inspire posts by other bloggers. With the principles of information organization and representation, quality information will be produced. By blogging, the readers internalize the idea, inspiration or issue that was published and thus give valid information that somehow helps in attaining their respective daily goals.

In acquiring certain tasks, certain challenges are also being encountered. In blogging, you should find specific topics and related sources in order to provide convincing posts and factual information. The first thing to consider is the time. More appropriately, once started blogging, you have to commit certain amount of time everyday. Up-to-date posts would mostly likely engage visitors to your blog. Second is the subject you are to post in your blog. You should know the topics and facts you are discussing in order for the readers to acquire ideas and inspirations while reading your blog. Last one is maintenance in your blog. It is your responsibility in maintaining good posts in your blog and creates a favorable site for gaining information.

As I browse more on the internet I’ve found four specific ways that blogs are causing change among the masses.
1. Activism

Media consumption has traditionally been a passive event. While each medium requires varying degrees of attention and concentration, very few require active participation. Reading a book demands thinking and concentration but the act of reading very rarely motivates the reader to write his own book. And, for the few who do receive that authorial inspiration, many obstacles stand between a finished book and publication. The passive nature of traditional media consumption may be by design or it may be due to circumstances but the reality is that blogs DO NOT ENCOURAGE passive behavior. In fact, blogs are the polar opposite of passive media consumption. Blogs encourage people to publish their content for the world. By definition this is an activity and blogging encourages this activity.

Contrast a habitual television viewer, aka couch potato, with a blogger. The couch potato watches programming and maybe talks about what he saw at the office water cooler. The blogger may watch a similar show or possibly read something interesting on the Web and blogs about it for the entire world to read. Additionally, the content that the blogger published could quite possibly be someone's media consumption tomorrow and maybe inspire posts by other bloggers.

The point isn't that bloggers will change the world but that blogging is an activity and getting involved affects people in many positive ways. Additionally, by blogging, the participants internalize the idea, inspiration or issue that was published. The result of this internalization a sense of "ownership" because personal time and energy was invested in the blog post.

2. Audience

Knowing that people (many or few) consume your content (read your blog) causes a sense of responsibility (to varying degrees). It is similar to an actor or a journalist discovering that people admire or enjoy their work and instantly receive an additional motivation to do their very best. Not everyone in life knows what it's like to have an audience but blogs are changing that and soon, everyone who chooses to will have an audience. It will be a decision of choice instead of circumstance.

3. Votes

Links are votes. Commenting about a topic is a vote. Bloggers are trading in votes. With search engines like Google and services like Technorati, Daypop and Blogdex, every blogger who adds a link or bitches about a movie, enters a vote for that particular topic or Web site. The more bloggers that link or comment, the more important that topic becomes and the more visible it is to the rest of the world. The more visible the topic becomes, the more it will be talked about and the cycle will continue.

That is only one example of how linking and commenting on a topic can register a vote of support or condemnation. Without a blog (or a Web site) it is impossible for an individual to have anything close to that type of impact on a particular topic. Empowering individuals with the ability to actually make a difference with something he or she cares about is a powerful thing. Be careful with those links.

4. Lens

Because bloggers have a means to publish anything to a global audience they begin to view the world around them through a blogging lens. Everyday events suddenly become potential blog posts. An awareness develops that didn't previously exist. An otherwise ordinary individual is now seeing things in her personal experiences as possible content for a global publication.

Journalists learn to view life through the lens of “the story.” Artists learn to perceive the world as inspiration for their next masterpiece. Musicians learn to gobble up sounds and experiences as fuel for their next platinum record. Mathematicians learn to see numerical patterns in nature and are motivated to develop Nobel-winning equations. And now bloggers are learning to view everything around them as inspiration for their blog.

As an information environment, blogging should be done accordingly, just as it follows the regulations impose by certain individuals or organizations involved or linked in the making of the blog post. Certain policies should be considered and acquired. From this, a proper management of the information environment will be applied.

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emilio jopia jr.

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Join date : 2009-06-22

PostSubject: MIS Assignment 9   Tue Oct 13, 2009 7:14 am

Identify an information environment of your choice and write an essay to address the following questions:

• What should be your role within this environment?
• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

The flow of information has changed the way we live in today world. Information is the backbone of every system. Every morning when we read a newspaper having out so much information we came to know the latest happening in the world (of course in details), yeah you are right even the internet .
We can take the example of banking. It is very to transact any amount of money from part of the world to other with help of e-commerce. We can purchase anything online with help of debit and credit cards. This has made our lives more and more simple.
Now days if we want to buy to something and are not getting it nearby store then we can simply search for that thing on internet and then order it on the internet. We will get it delivered at our doorstep with just few clicks of mouse. Similarly if we want to travel around the world we can book airline tickets online and even book rooms for our hotels (of course at competitive rates). People are working on the internet without really having to go outside to their workplace.
Companies can share technologies online. Even the doctors can guide the other doctors while operating on a patient with the help of Information Technology.

A whole new world is coming in our way.


Electronic commerce, commonly known as (electronic marketing) e-commerce or eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. The amount of trade conducted electronically has grown extraordinarily with widespread Internet usage. The use of commerce is conducted in this way, spurring and drawing on innovations in electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at some point in the transaction's lifecycle, although it can encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail as well.

A large percentage of electronic commerce is conducted entirely electronically for virtual items such as access to premium content on a website, but most electronic commerce involves the transportation of physical items in some way. Online retailers are sometimes known as e-tailers and online retail is sometimes known as e-tail. Almost all big retailers have electronic commerce presence on the World Wide Web.

Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses is referred to as business-to-business or B2B. B2B can be open to all interested parties (e.g. commodity exchange) or limited to specific, pre-qualified participants (private electronic market). Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses and consumers, on the other hand, is referred to as business-to-consumer or B2C. This is the type of electronic commerce conducted by companies such as Amazon.com.
Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of the business transactions.
Contemporary electronic commerce involves everything from ordering "digital" content for immediate online consumption, to ordering conventional goods and services, to "meta" services to facilitate other types of electronic commerce.

On the consumer level, electronic commerce is mostly conducted on the World Wide Web. An individual can go online to purchase anything from books or groceries, to expensive items like real estate. Another example would be online banking, i.e. online bill payments, buying stocks, transferring funds from one account to another, and initiating wire payment to another country. All of these activities can be done with a few strokes of the keyboard.
On the institutional level, big corporations and financial institutions use the internet to exchange financial data to facilitate domestic and international business. Data integrity and security are very hot and pressing issues for electronic commerce today.

My role within this environment
Electronic commerce is here to stay. No matter how big the dot-com crisis was or how far the e-entrepreneurs' shares fell in the market, the fact remains that there is still confidence in electronic trading. At least it would appear that investors are confident in e-companies again.
However, not only trust of venture capitalists is of importance -- consumers also have to have faith in on-line business. After all, without consumers there is no e-business. Interacting lawyers, technicians and economists are needed to create a trustworthy electronic commerce environment.
To achieve this environment, thorough and inter-disciplinary research is required and that is exactly what this book is about. Researchers of the project Enabling Electronic Commerce from the Dutch universities of Tilburg and Eindhoven have chosen a number of e-topics to elaborate on trust from their point of view.
This volume makes clear that the various disciplines can and will play a role in developing conditions for trust and thus contribute to a successful electronic market.

How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?

The quality of "findability" is the ability of a user to find the information they need, regardless of whether he or she has touched it before, knows exactly where it is, or knows in which repository it resides. To manage unstructured content effectively and efficiently, it must be organized. Structure is needed to address the underlying challenge of managing content.

It helps me to...

Understand my content
The first step in coming to grips with content in any organization is to clarify your business goals. What exactly are they? Why do you need to organize this data? What strategic goal will it achieve? This basic question is often overlooked when starting a project. If there is no legitimate business reason to add metadata or build an enterprise-wide taxonomy or business classification scheme, then doing so is nothing more than a waste of money.

Get it organized. To organize information, we use a sequential process. The steps are as follows: hypothesis, audit, inventory, analyze, clean up and enrich, reorganize, and migrate. Going through each of these steps one at a time will help you achieve your goals quickly and efficiently.

Analysis, cleanup, and enrich. During the inventory you should begin to identify groups of information that belong together, such as invoices, contracts, case files, etc. You should start to capture those attributes in the form of various fields of metadata that can be added to the inventory list. This can be metadata that helps you identify, structure, or administer an object. Every bit of metadata added to an object takes time and money, so its purpose must be extremely well defined and thought through. There is no substitute for a clear metadata strategy.

Reorganize and migrate. This step is where you decide what information is relevant and should be moved into the new environment, grouping together what belongs together and migrating it from the chaotic environment that you’ve been working in to an organized and logical environment.

Establishing virtual personas
An effective means of dealing with the challenge of identifying user groups and understanding their needs is to create virtual “personas”. These are fictitious characters created to represent each of the user types within your organization, distinguished by the way they approach and consume information. These personas should be realistic and bestowed with as much detail as necessary to mimic the needs of the actual user groups.

Don’t get lost in the process
An important caveat: Don’t lose sight of the fact that information is only part of the overall user experience and it’s important not to get lost in organizing data for its own sake. Searching is one way to retrieve information and get access to it. No search engine by itself, however, will provide the perfect solution and meet the needs of all users at the same time without some careful tuning and without considering some of the alternatives and different kinds of search.

What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

Protecting Online Privacy
As the network technology we utilize becomes more advanced so do the security issues surrounding these technologies. Evolving from the days of "sneaker net" to gigabit ethernet has introduced seemingly infinite risks associated with our public and private networks.
The Web can be a dangerous place for consumers and businesses. One recent report says credit card fraud is now 12 times higher online than in-store, while another report pegs online fraud at four times the old-fashioned kind. No matter how you slice it, that’s a pretty scary statistic.
But we must also realize that the Web is driving double-digit sales growth and that online fraud still accounts for less than 1.2 cents out of every dollar spent online. As IT professionals, do we have a challenge managing Web security? Yes, we do, but it’s manageable.
Ease of use, flexibility and economy need to be built into the way we manage Web commerce risk. Today, the customer is asked to provide several layers of information for authentication: user ID, password, credit card number and possibly other identifying information such as his or her date of birth, address or zip code. If this information checks out with the credit card company and the business, the customer is allowed to complete the transaction.
But the natural corollary to all these layers of authentication is that consumers are wary of the Web. They know that a social security number entered online could wind up in an identity thief’s hands. They know that a phone number or e-mail address given for “questions about your order” could quickly turn into dinnertime sales pitches or junk e-mails flooding their inboxes. And they want it to stop.

Lack of Confidence Costs
Have you ever considered what you’re losing in online business by not managing security better? It’s estimated that electronic commerce would double if people had greater confidence that their privacy was protected on the Web. In fact, the lack of confidence in privacy outpaces all other concerns--including price and ease of use--in inhibiting people from buying on the Web.
Harris Interactive says 70 percent of consumers worry that their online transactions aren’t secure, and 75 percent are concerned that companies will share their personal information with others. Those fears reduced U.S. online purchasing by $15 billion last year, according to the latest consumer research.
The biggest mistake IT professionals make in assessing Web security is focusing on the challenge and not looking at the business opportunity. If you help build online relationships with customers based on trust, they will ask you to add them to your mailing lists, they will want you to recommend products from marketing partners, and they will stick by you forever.

Privacy is the number one concern of Internet users; it is also the top reason why non-users still avoid the Internet. Survey after survey indicates mounting concern. While privacy faces threats from both private and government intrusions, the existing motley patchwork of privacy laws and practices fails to provide comprehensive protection. Instead, it causes confusion that fuels a sense of distrust and skepticism, limiting realization of the Internet's potential.
A unique combination of tools -- legal, technical, and self-regulatory -- is being designed to address the privacy concerns of Internet users. Top-priority objectives include setting limits on government access to personal information, ensuring that new information and communication technologies are designed in ways that protect rather than diminish privacy, and developing appropriate federal legislation to set baseline standards for consumer privacy. This guide is intended to educate Internet users about online privacy, and offer practical suggestions and policy recommendations.

Ways to Protect Your Privacy Online
• Learn how to read online privacy policies
• Opt-out and use any other privacy options offered
• Get a separate account for your personal e-mail
• Teach your kids not to give out personal information online without permission
• Be careful when using social networking sites and picture/video sharing sites
• Learn about - and use - the privacy features in your browser
• Make sure that online transactions are secure
• Learn how to spot phishing and other scams
• Reject or delete unnecessary cookies
• Use security software and promptly install security upgrades
• Safeguard important files and communications
• Use anonymizer tools, but cautiously
• Use strong passwords and protect them
• Use common sense

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Anthony Rigor Aguilar

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Location : Toril, Davao City

PostSubject: Assignment 9   Tue Oct 13, 2009 8:39 pm

Identify an information environment of your choice and write an essay to address the following questions:
  • What should be your role within this environment?
    How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
    What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

This assignment took me so long to understand. I have searched the internet and found many articles that bring me new questions on how to approach the assignment. When I asked my friend about this assignment, she told me to visit their blog or the old forum of the MIS1 and read some of their posts about this assignment to help me understand and I did. I read many posts and thanks to Mr. Gascal’s post about the definition of Information environment below:

According to this article “http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp3_13.pdf”, it is all about the United States of America (USA)’s military information operations. Information environment is defined as the aggregate of individuals, organizations, and systems that collect, process, disseminate, or act on information. The actors include leaders, decision makers, individuals, and organizations. Resources include the materials and systems employed to collect, analyze, apply, or disseminate information. The information environment is where humans and automated systems observe, orient, decide, and act upon information, and is therefore the principal environment of decision making.

The information environment that came up in my mind is the companies’ Information Technology department (IT Department). I choose this environment because I want to gain more experience, practice more and learn constantly about the Information Technology. Technology grows rapidly and business trends changes because of IT and other technologies and processing of information became more vital. Humans now work with computers in their offices and even homes are now associated with many computer devices and other gadgets that made our work easy and more quick.

According to this link “ http://www.unameits.com/why_it/ “The Information Technology (IT) department manages the technology and computer infrastructure that drives an organization's business systems. The IT department is also known as Management Information Systems (MIS or IS) department.

The IT department is staffed with technically competent professionals that support the organization in these critical areas:

End-User Technical Support
Much of an organization’s computer processing is performed by end-users using their desktop PC. When these end-users incur a computer problem (unable to logon, printer does not work, etc.), they call the IT department for technical support. Depending on the nature of the problem, the IT department may assist the user over the phone or send a technician to their location.

Desktop Management
Managing individual desktop computers, laptops and peripherals is a cornerstone of the IT department tasks. Desktop management of individual computers includes: installation of new hardware components or software, software license administration, equipment repair and maintenance.

Network Management
Making sure that the computer network is always available with safe and secure data is the most important task for the IT department. Not only does this involve the physical installation of cabling throughout the facility, but also the installation and monitoring of the firewall, servers and other equipment to keep the network running at peak efficiency.

Voice and Data Communications
The IT department maintains the telephone and computer systems that allow employees to connect with other employees, customers and suppliers through the use of voice mail, email, faxes, message boards, and Internet and intranet web sites. This includes coordinating new requirements with third-party service providers.

Business Applications
Developing and maintaining the business systems that operate the organization are essential tasks of the IT department. This includes software for financial, manufacturing, sales and distribution systems, as well as general office administration, such as word processing and spreadsheet applications.

Strategic Technology Planning
The IT department is responsible for creating and executing a strategic technology plan that keeps the organization up-to-date with technology advances and ensures that equipment and software do not become obsolete. The technology plan also focuses on the requirements needed to support new business growth.

What should be my role within this environment?

I choose to be in a network management. I want to become a system network administrator or personnel. I have a “little” pc troubleshooting skill. I’m quite confident diagnosing my own Personal Desktop and fix the problems in my desktop. This skill inspires me to take BSIT to improve my knowledge. And I want to extend my knowledge in network troubleshooting and management.

However I have little knowledge about this environment and I may not able discuss the responsibilities more of the job. To explain the details of Network Management an article from http://www.unameits.com/information_technology/network_management.jsp that explains the process and duties that could help me perform the role of a network administrator is written below:

Network Installation

Network Design
• Analyze existing infrastructure
• Evaluate the technology budget
• Research current and future technologies
• Perform cost benefit analysis and Return on Investment (ROI) analysis
• Assess the most appropriate network for business process improvement to meet organization goals
• Plan for network capacity based on number of users and system requirements
• Plan for expansion of network
• Develop network topology and architecture
Hardware Installation
• Install network hardware: servers, routers, switches, hubs, bridges, wireless networking
• Install data protection systems (uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), redundant array of independent disks (RAID), and tape backup systems)
• Install storage systems: storage area network (SAN), fibre channel storage, network attached storage (NAS)
• Set up storage racks to hold network hardware (servers, routers, switches)
Software Installation
• Migrate operating systems (OS), applications, hardware, and drivers
• Install software: operating systems (OS), email server, database server, web server, file transfer protocol (FTP), internet faxing
• Install redundancy and clustering technologies: network load balancing and cluster servers
• Implement remote networking: virtual private network (VPN), secure shell (SSH), remote desktop access
• Install network security: firewalls, demilitarized zone (DMZ), virtual LAN (VLAN), intrusion detection system (IDS), anti-virus software, secure socket layer (SSL)
• Install network services: domain controllers, file and print, domain name system (DNS), dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP), windows internet naming service (WINS), proxy servers
Inspection and Documentation
• Perform a quality assurance (QA) inspection on every component of the network (cables, connections, etc.)
• Develop network layouts and wiring diagrams
Network Administration

Security Management
• Update firewall software
• Update anti-virus software
• Test network security: firewall, server, internal, external
Data Management
• Perform routine (daily, weekly, as required) backups of critical data
• Store data backup tapes offsite for disaster recovery capability
• Perform defragmentation (disks, databases)
User Administration
• Develop and implement workstation usage policies for employees
• Administer authorized access ID’s for new and existing employees
• Set security restrictions and network access for users
• Set end-user rights
• Limit desktop administrative rights
• Maintain domain controllers (logon scripts, profiles, domain policies)
Network Maintenance
• Schedule network maintenance
• Install network software upgrades
• Install operating system upgrades
• Update service patches and service packs
• Perform network diagnostics
• Resolve server crashes
Network Monitoring
• Monitor firewall for intrusion attacks
• Monitor logs: system, anti-virus, firewall, error, user, application
• Monitor user activity
• Monitor servers for optimal efficiency
• Perform random checks remotely to monitor user compliance
• Monitor network for usage, collision detection and performance
• Monitor back up drives and software

What are the challenges facing you in performing the role?

Network management is a very difficult job. It may be difficult for me to start the job because of the technicalities and environment is new to me. There many challenges associated with this environment like new network structure problems, network failure, hardware failures, backup problems and etc… Other challenges are: new applications- online applications, additional connections and new hardwares. Aside from these there are challenges being defined from http://www.comnews.com/stories/articles/0405/0405five_critical.htm. This article discusses some of the major challenges in network management.

1. Pinpointing potential network performance issues early in the development lifecycle.
Ideally, the impact of the network on a new application or service should be dealt with from the beginning of the development process, when potential problems are easier and less expensive to fix. Unfortunately, problems with an application’s “networkability” are typically discovered only after its rollout into the production environment is initiated. At that point, making any significant changes in the application’s design is usually too late.
2. Validating new or modified applications and infrastructure before they are deployed in production. As the network becomes more complex and more critical to the day-to-day-operation of the business, network performance-related risks associated with application and infrastructure change are continuing to rise. In fact, some of the worst business interruptions that companies have historically experienced have not been the result of unexpected equipment failure. They have been the unexpected consequence of a planned modification. Networking teams should therefore implement change-management best practices that prevent them from having to put out fires that they accidentally started themselves.
3. Improved troubleshooting of intermittent/transient network problems. One of the most frustrating tasks for a network manager is dealing with a problem that keeps disappearing before it can be adequately understood and remedied. As the company’s tolerance for network interruptions continues to drop, however, these intermittent problems will become a bigger management issue. So, network-management teams should develop more effective methods for capturing transient network conditions and discovering the root causes of these problems.
4. Accelerated time-to-benefit for new and/or upgraded applications. When C-level executives decide to make investments in new applications and services, they want to see those investments pay off quickly. Therefore, the slow, staged production rollouts of the past will not suffice anymore. Instead, networking teams need to be able to quickly deploy new applications across the enterprise.
5. More intelligent planning for and support of business growth. Network managers constantly have to cope with change. They have to determine how increases in network utilization will affect application performance. They have to decide how to best engineer the network to support business expansion, re-organization, or mergers and acquisitions. They can only do so, however, if they have an effective means of performing capacity-planning tasks and assessing a full range of “what-if” scenarios. Such scenarios are also critical for formulating realistic contingency plans that can ensure business continuity under a variety of possible conditions.
Conventional production network-management tools alone are no longer sufficient for today’s networking teams. These tools do not enable network managers to validate new technologies and applications before they are deployed on the production network. They also force network managers to solve problems that should have been addressed in application design.
Conventional tools often are not helpful for troubleshooting intermittent and/or transient network problems, either, since they do not provide a means of reconstructing and analyzing such intermittent conditions. Nor do they help accelerate production rollouts, facilitate experimentation with what-if scenarios, or support formulation of network contingency plans.

How will you address these challenges?

Managing network needs hard work and determination. If I will be sooner become a network personnel I must listen to my boss, apply the things to my knowledge, love my work. I must be alert always, and updated to the new system and network technologies.

One answer may be simulation or network modeling technologies. These technologies provide an environment in which new applications, technologies and problem-solving strategies can be safely and thoroughly evaluated. Because they allow an application’s network behavior to be fully validated before it is deployed in the production environment, these technologies also empower network managers to perform more rapid, glitch-free rollouts. Plus, modeling technologies are able to provide insight into any number of what-if scenarios–so network managers can make plans for growth, corporate restructuring and disaster recovery.
“Empirical” modeling solutions offer today’s network-management teams’ accuracy and relative ease of implementation. This accuracy and ease is achieved by running the actual applications against a model that uses captured conditions from the production environment. The result is a clear understanding of the user experience well ahead of deployment.

There are ten tips for improving network management:
From http://netdotwork.co.za/regular.aspx?pklRegularId=1562

1. Identify potential issues before they become problems

Adopt network management tools that offer the ability to identify and correct potential issues before they cause users real problems. New-generation systems allow network managers to set threshold limits on key devices so that they can be alerted automatically when these thresholds are exceeded but before they cause user outages. Some systems can also automatically spot network mis-configurations or opportunities to optimize performance and highlight these to the network manager.

2. Make 'discovery' of the network a priority

Establish a priority that the network management software needs to 'discover' all the devices on the network to create a 'map'. Building an accurate picture or map of the physical devices and links on your network will make for quicker troubleshooting and problem resolution.

Newer management applications can generate this map automatically and will identify individual device types, as well as detailed link characteristics such as speed, resiliency and redundancy.

Some applications will also highlight any moves, adds and changes to the network. Colour coding also allows network managers to see the status of any device or link at a glance.

3. Consolidate on industry standards

Make sure that all the devices on your network support industry-standard protocols for communicating with each other. Otherwise, if you opt to remain with proprietary packages, you are taking a significant risk that could have costly repercussions down the line.

Proprietary products require you to buy additional products at higher prices. Industry-standard products are more readily available and are at lower prices. The most common standards to support are Ethernet, Wi-Fi (802.11b), SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), RMON (Remote Monitoring) and HTTP (standard Web language).

4. Select easier-to-use network management solutions

With all the easier-to-use tools emerging today, there is no excuse for having a complex network to manage. Look for an improved, easy-to-use GUI (graphical user interface) and the use of wizards for easier set-up and use.

For smaller networks, using traditional heavyweight management applications often introduce more complexity than they remove. For some functions, plug-in software can be downloadable from the Internet, often at no cost.

5. Establish clear and concise rules
Improve the use of technology by establishing rules for how the network is to be used. For example, enforce the rule that no 'rogue' servers are allowed to be attached to the network.

New network management tools can identify an unauthorised server faster today than in the past. Moreover, rules should be established for such things as giving higher priority to specific traffic types on the network, such as voice, while lowering (or even blocking) other traffic types such as MP3 music file downloads.

6. Optimise network devices network management

Make sure that all the network devices (such as switches, wireless access points, IP PBX, etc) have the latest version of software in them for optimal use.

Where offered, take advantage of inexpensive service contracts to get new software features that can extend the life of purchased hardware. Plan to use centralised tools to distribute new software to devices, as needed.

7. Plug network security vulnerabilities

Adopt a method of monitoring when users log on and log off and how they do it. With more users logging on a network, especially an increasing number of mobile users, you need to adjust how much you monitor access.

Then you need to identify potential areas of vulnerability on a regular basis and use updated plug-ins from the Web to fill the holes.

8. Take advantage of downloadable management software on the Internet

Implement the updates of reliable, proven network management software from the Web, adding new capabilities that may not be currently available in the network. The enhancements could range from new reporting capabilities to inherent security measures.

9. Intelligent event handling

Use intelligent tools that identify the root cause of a problem on the network. The problem in the past has been that there could be 10 problems, but only one problem - the root cause - needed to be fixed in order to correct everything else automatically. Your network management application should be able to isolate such root causes efficiently.

10. Automate repetitive reporting functions

Automate the routine, repetitive, mundane, administrative task of reporting, such as listing the software versions in products. Most network managers object to the tedious reporting activity, but new reporting capabilities enable you to generate reports automatically and use them with upper management to position yourself well as a strategic planner and analyst.

Another article below explains some tips in network management from

Network managers need to understand how each exploit works and how their IPS detects them, and then upgrade that protection routinely.

Fine-tune your IPS:
Network managers need to understand how each exploit works and how their IPS detects them, and then upgrade that protection routinely. Click here to find out more!

Sell security by its benefits:
Rather than saying how dangerous viruses are as a method to gain the budget for a reputation services antispam defense, for example, illustrate how much productivity could be gained by adding another layer of antispam control.

Automate desktop and networkaccess:
Wireless badges can come in handy for automated access control to desktop PCs, particularly those shared by multiple users in medical exam rooms, warehouses, call centers and the like.

Link physical access to enterprise applications:
IP-based building-access systems built on industry-standard servers and using the existing data network are more affordable than ever because of open architecture products.

Delegate an operating systems guru:
By assigning a staffer to master the voluminous documentation published by mainstream operating system vendors, servers can be safely fine-tuned to optimal performance for every application. The guru also should master Web server and BIOS setting options.

Use VMware server memory smartly:
Without spending a dime, you may be able to boost the amount of memory available on virtualized Windows 2003 physical servers, thereby improving performance of the virtual machines.

Move applications to a Linux grid:
The application will likely have to be redesigned somewhat for the new hardware platform. But vendors can be counted on to help, as they’ll want to ally on the new technology.

Recognize WAN links may degrade VoIP QoS:
Having completed VoIP installation at seven of 35 sites, Bartolf found unexpectedly high error rates or complete failure on many links.

1. http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp3_13.pdf
2. http://www.unameits.com/why_it/
3. http://www.unameits.com/information_technology/network_management.jsp
4. http://www.comnews.com/stories/articles/0405/0405five_critical.htm
5. http://netdotwork.co.za/regular.aspx?pklRegularId=1562
6. http://www.pressreleasecirculation.com/content.asp?ID=149593&ArticleCategory=Web+Design:

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Sarah Jean Tisara

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PostSubject: Information Environment   Wed Oct 14, 2009 2:04 am

Identify an information environment of your choice and write an essay to address the following questions: (3000 words)

• What should be your role within this environment?
• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

Idea Technology today is quickly evolving. The things that we don’t know will be known easily through the Internet and it is because of technology. In this assignment, my task is to identify an information environment of my choice and state my role as a student in this environment. In addition, I should be able to explain how the principles of information organization and representation help me in performing my role. Lastly, I will be able to know the challenges that I’m facing in performing the role and how I will address to these challenges, but before anything else, what is an Information Environment?

Idea Information Environment is the aggregate of individuals, organizations, or systems that collect, process, or disseminate information; also included is the information itself. It helps people to access to electronic resources, new environments for learning, teaching and research, guidance on institutional change, and provide advisory and consultancy services.

Idea There is now a critical mass of digital information resources that can be used to support researchers, learners, teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required. There is the need to ensure that quality information isn’t lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation and serving of ‘quality’ information there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. The aim of the Information Environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location.

Idea The Information Environment that I have chosen is The Meta Information Environment of Digital Libraries. The meta-information environment of a library is the aspect of library structure that is likely to be most affected by Digital Library technology. It is important to design meta-information environments for Digital Libraries that simultaneously compensate for the loss of many of the services of librarians and take advantage of the ability to apply digital processing to information objects in the collection of Digital Libraries.

Meta-Information Environment of Digital Libraries

Libraries are organized to facilitate access to controlled collections of information. Traditional libraries (TL's) possess three organizational characteristics that, together, provide a basis for such access. These are
· the organization of information into physical information objects (IO's) such as books;
· the physical organization of the collections of IO's according to various attributes, such as subject matter and author;
· an organized information environment that facilitates direct access to the IO's based on such attributes as author, title, and subject matter, as well as a limited degree of indirect access to the information contained in the IO's.

This last characteristic of a TL typically involves multiple sources of information to support access, such as librarians, catalogs, and the manner in which the collections are organized physically. Since it involves information about information, we term this characteristic the meta-information environment of a library.

As currently conceived, digital libraries (DL's) are libraries in which the controlled collections are in digital form and access to the information in the collections is based almost entirely on digital technology. From a user's point of view, digital technology changes the three organizational characteristics of TL's. First, the organization of information into physical IO's is replaceable with a more flexible organization into logical IO's. Second, the single physical organization of a collection of IO's is replaceable with multiple logical organizations of IO's.

The third and most significant changes, however, occur in the meta-information environment of a library. In terms of advantages, having the IO's in digital form permits the use of digital technology in extracting information from the IO's. The extracted information may satisfy a user's ultimate need for information or it may be employed by “digital librarians'' in characterizing the IO's in the collection. In the latter case, this meta-information may be employed in providing access to the information encoded in the IO's. In terms of disadvantages, important interactions between librarians and users that occur in the meta-information environments of TL's may be lost with the near-automation of information access in DL's.

The term ``metadata'' has been applied in a large variety of contexts. For example, the topics of papers at a recent conference on metadata ranged from metadata in data dictionaries and its use in controlling the operations of database management systems; to metadata used for describing scientific datasets and supporting data sharing among scientists; to metadata used in DL's to support user access to information.

The concept of metadata, when applied in the context of current libraries, digital or traditional, typically refers to information that
· provides a (usually brief) characterization of the individual IO's in the collections of a library;
· is stored principally as the contents of library catalogs in TL's;
· is used principally in aiding users to access IO's of interest.

As an example of its use in the context of TL's, the term ``metadata'' is sometimes used to describe the descriptive cataloging that is specified by the Anglo-American cataloging rules and the MARC interchange format. Such information constitutes a major component of the cataloging information in most TL's. As an example of its use in the context of DL's, the term ``metadata'' has been used to describe the information of the ``Dublin Core'' and the associated ``Warwick Framework'' which is intended to support access to information on the World Wide Web. The Core specifies the concrete syntax for a small set of meta-information elements, and the Framework specifies a container architecture for aggregating additional metadata objects for interchange.

More generally, however, if one surveys the many contexts in which it has been applied, it becomes apparent that the concept associated with the term ``metadata'' is the principal focus of an emerging area of the information sciences whose goal is to discover appropriate methods for the modeling of various classes of IO's. Since a model of an IO is itself typically an IO, and since the concept that is generally associated with the term ``data'' is subsumed by the concept associated with the term ``information object'', it seems preferable to use the term ``meta-information'' and to define it as a model of an information object.

A Scenario for the Use of the Meta-information Environment in a Traditional Library

For the sake of concreteness, let us assume a user whose interest is in finding information on condor re-introduction programs in California. In order to access such information in a TL, the user may engage in a variety of activities. The four most important activities include consulting a librarian; consulting available catalog and reference materials; browsing through the open collections of the library; and processing the information that has been accessed.
Let us assume that the user begins a search by consulting a librarian, and indicates an initial interest in discovering whether programs for re-introducing condors from captive breeding populations have been a success. Several important processes may co-occur during these interactions. First, the librarian may build a ``cognitive model'' of the user that is employed in helping the user. As an example, the librarian may note the user's level of knowledge about the use of a library, and discover that the user does not understand the value of subject heading catalogs in searching for references to information on the decline of the condors.

Second, the librarian may build a cognitive model of the user's information requirements, or ``query'', typically in an iterative process during which the user may change the initial query. The librarian may discover, for example, that the user would like to know the locations of the release sites in order to visit them. Third, and depending on the context of the query, the librarian may also construct a model of the user's information processing requirements. In terms of our example, these might include estimating the time to hike to the release sites.

In conjunction with these emerging models of the user's knowledge base and information needs, the librarian employs a cognitive model of the library's information resources to determine an appropriate set of actions that will lead to the satisfaction of the user's information needs. Three classes of activities are worthy of note. First, the librarian may direct the user to meta-information, such as the subject catalog, that points directly to IO's of interest. Second, the librarian may guide the user to ``general'' meta-information that can be used in a less direct manner in finding IO's of interest. For example, the user may be directed to a gazetteer in order to find the geographical coordinates of the release sites, whose names the librarian may happen to know. These coordinates may then be used in accessing the appropriate maps from the library's map collection.

Third, the librarian may suggest that the user browse in the ornithology section of the library to look for books that may be relevant to the topic of condors. In so doing, the user may assess meta-information in the form of titles and tables of contents.

Before leaving the library, the user may employ the relevant maps to estimate the time it would take to hike to the condor release areas.

A Characterization of the Meta-information Environment of a Traditional Library

The preceding example, which is by no means artificial, emphasizes the fact that the meta-information accessed by users of TL's in satisfying their information needs is not restricted to the meta-information in the author, title, and subject catalogs. In particular, the scenario was devised to emphasize that, during search, a user may conceivably employ as meta-information almost all the information sources in a library. Such sources range from the librarian's general knowledge of the world to information encoded in the IO's on the stacks.

An analysis of the preceding and similar usage scenarios suggests that one may further characterize the meta-information environment of a library in terms of a simple model involving sets of services for
· coordinating user interactions with the meta-information environment, exemplified in the above scenario in terms of the user's interactions with the librarian;
· constructing models of the user, the user's query, and the user's workspace requirements, exemplified in our scenario by interactions with the librarian;
· providing access to models of IO's, exemplified in our scenario by use of the subject catalog and browsing among the stacks;
· making matches between the model of user queries and models of IO's, exemplified in our scenario in part by actions of the librarian and in part by actions of the user in relation to such library resources as the subject catalog;
· extracting information from retrieved IO's, exemplified in our scenario by the computation from the maps of the time it would take the user to hike to the release sites.
· creating models of IO's which, although an important service of the meta-information environment of libraries, is not exemplified in the preceding scenario.
The scenario emphasizes the key role played by librarians in providing services in the meta-information environment of many TL's.

Knowledge Representation Systems in the Meta- information Environments of Libraries

In order to analyze further the manner in which the preceding sets of services provide support for user access to information, it is useful to introduce the concept of knowledge representation systems (KRS's). We argue that an important component of the functionality of the six sets of meta-information services in TL's is provided by a diverse set of KRS's. This conceptualization in terms of KRS's provides a useful theoretical framework for the design and analysis of DL's.

A KRS may be defined as a system for representing and reasoning about the knowledge in some domain of discourse, and is generally comprised of:
· an underlying knowledge representation language (KRL), whose expressions are intended to represent knowledge about some domain of discourse;
· a semantics that gives meaning to the expressions of the KRL in terms of the domain of discourse;
· a set of reasoning rules that may be employed in inferring further useful expressions from a given set of expressions;
· a body of knowledge about the domain of discourse expressed in terms of the KRL.

Concepts similar to the concept of a KRS that have been used by other researchers in relation to meta-information include formal systems with interpretations and semi-formal systems.

In general, we may view the KRS's of a library as providing a diverse set of services that are of particular value in the modeling of both IO's and user queries. They are, for example, of particular significance in supporting the modeling of IO's in terms of their content, since, in principle, the content of library materials may refer to any representable aspect of our knowledge.

In order to gain further insight into the nature and significance of KRS's, we provide examples of their use in supporting key sets of services in the meta-information environments of TL's.
KRS supporting the User Query and IO Modeling Services

Thesauri are an important class of KRS's that are employed in constructing models of the subject matter (or ``content'') of IO's for the catalog systems of TL's. The motivation for the use of thesauri is the difficulties that arise from using a KRS based on natural language (NL) in this context. These difficulties arise from the syntactic and semantic complexity and the high levels of ambiguity that are typically associated with general expressions in NL. The KRL of a thesaurus, on the other hand, is designed to possess a restricted syntax and semantics that permits the representation of restricted domains of discourse in an unambiguous manner. These restrictions result in the construction of many domain-specific thesauri, which in essence represents a ``divide-and-conquer'' approach to building unambiguous representations of a complex world.

For the present purpose, we may use a highly-simplified view of a thesaurus that is abstracted from the ANSI-NISO standard for thesauri.
· The KRL of a thesaurus may be viewed as specifying the terms of a simple language and a few relations (or predicates) defined on the terms. These predicates include the three ``broad term/narrow-term'' predicates, the ``related term'' predicate, and the ``synonymous term'' predicate.
· In relation to the semantics associated with its KRL, a term defined in a thesaurus is intended to denote a single concept. Typically, terms represent classes of entities, although class instances are permitted. Ambiguity arising from synonymous and homonymous terms is effectively removed. The mapping from terms to concepts is provided informally by the cognitive processing of the reader of the terms.
· With respect to reasoning procedures, the use of the basic inference rules of logic (such as ``if A and A implies B are both true, then B is true"), together with axioms involving the various predicates (such as ``if A is a narrow term for B, and B is a narrow term for C, then A is a narrow term for C''), it is possible to carry out simple reasoning that is interpretable in terms of the concepts being represented in the KRL.
· In terms of viewing a thesaurus as representing a body of knowledge about some aspect of the world, the terms and predicates of a thesaurus represent a set of concepts and their relations that model some aspect of the world.

Large numbers of thesauri are currently employed in library contexts. The representation of the content of IO's is typically achieved by choosing a relatively small number of terms from some domain-specific thesaurus.

Another important research issue concerns the construction of semantic mappings between the KRL's of different KRS's. It is possible to employ different sets of KRS's for modeling user queries and for modeling IO's. There is therefore a need for translation during the application of matching services. One approach to constructing such mappings involves the use of human experts working in a top-down manner, which is likely to be a time-consuming and controversial process. An approach that is promising in terms of automation involves bottom-up techniques based on empirical analyses of the use of language.

Idea As a student, I do research most of the time. Through digital library, I don’t need to go to the library, refer to the card catalog and find the book to get the information that I need. I will just simply refer to the digital libraries over the Internet. It is my responsibility to use this technology advantage well for better, but still don’t forget to give credits and importance to traditional library and its ways.
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mae m. mara

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Oct 14, 2009 5:55 pm

Assignment 9
Identify an information environment of your choice and write an essay to address the following questions: (3000 words)
The field of "green technology” encompasses a broad range of subjects — from new energy-generation techniques to the study of advanced materials to be used in our daily life. Green technology focuses on reducing the environmental impact of industrial processes and innovative technologies caused by the Earth’s growing population. It has taken upon itself the goal to provide society’s needs in ways that do not damage or deplete natural resources. Mainly this means creating fully recyclable products, reducing pollution, proposing alternative technologies in various fields, and creating a center of economic activity around technologies that benefit the environment.

Perhaps the most talked about aspect of green technology is the promise of alternative energy sources. Sun, wind, water, sugar — we’ve heard about them all. However, scientists are working on other aspects of the problem as well, testing building materials and studying chemical processes to reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances. Nanotechnology is also being used in an attempt to manipulate materials at the nanometer scale; scientists are hoping it can transform manufacturing on a global level, from government purchasing to a technological revolution.
The huge amount of computing manufactured worldwide has a direct impact on environment issues, and scientists are conducting numerous studies in order to reduce the negative impact of computing technology on our natural resources. Companies are addressing e-waste by offering take-back recycling programs and other solutions, with lower energy consumption and less wasted hardware. A central point of research is testing and applying alternative nonhazardous materials in the products’ manufacturing process.
VIA Technologies Green Computing
VIA Technologies, a Taiwanese company that manufactures motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and other computer hardware, introduced its initiative for "green computing" in 2001. With this green vision, the company has been focusing on power efficiency throughout the design and manufacturing process of its products. Its environmentally friendly products are manufactured using a range of clean-computing strategies, and the company is striving to educate markets on the benefits of green computing for the sake of the environment, as well as productivity and overall user experience.
Carbon-free computing

Carbon-free computing
(Credit: VIA)

One of the VIA Technologies’ ideas is to reduce the "carbon footprint" of users — the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide (CO2). Greenhouse gases naturally blanket the Earth and are responsible for its more or less stable temperature. An increase in the concentration of the main greenhouse gases — carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorocarbons — is believed to be responsible for Earth's increasing temperature, which could lead to severe floods and droughts, rising sea levels, and other environmental effects, affecting both life and the world's economy. After the 1997 Kyoto Protocol for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the world has finally taken the first step in reducing emissions. The emissions are mainly a result of fossil-fuel-burning power plants. (In the United States, such electricity generation is responsible for 38 percent of the country’s carbon dioxide emissions.) VIA aims to offer the world's first PC products certified carbon free, taking responsibility for the amounts of CO2 they emit. The company works with environmental experts to calculate the electricity used by the device over its lifetime, generally three years. From this data, one can conclude how much carbon dioxide the device will emit into the atmosphere during its operation. This estimate will serve as an indicator, and the company will pay regional organizations for the “sequestering,” or offsetting, of the emissions. Offsetting carbon dioxide can be achieved in different ways. One way is to plant trees that absorb CO2 as they grow, in the region in which the processors were purchased. The necessary amount of trees per processor is represented by VIA's TreeMark rating system.
In addition, VIA promotes the use of such alternative energy sources as solar power, so power plants wouldn't need to burn as much fossil fuels, reducing the amount of energy used. Wetlands also provide a great service in sequestering some of the carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. Although they make up only 4 to 6 percent of the Earth's landmass, wetlands are capable of absorbing 20 to 25 percent of the atmospheric carbon dioxide. VIA is working closely with organizations responsible for preserving wetlands and other natural habitats, and others who support extensive recycling programs for ICT equipment. The amount paid to these organizations will be represented by a proportion of the carbon-free product’s price.
Carbon-emissions control has been a key issue for many companies who have expressed a firm commitment to sustainability. Dell is a good example of a company with a green image, known for its free worldwide product-recycling program. Dell’s Plant a Tree for Me project allows customers to offset their carbon emissions by paying an extra $2 to $4, depending on the product purchased. AMD, a global microprocessor manufacturer, is also working toward reducing energy consumption in its products, cutting back on hazardous waste and reducing its eco-impact. The company’s use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology in its manufacturing, and strained silicon capping films on transistors (known as “dual stress liner” technology), have contributed to reduced power consumption in its products.
Solar Computing

Solar powered computing

Amid the international race toward alternative-energy sources, VIA is setting its eyes on the sun, and the company's Solar Computing initiative is a significant part of its green-computing projects. For that purpose, VIA partnered with Motech Industries, one of the largest producers of solar cells worldwide. Solar cells fit VIA's power-efficient silicon, platform, and system technologies and enable the company to develop fully solar-powered devices that are nonpolluting, silent, and highly reliable. Solar cells require very little maintenance throughout their lifetime, and once initial installation costs are covered, they provide energy at virtually no cost. Worldwide production of solar cells has increased rapidly over the last few years; and as more governments begin to recognize the benefits of solar power, and the development of photovoltaic technologies goes on, costs are expected to continue to decline. As part of VIA's “pc-1” initiative, the company established the first-ever solar-powered cyber community center in the South Pacific, powered entirely by solar technology.
Lead-Free and RoHS computing
In February 2003, the European Union adopted the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS). The legislation restricts the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipment. The directive is closely linked with the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE), which sets collection, recycling, and recovery targets for electrical goods and is part of a legislative initiative that aims to reduce the huge amounts of toxic e-waste. Driven by these directives, VIA implemented a set of internal regulations in order to develop products that are compliant with these accepted policies, including the use of nonhazardous materials in its production of chipsets, processors, and companion chips. In 2001, they focused on lead-free manufacturing, introducing the Enhanced Ball Grid Array (EBGA) package for power efficient VIA processors and the Heat Sink Ball Grid Array (HSBGA) package for their chipsets. In traditional manufacturing processes, lead is used to attach the silicon core to the inside of the package and to facilitate integration onto the motherboard through tiny solder balls on the underside of the package. VIA's lead-free manufacturing technologies do not require a lead bead, and the solder balls now consist of a tin, silver, and copper composite.
However, not everyone is satisfied with this new objective. Howard Johnson of the online EDN magazine says that the move toward lead-free devices is not only unhelpful but actually worse for the environment. “The additional tin mining required to produce high-purity tin alloys, plus the mining of other precious metals required to alloy with tin in substitution for lead, is a poor trade for the use of existing lead, much of which comes from recycled products,” Johnson writes. He also believes that lead-free assembly is less reliable than lead-based assembly, partially due to the increased growth of tin whiskers — small, hair-like metallic growths that naturally emerge from the surface of solid tin. On lead-free tin surfaces, these whiskers can grow to a length sufficient to short an electronic circuit to another, leading to product failure.
Energy-efficient computing
A central goal of VIA’s green-computing initiative is the development of energy-efficient platforms for low-power, small-form-factor (SFF) computing devices. In 2005, the company introduced the VIA C7-M and VIA C7 processors that have a maximum power consumption of 20W at 2.0GHz and an average power consumption of 1W. These energy-efficient processors produce over four times less carbon during their operation and can be efficiently embedded in solar-powered devices.
VIA isn’t the only company to address environmental concerns: Intel, the world's largest semiconductor maker, revealed eco-friendly products at a recent conference in London. The company uses virtualization software, a technique that enables Intel to combine several physical systems into a virtual machine that runs on a single, powerful base system, thus significantly reducing power consumption. Earlier this year, Intel joined Google, Microsoft, and other companies in the launch of the Climate Savers Computing Initiative that commits businesses to meet the Environmental Protection Agency’s Energy Star guidelines for energy-efficient devices.
Kevin Fisher, Intel’s EU standards director, says that while the company is dedicated to its green-computing plans, it is important to not blame the IT industry alone for carbon emissions worldwide. He argues that the industry also helps in saving huge amounts of power due to the Internet, enabling, for example, online shopping and billing.

Governments go green

Energy Star logo

Many governments worldwide have initiated energy-management programs, such as Energy Star, an international standard for energy-efficient electronic equipment that was created by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1992 and has now been adopted by several other countries. Energy Star reduces the amount of energy consumed by a product by automatically switching it into “sleep” mode when not in use or reducing the amount of power used by a product when in “standby” mode. Surprisingly, standby “leaking,” the electricity consumed by appliances when they are switched off, can represent as much as 12 percent of a typical household’s electricity consumption. In Australia, standby power is a primary factor for the country’s increased greenhouse gas emissions — more than 5 megatons (CO2 equivalent) annually.
Worldwide, standby power is estimated to account for as much as 1 percent of global greenhouse emissions. Most of the energy used by products on standby does not result any useful function. A small amount can be needed for maintaining memory or an internal clock, remote-control activation, or other features; but most standby power is wasted energy. Energy Star–enabled products minimize this waste.
In 1998, the China National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) founded the China Energy Conservation Program (CECP), a nonprofit organization in charge of the administration, management, and implementation of the certification for energy- conserving, water-saving, and environmentally friendly products. CECP is dedicated to encouraging manufacturers to produce more resource-efficient products and help consumers make more sustainable purchase decisions. CECP undertakes various projects within the national and the international arena, actively supporting improvements in energy efficiency and environmental protection and assisting social and economic sustainable development. In Japan, the Energy Conservation Center is responsible for raising public awareness on energy conservation, training and state examinations for energy managers, and their energy-conservation campaign and exhibition (ENEX).
• What should be your role within this environment?
As a human we are here to protect everything that God given to us because these things that He given us had a value however it is the smallest thing. Is it correct that our role in this environment is just to destroy the beautifulness of the nature? No it’s not, because our role here as a creature is to take good care of all the non-living and living things. But look at what happen to our nature? As we remembered what happen to Metro Manila when typhoon “ONDOY” destroyed everything do you think we have done our part just to stop the typhoon? No, we didn’t and even the technology didn’t help to stop the typhoon.
Our role here in go for green computing is to continue everything what we have started when the time of technology is not yet popular because as of know we are dependent with the technology. We need to protect and preserve our resources in spite of the vast of the technology because technology needs our help to work with them.

• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
They can help us by reminding that technology is needed us, because it will not work without the manage of human. Of course it can give us the idea to do our roles and it can help others by reminding them that our environment is very important, therefore we need to protect and conserve our resources. As a user also we need to follow tips in conserving our nature. Green computing also remind us how precious we are because we have given the chance to use technologies and I hope sometimes we will put it in our mind that nature also have a big role to us but not like us that sometimes we are not doing our role and we always happy wasting some energies by playing on lines games and by not turning off the electricity even though we are not using it.
• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

The challenges thing for me is those people who don’t care about the environment because they did not perform so as a student of this organization I should be proud because even in a little way I did my role. Also one of the challenges is what happened to our environment now, it’s a lesson to those people who don’t think about tomorrow and who don’t think about the next generation. By that challenges they should be aware that not all the time people cannot control the power of our mother earth.
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Michael George Guanzon

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PostSubject: assignment #9   Wed Oct 14, 2009 11:18 pm

Identify an information environment of your choice and write an essay to address the following questions: (3000 words)

• What should be your role within this environment?
• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

Let’s define first what information environment is.

The information environment is the aggregate of individuals,
Organizations, and systems that collect, process, disseminate, or Act on information.
The information environment is where humans and automated systems observe, orient, decide, and act upon information, and is therefore the principal environment of decision making. Even though the information environment is considered distinct, it resides within each of the four domains. The information environment is made up of
Three interrelated dimensions: physical, informational, and Cognitive.

(1) The Physical Dimension. The physical dimension is composed of the command
and control (C2) systems, and supporting infrastructures that enable individuals and organizations
to conduct operations across the air, land, sea, and space domains. It is also the dimension where
physical platforms and the communications networks that connect them reside. This includes
the means of transmission, infrastructure, technologies, groups, and populations. Comparatively,
the elements of this dimension are the easiest to measure, and consequently, combat power has
traditionally been measured primarily in this dimension.

(2) The Informational Dimension. The informational dimension is where information is
collected, processed, stored, disseminated, displayed, and protected. It is the dimension where the C2
of modern military forces is communicated, and where commander’s intent is conveyed. It consists of
the content and flow of information. Consequently, it is the informational dimension that must be
(3) The Cognitive Dimension. The cognitive dimension encompasses the mind of
the decision maker and the target audience (TA). This is the dimension in which people think, perceive, visualize, and decide. It is the most important of the three dimensions. This dimension is also affected by a commander’s orders, training, and other personal motivations. Battles and campaigns can be lost in the cognitive dimension. Factors such as leadership, morale, unit cohesion, emotion, state of mind, level of training, experience, situational awareness, as well as public opinion, perceptions, media, public information, and rumors influence this dimension.

The information environment that I chose was the internet.

What is internet?
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. In addition it supports popular services such as online chat, file transfer and file sharing, gaming, commerce, social networking, publishing, video on demand, and teleconferencing and telecommunications. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) applications allows person-to-person communication via voice and video.

The origins of the Internet reach back to the 1960s when the United States funded research projects of its military agencies to build robust, fault-tolerant and distributed computer networks. This research and a period of civilian funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation spawned worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies and led to the commercialization of an international network in the mid 1990s, and resulted in the following popularization of countless applications in virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2009, an estimated quarter of Earth's population uses the services of the Internet.
The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The Internet is a global data communications system. It is a hardware and software infrastructure that provides connectivity between computers. In contrast, the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.[1] The term the Internet, when referring to the Internet, has traditionally been treated as a proper noun and written with an initial capital letter. There is a trend to regard it as a generic term or common noun and thus write it as "the internet", without the capital.

• What should be your role within this environment?

My role in this information environment, as an IT student, I would rather be in the area that would really suit me and that would execute my skills and abilities. I think, I want to be a WEB DEVELOPER someday.ehehe
A web developer is a software developer or software engineer who is specifically engaged in the development of World Wide Web applications, or distributed network applications that are run over the HTTP protocol from a web server to a web browser.The Web Developer is responsible for developing and maintaining multiple company web sites.


• Develop and maintain corporate web sites while working on a timeline.
• Assist with the planning, coordination, and execution of web related projects.
• Support social media, and social media programming.
• Work within a team of developers, graphic designers, copywriters and other creative staff.
• Track and monitor project progress and develop project work plans.
• Integrate multimedia, complex display systems and other hardware.
• Assist with the planning, coordination, and execution of the Global Finals event and other events
• Write reports, conduct research and compile information/data
• Assist IT Manager on Special Projects.
• Other duties as assigned
• This position requires a High level understanding of PHP, XHTML, XML, CSS, JavaScript, Linux, Apache, and MySQL
• A solid understanding of modern web based template systems including but not limited to Joomla, Drupal, Zen Cart, and Smarty Templates
• Ability to manipulate a web site’s template based on a graphics designers layout.
• Attention to detail, and professional demeanor (often under stressful circumstances)
• Ability to work within a team of programmers
• Bachelor’s Degree Computer Science or equivalent.
• Ability to work at an offsite company event (Tennessee) for a ten day period each May
• Ability to work at other offsite company events as business grows

Nature of employment

Web developers can be found working in all types of organizations, including large corporations and governments, small and medium sized companies, or alone as freelancers. Some web developers work for one organization as a permanent full-time employee, while others may work as independent consultants, or as contractors for an employment agency.

Educational and licensure requirements

There are no formal educational or licensure requirements to become a web developer. However, many colleges and trade schools offer coursework in web development. There are also many tutorials and articles, which teach web development, freely available on the web - for example: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Basic_JavaScript
The Web Developer extension adds a menu and a toolbar to the browser with various web developer tools. It is designed for Firefox, Flock and Seamonkey, and will run on any platform that these browsers support including Windows, Mac OS X and Linux.

• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?

Modern web applications often contain three or more tiers, and depending on the size of the team a developer works on, he or she may specialize in one or more of these tiers - or may take a more interdisciplinary role. For example, in a two person team, one developer may focus on the technologies sent to the client such as HTML, JavaScript, CSS, and on the server-side frameworks (such as Perl, Python, Ruby, PHP, Java, .NET) used to deliver content and scripts to the client. Meanwhile the other developer might focus on the interaction between server-side frameworks, the web server, and a database system. Further, depending on the size of their organization, the aforementioned developers might work closely with a web designer, web producer, project manager, software architect, or database administrator - or they may be responsible for such tasks as web design, project management, and database administration themselves.

• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

When you are designing social media you are not building and designing a product in the typical sense of that word. You are really designing an infrastructure upon which social interaction, and eventually a community, can build. The affordances needed to "direct" and "control" the development of a community are very different from and much more subtle than typical single-user systems that (as designers, developers) know. Usually compare it metaphorically to a soap bubble: you can gently try to push it in a certain direction, but if if you push too hard, it'll burst. User-centered design takes on a whole new meaning when you are building social media and communities.

Designing for when there is "no there there." The users supply the content. However, the site needs to make sense and be compelling to those initial users who arrive when things are a bit sparse (otherwise you have no chance of it growing of course). In addition, a new user who joins the site (at any stage of that site's growth) should be able to understand how it works and see the site's value. They have to be motivated to do that initial work to become a part of the site before they've made a number of connections (or contributed content). Frequently Those two types of experiences are overlooked in favor of imagining every user experience being that of a long-time user on a mature site. But if those initial experiences aren't pleasant, the site won't ever reach that stage.

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athina alorro

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Thu Oct 15, 2009 10:09 am

If you would ask me how would I define an information environment, the first thought that come up to my mind is that an information environment is an environment where information is shared, exchanged and distributed to a certain audience. Aside from the internet, the other environment that came to my mind is Blogging.

So maybe you’re wondering why I chose Blogging as my information environment, well I chose blogging for one reason. The reason is that, this is the information environment that I’m already quite familiar with and I am now starting to explore for more possibilities thanks to the encouragement of our professor.

Before anything else I would first define what is Blogging.

According to this WEBSITE:

A blog is basically a journal that is available on the web. The activity of updating a blog is “blogging” and someone who keeps a blog is a “blogger.” Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog. Postings on a blog are almost always arranged in chronological order with the most recent additions featured most prominently.

Well its quite obvious what would be my role in the blogging environment. The automatic response would be of course a blogger. However, the role as a blogger in an environment circulating in the internet holds a deeper meaning and responsibility.

But what does being a blogger really mean? To deliberately specify what should be the role of a blogger here is an excerpt from this BLOG:

* I will try to offer up viewpoints that perhaps you hadn’t thought of in order to get people talking and open a conversation.
* I’ll do my best to be useful, creating resources worth your bookmarks. I’ll tie events together to create a story you perhaps didn’t see.
* I’ll take a polarizing stand if it’ll get you to think about things differently and question yourself for good, not just because I’m bored or because I can.
* I’ll craft posts in a tone most appropriate for the subject matter, even if it means I’ll be written off as “sensational” for my choice of language. I’ll use my language as a tool to open people up, not a weapon.
* I will never make links or fake debate my end goal.
* I’ll bring attention to causes, issues and news that I think are important or that will benefit you.
* And I’ll do it while being responsible and accountable for my words.

In an organization of mass number of networked computers such as the internet, there is practically no concrete rules that govern what goes out for the public to see. In general, you can write everything you want and the judgment will be left in the reader’s side. This leniency and freedom would help in the overflow of ideas and inspiration to write more for your readers.

From the entries above, I can safely say that being a blogger is not as easy and should take a little effort and responsibility for your sake and the benefit of the whole community in general.

As bloggers, (especially beginner bloggers) there are some challenges that we may encounter along the way while we are in this environment. Here are some concerns that we could encounter:

What should you Blog About?

This question is probably one of the most mind boggling question that a blogger especially beginner bloggers could stumble upon. Questions like ‘would this topic interest someone?’ or ‘How big would be the impact of this topic to my community’ can pop in your head that can increase the pressure to write something interesting for the public to read. Just remember that our world is filled with interesting topics which you can get from simple activities, ordinary happenings or random experiences in your life that some people may relate with. Updating yourself with the latest news can also give you ideas to write about. Brainstorming can also be a tool in order for you to generate interesting topics from different points of view.

Finding Readers

This is the part that I find to be the most challenging in blogging. Well, you need audience for your blogs. And getting them is never an easy job with thousands of blogs being created every other day. With so many new blogs started every day it takes a lot of effort to build your readership. The very first thing you should do is make it easy for your readers to subscribe to your blog feed, so they keep coming back. Have both an email and an RSS version available. Not everyone knows about RSS even if they use it in their My Yahoo or other reader, so give them the options. Then get the word out. Comment on other blogs. Good comments, not just "Great post" as every blogger sees all too often. Many sites will just delete such comments, as they add nothing to the conversation. And the conversation is a big part of what makes a blog interesting.

Start building traffic to your blogs by link exchanges, directory submission etc. You can also try out social networking and bookmarking sites likes stumble upon friendster , twitter, myspace , face book etc to build targeted traffic to your blog. They are really very useful sources to generate traffic. But the most important is traffic from search engines called organic traffic. It is tough initially as there is heavy competition among all the bloggers to appear on the front page of search engines. You can try out Google adwords not advertise your site. You need to be very serious with this. Once your blog gets popular and as time passes by you can expect loads of traffic to your site.

Handling criticisms and negative feedback

Negative feedback will happen, no matter how good your posts are. It doesn't matter what you do, you cannot please everyone. And that's a key thing to remember.

There are also people who simply delight in saying horrible things to people online just because it can all be anonymous. It can be ridiculous, but there it is. Don't let yourself be drawn into heated exchanges with people. It's better to keep your temper and learn to dismiss the people who are only trying to make you angry.

Genuine criticism, on the other hand, can be quite useful. If someone catches you with incorrect information, thank them. Hopefully they will at the same time point you to a better resource for information.

How Often Do you have to Blog?

Well that’s another major area which some bloggers tend to neglect. You can not simply start a blog and do a few posts and then stop. Your readers also forget your blog soon after that. So you need to post regularly some unique, fresh and interesting content on your blog to keep your readers interested. The frequency may differ from blogs to blogs and niche specific too. For example news blogs need to update content on their blogs very often than any technology blog. Prepare your posts in advance and after that you can post as when you need them.

Search Engine Optimization: Do you really need it?

SEO or search engine optimization is the art and science of building and designing sites in such a fashion that they appear on search engines for a niche specific search by anyone. You cannot simply ignore the importance of SEO. It will bring lots of traffic to your blog on a constant basis. There are many SEO techniques which can be followed like on-page optimization and off-page optimization. You can slowly learn the fundamentals of SEO and then start applying them. You can even think of hiring an SEO expert and get the job done. A good frequency of posting along with SEO would do wonders for your blog in long run.

How Do you Monetize your Blog?

Many people start blogging to monetize them and earn from them. But that is not possible over night. First your blog needs to get popular and generate regular traffic. Only then you can think of monetizing your blog. There are many options like Google adsense, bidvertiser, Kontera ads, link selling, paid reviews, affiliate marketing etc which can be used on your blogs. Have a reasonable target in your mind, so that you don’t get upset later on. There are bloggers who make their living through blogs and blogging. Even you can too.

Finally sometimes you might you might not find enough time to blog. So you can plan things in advance and have some sort of back in place. It will avoid disappointing your regular readers of your blog. You can even think of outsourcing the content writing work to someone and get the job done by paying them. It might look a bit costly but is a good way of keeping your blog up when you don’t have sufficient time to take care of your blog. You can also constantly the look and feel of your blog to suit the contents of your blog keeping the readers interest in your mind.
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jealou azucena

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PostSubject: Assignment #9   Thu Oct 15, 2009 12:35 pm

Identify an information environment of your choice and write an essay to address the following questions:

• What should be your role within this environment?
• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

- - - - -

From the Encarta Dictionaries…

Information is a definite knowledge acquired or supplied about something or somebody.

Environment is the surrounding influences or all the external factors influencing the life and activities.

Having defined the terms we can say that information environment is a surrounding wherein a definite knowledge is acquired and supplied.
There are many kinds of information environment wherein information is being gathered, processed, used, stored, and updated according to the specifications of the one in need of the information. Classic example of this information environment is the internet.

Presently, I am part of the information environment of the University of Southeastern Philippines. My role in this environment is a student learning and aiming to gather skills and information I could use when I graduate (hopefully…). In this information environment I gather information through the aid of my instructors and classmates. Gathering the said information and knowledge is very tough…
And to address these challenges I use more information environment. For my assignments and projects I consult the library and internet. As a user of this information I will set a better example for the students to follow. Libraries are a really great place it has been my solace since elementary. When you are in the library you can be anyone or anywhere you want. It took you places you’ve never been. Information’s are flowing in the library all you have to do is grab a book and read. Because of my attachment to the library it really took a long time for me to trust information from the internet. It is because news spread that there are many fraud information placed in there. Other than that wikipedia does strike me because in there information could be edited, so we student are not certain if the information is correct and accurate. We students could prevent this happening by posting only credible information and avoid distorting the information in the page.
Another challenge in this information environment is the difficulty of subjects and tasks. To address this challenge is a tough fight indeed. Personally just being in USEP is a challenge and at the same time pressure. Since difficulty in the subjects cannot be helped I just study harder to get a passing grade. Part of this study is the tutorials me and my classmates attended. From time to time we also did some group study to understand recent mind puzzling lessons. In this way we share information and learning’s providing more areas in development.
Facilities have also become a challenge for me in this information environment. On my first arrival here in the university we are so many in the section therefore the computer units available do not suffice our number. Also we don’t have our own building and it’s difficult for us student to look for a room where we can stay or have classes.
But recently problems in the facilities have been addressed in terms of additional and new computer units. Now we could use a computer one by one during laboratories (I think its because almost one fourth of our population is gone…bwahaha…).

Information environment is made up of three interrelated dimensions: physical, informational, and cognitive. The physical dimension is composed of the command and control systems, and supporting infrastructures that enable individuals and organizations to conduct operations. In the university physical dimension includes the equipments we use in learning such as the monitor, system units, mouse, keyboard and programs. The informational dimension is where the information is collected, processed, stored, displayed and protected. In addition, in Informational Dimension it is where the automated decision takes place. The Informational dimension links physical and cognitive dimensions. So in short, the informational dimension serves as the medium for the first and the third dimension. The key characteristics are as follows: information content and information quality. Information has its own criteria to ensure its quality and validity. Example of which is accuracy, whether the information given is expressing the true situation. Next will be the relevance of the information, this will answer the question of whether the information can be applied or used in the current situation. Then, usability, it refers to the information that is in common and easily understood. Completeness refers to the information that provides the decision maker with all the date needed. And lastly security, it refers to the information that has been afforded adequate protection when required. Last dimension is cognitive this the period wherein we apply our learnings through making programs, implementing it and developing our critical thinking skills.

After graduation hopefully, I really want to pursue art. I think most likely this is the information environment I will and want to be in. Since art is very broad I would like to define that I’m more interested in designing. True I could use what I’ve learned from IT in designing and developing web sites. Fusing art and information technology I could apply it in multimedia industry. I could create and innovate new forms of showcasing interior designing which I would really love to do. Multimedia industry also includes advertisement, graphics, audio and video, and most especially animations. Back then I really wanted to be an anime artist and I believed that nowadays creating anime uses new technologies and animations. I’m still not definite on what I will specialize in this type of information environment but I want to learn more and grow in art with the aid of information technology.

I hope that everyone will be successful in their chosen information environment.^^

jealou azucena lol!

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John Cesar E. Manlangit

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PostSubject: Information Environment   Thu Oct 15, 2009 11:09 pm

Information technology encompasses many aspects of computing and technology. The information technology covers many fields. IT professionals perform a variety of duties that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, database and software design, as well as the management and administration of entire systems. Information Technology (IT) is a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information. Presumably, when speaking of Information Technology (IT) as a whole, it is noted that the use of computers and information are associated.

Information environment is the aggregate of individuals, organizations, or systems that collect, process, or disseminate information; also included is the information itself. If I were to choose an information environment, I would choose to work in an environment of programmers or database administrators. I can’t really pick any of them because I like them all and I would like to work in this kind of environment.

Programmer is someone who writes computer software. The term computer programmer can refer to a specialist in one area of computer programming or to a generalist who writes code for many kinds of software. One who practices or professes a formal approach to programming may also be known as a programmer analyst. A programmer's primary computer language (Lisp, Java, Delphi, C++, etc.) is often prefixed to the above titles, and those who work in a web environment often prefix their titles with web. The term programmer can be used to refer to a software developer, software engineer, computer scientist, or software analyst. However, members of these professions typically possess other software engineering skills, beyond programming; for this reason, the term programmer is sometimes considered an insulting or derogatory oversimplification of these other professions. This has sparked much debate amongst developers, analysts, computer scientists, programmers, and outsiders who continue to be puzzled at the subtle differences in these occupations.

Computer programmers write, test, debug, and maintain the detailed instructions, called computer programs that computers must follow to perform their functions. Programmers also conceive, design, and test logical structures for solving problems by computer. Many technical innovations in programming — advanced computing technologies and sophisticated new languages and programming tools — have redefined the role of a programmer and elevated much of the programming work done today. Job titles and descriptions may vary, depending on the organization.
Programmers work in many settings, including corporate information technology departments, big software companies, and small service firms. Many professional programmers also work for consulting companies at client' sites as contractors. Licensing is not typically required to work as a programmer, although professional certifications are commonly held by programmers. Programming is widely considered a profession (although some authorities disagree on the grounds that only careers with legal licensing requirements count as a profession).

Programmers' work varies widely depending on the type of business they are writing programs for. For example, the instructions involved in updating financial records are very different from those required to duplicate conditions on an aircraft for pilots training in a flight simulator. Although simple programs can be written in a few hours, programs that use complex mathematical formulas whose solutions can only be approximated or that draw data from many existing systems may require more than a year of work. In most cases, several programmers work together as a team under a senior programmer’s supervision.

Different programming languages are used depending on the purpose of the program. Programmers generally know more than one programming language, and because many languages are similar, they often can learn new languages relatively easily. In practice, programmers often are referred to by the language they know, such as Java programmers, or by the type of function they perform or environment in which they work—for example, database programmers, mainframe programmers, or Web programmers.
Programmers also update, repair, modify, and expand existing programs. Some, especially those working on large projects that involve many programmers, use computer-assisted software engineering (CASE) tools to automate much of the coding process. These tools enable a programmer to concentrate on writing the unique parts of a program. Programmers working on smaller projects often use “programmer environments,” applications that increase productivity by combining compiling, code walk through, code generation, test data generation, and debugging functions. Programmers also use libraries of basic code that can be modified or customized for a specific application. This approach yields more reliable and consistent programs and increases programmers’ productivity by eliminating some routine steps.

Programs vary widely depending on the type of information they will access or generate. For example, the instructions involved in updating financial records are very different from those required to simulate flight for pilot training. Simple programs can be written in a few hours, but some programs draw data from many existing systems or use complex mathematical formulas. These programs may take more than a year to create. In most cases, several programmers work together as a team under a senior programmer’s supervision.

Programmers test a program by running it to ensure that the instructions are correct and that the program produces the desired outcome. If errors do occur, the programmer must make the appropriate change and recheck the program until it produces the correct results. This process is called testing and debugging. Programmers may continue to fix problems for as long as a program is used.

Programmers working on a mainframe, a large centralized computer, may prepare instructions for a computer operator who will run the program. Programmers also may contribute to the instruction manual for a program.

Programmers in software development companies may work directly with experts from various fields to create specialized software—either programs designed for specific clients or packaged software for general use—ranging from games and educational software to programs for desktop publishing and financial planning. Programming of packaged software constitutes one of the most rapidly growing segments of the computer services industry.

Increasingly, advanced software platforms are bridging the gap between computer programmers and computer users. New platforms, such as spreadsheet, accounting, and enterprise resource planning applications, have created demand for computer specialists who have first-hand knowledge of a user-base. These workers use such platforms to develop programs that meet the specific needs of this base. Computer programmers often are responsible for creating the software platform, and then fine-tuning the final program after it has been made.

Computer programmers often are grouped into two broad types—applications programmers and systems programmers. Applications programmers write programs to handle a specific job, such as a program to track inventory within an organization. They also may revise existing packaged software or customize generic applications purchased from vendors. Systems programmers, in contrast, write programs to maintain and control computer systems software for operating systems, networked systems, and database systems. These workers make changes in the instructions that determine how the network, workstations, and central processing unit of a system handle the various jobs they have been given, and how they communicate with peripheral equipment such as terminals, printers, and disk drives. Because of their knowledge of the entire computer system, systems programmers often help applications programmers determine the source of problems that may occur with their programs.

Database Administrator

A database administrator (DBA) is a person responsible for the design, implementation, maintenance and repair of an organization's database. They are also known by the titles Database Coordinator or Database Programmer, and are closely related to the Database Analyst, Database Modeler, Programmer Analyst, and Systems Manager. The role includes the development and design of database strategies, monitoring and improving database performance and capacity, and planning for future expansion requirements. They may also plan, co-ordinate and implement security measures to safeguard the database.

The duties of a database administrator vary depending on job description, corporate and Information Technology (IT) policies and the technical features and capabilities of the DBMS being administered. They include disaster recovery (backups and testing of backups), performance analysis and tuning, data dictionary maintenance, and database design.

Job description:
A database administrator (DBA) is responsible for the performance, integrity and security of a database. Additional role requirements are likely to include planning, development and troubleshooting.
The database approach incorporates the following principles:
• data remains consistent across the database;
• data is clearly defined;
• users access data concurrently, in a form that suits their needs;
• there is provision for data security and recovery control (all data is retrievable in an emergency).

Database administrator (DBA) roles are increasingly identified by the databases and processes they administer and the capabilities of the database management system (DBMS) in use.

Typical work activities:
The work of a database administrator (DBA) varies according to the nature of the employing organization and the level of responsibility associated with the post. The work may be pure maintenance or it may also involve specializing in database development.
Typical responsibilities include some or all of the following:
• establishing the needs of users and monitoring user access and security;
• monitoring performance and managing parameters to provide fast query responses to 'front end' users;
• mapping out the ‘conceptual design’ for a planned database in outline;
• considering both 'back end' organization of data and 'front end' accessibility for end users;
• refining the ‘logical design’ so that it can be translated into a specific data model;
• further refining the ‘physical design’ to meet system storage requirements;
• installing and testing new versions of the database management system (DBMS);
• maintaining data standards, including adherence to the Data Protection Act;
• writing database documentation, including data standards, procedures and definitions for the data dictionary (‘metadata’);
• controlling access permissions and privileges;
• developing, managing and testing backup and recovery plans;
• ensuring that storage, archiving, backup and recovery procedures are functioning correctly;
• capacity planning;
• working closely with IT project managers, database programmers and web developers;
• communicating regularly with technical, applications and operational staff to ensure database integrity and security;
• commissioning and installing new applications.

Because of the increasing levels of hacking and the sensitive nature of data stored, security and recoverability or 'disaster recovery' have become increasingly important aspects of the work.

Roles of the DBA:
• Installation of new software — it is the job of the DBA to install new versions of DBMS software, application software, and other software related to DBMS administration. It is important that the DBA or other IS staff members test new software before it is moved into a production environment.
• Configuration of hardware and software with the system administrator — in many cases the system software can only be accessed by the system administrator. In this case, the DBA works closely with the system administrator to perform software installations, and to configure hardware and software so that it functions optimally with the DBMS.
• Security administration — one of the main duties of the DBA is to monitor and administer DBMS security. This involves adding and removing users, administering quotas, auditing, and checking for security problems.
• Data analysis — The DBA analyzes data stored in the database and makes recommendations relating to performance and efficiency of that data storage. This includes the effective use of indexes, enabling "Parallel Query" execution, or other DBMS specific features.
• Database design (preliminary) — The DBA can be involved at the preliminary database-design stages, eliminating many problems that might occur. The DBA knows the DBMS and system, can point out potential problems, and can help the development team with special performance considerations.
• Data modeling and optimization — by modeling the data, it is possible to optimize the system layouts to take the most advantage of the I/O subsystem.
• Responsible for the administration of existing enterprise databases and the analysis, design, and creation of new databases.
o Data modeling, database optimization, understanding and implementation of schemas, and the ability to interpret and write complex Structured Query Language (SQL) queries.
o Proactively monitor systems for optimum performance and capacity constraints.
o Establish standards and best practices for SQL.
o Interact with and coach developers in SQL scripting.

There are many challenges in performing these roles. As an IT student, you should prepare more for the real world scenario when dealing with these roles.

Challenges surround programmers each and every day, both as motivators and demotivators. While not necessarily a driver of success in every programmer, some prefer to keep it simple and focus on the familiar and ‘what they are good at.’ Nonetheless, leveraging challenges towards positive outcomes is very prevalent where good programmers are found,
challenges that foster …
• personal and career growth,
• new learning, and
• meaning

… represent the best drivers of excitement and reward.
Many programmers will always be able to find fun, productive, and new ways to challenge themselves simultaneously benefiting those around them.
Other programmers may seek a challenge that provides that personal meaning, but require a little guidance. Work with programmers and assist them in finding or building upon challenges that are new and exciting to them. Reinvigorating a common task or a persistently onerous effort through finding that challenging, motivating spark will bring new life and engagement to both the work and the programmer.
Different programmers are motivated by finding different, personally appealing, Challenges in their daily work. These challenges can be anything from …
• Optimizing speed or memory,
• Reducing the total number of source code lines,
• Satisfying the needs of a client,
• Maximizing modularity and reusability, and/or
• Crafting that perfect algorithm.

The DBA`s top three operational database management challenges are: database performance, data recovery/availability and upgrading to new database versions.

Performance means that the database does not cause unreasonable online response times, and it does not cause unattended programs to run for an unworkable period of time. In complex client-server and three-tier systems, the database is just one of many elements that determine the performance that online users and unattended programs experience. Performance is a major motivation for the DBA to become a generalist and coordinate with specialists in other parts of the system outside of traditional bureaucratic reporting lines.

Recoverability means that, if a data entry error, program bug or hardware failure occurs, the DBA can bring the database backward in time to its state at an instant of logical consistency before the damage was done. Recoverability activities include making database backups and storing them in ways that minimize the risk that they will be damaged or lost, such as placing multiple copies on removable media and storing them outside the affected area of an anticipated disaster. Recoverability is the DBA’s most important concern.

Recoverability, also sometimes called "disaster recovery," takes two primary forms. First the backup, then recovery tests.
The backup of the database consists of data with timestamps combined with database logs to change the data to be consistent to a particular moment in time. It is possible to make a backup of the database containing only data without timestamps or logs, but the DBA must take the database offline to do such a backup.
The recovery tests of the database consist of restoring the data, then applying logs against that data to bring the database backup to consistency at a particular point in time up to the last transaction in the logs. Alternatively, an offline database backup can be restored simply by placing the data in-place on another copy of the database.
If a DBA (or any administrator) attempts to implement a recoverability plan without the recovery tests, there is no guarantee that the backups are at all valid. In practice, in all but the most mature RDBMS packages, backups rarely are valid without extensive testing to be sure that no bugs or human error have corrupted the backups.
To address these challenges of a DBA, I must be prepared in these situations in case these would happen and think what the solutions in answering these challenges are.

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PostSubject: Assignment 9   Fri Oct 16, 2009 3:19 am

Before I begin my discussion about the type of information environment that I want to be in, let me first define the three terms involved:

> Information

> Environment

> Information Environment

Giving and getting information has become a big part of our daily lives. We get information in any forms like asking our peers about some things, reading books, studying, watching television, listening to the radio and even browsing the internet. We give information when we share about the things we know just by talking to others or by using any type of media for communication. But what does the word information means?

I took a definition of the word information from wikipedia that information is a term with many meanings depending on context, but is as a rule closely related to such concepts as meaning, knowledge, instruction, communication, representation, and mental stimulus. Simply stated, information is a message received and understood. In terms of data, it can be defined as a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn. There are many other aspects of information since it is the knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction. But overall, information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it.

Information is the state of a system of interest. Message is the information materialized.

Information can also be defined as facts, data or intelligence that a person has acquired or disseminated through experience, study, it could also be in any form of inquiry or communication media that can be thought of.

Environment, on the other hand, is what I define as a total condition or circumstance that surrounding an individual or group.

By summing up the terms, we will get the term “Information Environment”. Information environment as what the site answers.com define as the aggregate of individuals, organizations, or systems that collect, process, or disseminate information; also included is the information itself.

Information environment may be found in any organizations and may come in different forms. One of the duties and responsibilities of the group of people or individuals who are involved in the information environment is to disseminate any data, facts or knowledge which they have acquired from their experience, from their inquiry or from their thorough study to the company or any organization that they are working with. The information can somehow be connected to information systems or information technology.

Database Programmer

Let me first define the word database. Database is an application that is capable of handling large amounts of data about a certain person, thing, or company. One type of application that is designed to handle or manage the databases in the relational database management systems or (RDBMS), is the SQL or structured query language. Other people do pronounce it as “sequel” or SQL itself. Structured Query Language or SQL has the capability of creating, inserting, updating, and deleting a database or record/records in the database. Furthermore, Structured Query Language or SQL can also be connected to a computer programming language like Java or Hypertext Preprocessor or PHP that makes the database programming possible for the web – based approach.

The term database which was also defined in the site http://www.mariosalexandrou.com/, “…in the world of computers, a database usually refers to a collection of related pieces of information stored electronically. Aside from the ability to store data, a database also provides a way for other computer programs to quickly retrieve and update desired pieces of data.”

Another site also defined the word database as a “collection of data or information organized for rapid search and retrieval, especially by a computer. Databases are structured to facilitate storage, retrieval, modification, and deletion of data in conjunction with various data-processing operations. A database consists of a file or set of files that can be broken down into records, each of which consists of one or more fields. Fields are the basic units of data storage. Users retrieve database information primarily through queries. Using keywords and sorting commands, users can rapidly search, rearrange, group, and select the field in many records to retrieve or create reports on particular aggregates of data according to the rules of the database management system being used.”

Database Programmer

The database programmer is responsible for designing and developing web – based applications for databases. Database programmers are also responsible for writing reports to support business practices or activities. They are also responsible for creating pa code that will help the end users of a company to have an easy access or interaction that can be a web – based application with the computer when creating, updating, inserting or deleting a recorded or records from the database.

The challenges that are facing me in performing the role of a database programmer in an information environment or organization are first, the lack of support from the company or management. Next is the disagreement of ideas by my peers. This is very usual most especially if you are working in a teamed project for the reason that people have different ego and ideas that might be different from them. The third challenge is the time pressure. This happens when there is difficulty in meeting the deadlines that you yourself or the company had imposed for a particular project. The last challenge that I can think of is the demand of the end users or company for the reason that in developing a system, as a database programmer, you must be sensitive to the needs of those who will use your system. In creating a system, it is important to develop a system that is user - friendly and maintain the security or confidentiality of the data.

To address these challenges, it would be best that if I am going to work on a teamed project, proper discussion, inquiry and brainstorming must be done to avoid disagreements that the project team might encounter due to the differences in ideas that each individual from the teamed project has. When it comes to addressing the problem of time pressure, it would be better if the company/management will allot sufficient time frame to the project team. Furthermore, the company/management must be sensitive to the needs of the database programmer or the project team like allotting sufficient budget for their project, necessary tools to be used, dedicated and competent staff members or database programmer who will develop the project.





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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Oct 16, 2009 2:25 pm

Identify an information environment of your choice and write an essay to address the following questions:

• What should be your role within this environment?
• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

To begin with, let me first define the word information. Information can be defined as facts, data or knowledge that has been acquired through study or communication. It can be sent or received by using any type of communication media. Through information, we have the knowledge about recent happenings in our surroundings, the latest market trends and the like and now that we are in the age of information technology, the most common source of information is the internet. Internet is an information technology infrastructure that is designed to interconnect hundreds of thousands of computers world wide. It is capable of sending and retrieving information from the different parts of the world in a matter of less than a minute depending on the speed of your internet connection and of your computer.

In the world of information technology, we have what we call Information Systems. Information system is the combination of the components of information technology which as we all know is the hardware and the software; and of the people or end users. According to what was written in the site www.elsevier.com, in the Information systems are the software and hardware systems that support data-intensive applications. Information Systems publishes articles concerning the design and implementation of languages, data models, algorithms, software and hardware for information systems.

Information environment refers to a group of people or an organization in the corporate world. It can also refer to the Management Information System or Information System department of a company. According to www.answers.com, information environment refers to the aggregate of individuals, organizations, or systems that collect, process, or disseminate information; also included is the information itself.

The information environment I chose is the Management Information System. This is where all the necessary and confidential information about the company is being secured or being managed. According to www.wikipedia.com, a management information system (MIS) is a subset of the overall internal controls of a business covering the application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures by management accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide strategy. Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization.

The challenges that the information environment I have chosen which is the Management Information System or the MIS department are keeping the company’s confidential information or data secured from any data thieves, moreover, protecting it from the damaging effects of unwanted computer programs like viruses, spywares, malwares and Trojans. Included in the protection of the company’s information is the maintenance of data or backing up of the databases of the company. It has been also a challenge for the Management Information System department or the Information Technology Department of a company to keep their databases up to date as always as possible. Another challenge is finding competent and dedicated Management Information System Staff or Information Technology professionals. Another challenge is deciding whether the company will opt for insourcing or the outsourcing of the business practices from the company. Another challenge is the creation of user – friendly applications needed by the company for their end users, having their end – users kept updated or taught about the system or application/s that they have created.

To address these challenges, it would be best if the company will support their Information environment by any means and at all times. The Management Information System department in return should be able to keep their staff dedicated in their work,

As an Information Technology student, I may become a part of the said information environment in the future. Align to this, I may be become one of their staff or even manage somehow the said environment because as an IT student it is the part of the field we are align with. To manage information system is part of the cycle and even so, to continue to grow, discover and find solution to the problems regarding information management system. To be part of a management information system department is a immense role to be consider.

Moreover, within this kind of information environment, the role that I preferred to be is being a MIS Supervisor. Since I am already belong on the field of IT industry because I am already an IT student right now and becoming an IT professional someday, I want to use this profession or my profession with this role though I know that MIS Supervisor is not an easy role. In fact, this is an exciting and a challenging role of a company which is the reason why I chose it. The MIS Supervisor will be responsible for day to day support of infrastructure computer equipment within the field locations. This position will provide guidance and support in installing and configuring software as well as administration of daily, weekly and monthly IT checklist. This position will involve the troubleshooting of infrastructure related problems including but not limited to, connectivity, operating systems, third party and in-house applications. This position will have supervisor responsibility over other Network Techs within their facility of operations, will drive the planning, reporting and analysis process through all areas of local operations.

The other duties and responsibilities of MIS Supervisor:

• Manage and coach the local IT support team.
• Coordination and Implementation of multiple IT projects.
• Supervise other IT staff in regards to project delegation, vacation coordination, scheduling.
• Troubleshooting of system problems to minimize down time.
• Installation and configuration of desktop computers.
• Installation and configuration of hardware accessories.
• Installation, maintenance and troubleshooting telecommunications.
• Preparation of project status reports for team manager.
• Take appropriate actions in case of IT equipment failure.
• Maintenance of Server Backups and tape management.
• Execution of daily, weekly and Monthly IT procedure checklist.
• All other duties assigned

Qualifications for this exciting position are:

• Associate or equivalent technical training required
• 10 + years working experience in the above requirements
• Strong working knowledge of Intel base computers and Servers.
• Strong working knowledge of Microsoft XP and Server 2003 operating systems.
• Strong working knowledge of Microsoft Active Directory.
• Must possess demonstrated sound judgement and decision making skills
• Must have demonstrated attention to detail
• Must possess outstanding organizational skills
• Willing to work flexible hours and shifts including weekends and 24X7 on call.
• Excellent Interpersonal Skills
• Ability to work in Cross Functional teams to accomplish business driven projects.
• Excellent communication skills verbal and written.
• Ability to lead by example.
• Consistently sets an example as a high performing team member.
• Has a positive and constructive approach when dealing with others and when faced with difficult taks.
• Uses influence and organizational dynamics effectively for positive results.
• Resolves more complex issues/problems while weighing risks and considering alternatives.
• Consistently demonstrates forward thinking when presenting ideas/solutions.
• Communicates effectively in highly visible situations.
• Sought out by peers for technical/operational information.
• Confronts problems quickly and escalates issues as appropriate.
• Takes the initiative to generate ideas/solutions.

These duties and responsibilities, experience requirements and qualifications are also can be as the challenges of being a MIS Supervisor because and it will measure the proportion of your effectiveness in this role and as how much and deep is your ability, skills, and knowledge on this field.

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Oct 16, 2009 2:52 pm

I had a hard time dealing with this question.. I honestly don't understand what exactly an information environment is. I have tried surfing for those terms, and read some of my classmates answers, hoping that I could understand it. But I am still not sure if my understanding is correct. Question

Allow me to state what I understand about this 'information environment'. I think it is a place or field wherein you gain information or knowledge. I am so much confused if it's really just a 'field to gain information' or is it a 'field to enhance a specific knowledge'. Most of my classmates answered 'professions', so maybe Information Environment is a field wherein we enhance and/or practice our knowledge.

Well then, my information environment would be either on SYSTEM DEVELOPING or INTERNET/WEB DESIGNING, or NETWORK SPECIALIST. Rolling Eyes


Popular titles are Programmer, Systems analyst or System Developer. They create, manage and maintain software programs. To create such programs you need to learn and master the art using programming languages (code). Popular programming languages are Visual Basic, C++ and Java. It involves gathering requirements, coding and testing.

Programmers create software products based on identified market needs, and or specific user requirements. This allows a lot of room for creative ability and innovative thinking while working to specifications and standards. In performing systems analysis, you interact with users, observe their workflow and attempt to create models that will satisfy the user. It means a certain degree of conceptualization is required. To give the user what the user wants, the analyst must know the working requirements of the user, sometimes to the minute details. You need to love paying attention to details.

Analysts in some organizations may not necessarily start out with a computing background. Often people bring their previous job experience to work with the programming team in understanding user requirements. A programmer may be involved in analysis, or may strictly focus on programming, or both. This depends entirely on the working environment.

Programming, just like engineering design requires logical thinking, attention to detail and the ability to focus for long periods. Although programming routines tend to be more predictable than jobs with a fair amount of troubleshooting, it can be quite intensive with regard to self-development. You must be ready to keep learning programming languages/tools/updates because of continuous enhancements in the way programs are written.

I am not so good on this one but I do have fun programming our machine problems, although sometimes it doesn't end successfully. One of the challenges being a System Developer is having the patience debugging the errors.


Web sites are coming up all the time all over the world. Web professionals develop and maintain web pages and web sites on the Internet. Internet design and development is a combination of two skill sets: Programming as well as art/graphic design. Web development can be regarded as a special form of programming. Web developers are involved in creating models, graphic designs, web page designs, testing and troubleshooting.

Web development requires creativity and attention to detail. Although programming skills are important, it is also vital that the Web developer has a flair for presentation and aesthetics. Web development in addition involves a fair amount of testing and problem solving.

This is a bit harder than System Developing since it includes graphic designing. I get encouraged doing this because of designing, when you see the result..whoa! So self-satisfying! In this information environment, my role should be the web designer..hmm, what i mean is only with the design..hehe..not with functionality.. but if i could..then why not!

The challenge as a Web Designer, is that you got to think on how will it look good while performing its function. There is tendency that your web will get ruined because of the design.


With the growth of the Internet, driven primarily by the merging of Communications and Computers, there is a growing demand for individuals skilled in the technical aspects of this unique convergence. Networking is an area of IT that is developing rapidly, especially with new developments in wireless and mobile computing. No wonder the fastest growing sector in IT now is that of Wireless networking.

Networking encompasses Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN) and Internet. Networking facilitates communications and the sharing of resources using IT. Just like the Engineer, the Network Engineer is involved in the design, maintenance and troubleshooting of all aspects of the Network environment - Network equipment, the physical Network, Network connections, Network management and Network Software. Popular Networking names and products include Microsoft Windows, Novell Netware, Banyan, US Robotics, Appletalk, Cisco, Agere, Orinoco, 3COM and Linux.

The Network professional not only deploys networks but must also ensure reliability and consistency of the network by handling problems efficiently, and reducing the risk of network failure. You're also expected to keep abreast of the latest in computers and network technology. The job can therefore be quite demanding as you should not only be flexible enough to provide service at any time, but as a network professional you should be expect to work long hours, weekends inclusive. This is a good position for those with problem-solving and analytical thinking skills.

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PostSubject: Assignment 9   Fri Oct 16, 2009 11:21 pm

Identify an information environment of your choice and write an essay to address the following questions:

• What should be your role within this environment?
• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

As I am doing this assignment I got confuse on how to answers the following questions. With the aid of the internet I was able to understand its meaning. It also made me realize what might I become after I graduate here in this university, what would be my possible career. This makes me realized that I was never dreamed to an IT student or to be here enrolled at this university. But because I got not choice or maybe guts to change my course I just end up loving it and trying to adopt it. But I got no regrets with it; I have learned many things with this course. I may not good at every thing like programming but what matters I have learned.

So much for that, I am going to discus the meaning of information environment and its principles. Also, I have included the principles of effective information management.

What is information Environment?

An Information Environment can be describe as the set of network or online services that support publishing and use of information and learning resources. At the moment online services providing digital resources tend to operate in a stand-alone manner. The user is therefore required to navigate a complex set of different websites with different search interfaces in order to locate relevant resources. Similarly the resources offered tend to be characterized by a lack of mediation to provide vital signposts to explain context and relevance to the user. It has been recognized that this is one of the key features limiting take up of digital resources.

In other words Information Environment is an environment where you can find the information you need in the fast and easiest way.

The information environment is the aggregate of individuals, organizations, and systems
that collect, process, disseminate, or act on information. The actors include leaders, decision makers, individuals, and organizations. Resources include the materials and systems employed to collect, analyze, apply, or disseminate information. The information environment is where humans and automated systems observe, orient, decide, and act upon information, and is therefore the principal environment of decision making. Even though the information environment is considered distinct, it resides within each of the four domains. The information environment is made up of three interrelated dimensions: physical, informational, and cognitive.

What should be your role within this environment?

As a student specifically an Information Technology (IT) student there are many things I want to know about the vast changing technology. If you observe there are lots of technologies that are presented in the market. An Information Environment services can help me in my goals because here I can find the answers to my questions. With just one click information is presented to you. With my teachers that gives us many electronic assignment researches its hard for me to research in an environment that so confusing. Information Environment could be a great help not just for me but to all students who will going to use it. It allows us to gain knowledge and to advance our mind to things that we are not aware of.

But I can be a source of information to others. Form what I have learned in a classroom with my teachers with this I can able to share it to others by posting.

What are the principles of information?


The value of information is directly linked to how it helps decision makers achieve the organization’s goals.

Computers and information systems are constantly making it possible for organizations to improve the way they conduct business.

Knowing the potential impact of information systems and having the ability to put this knowledge to work can result in a successful personal career, organizations that reach their goals, and a society with a higher quality of life

System users, business managers, and information systems professionals must work together to build a successful information system
Information systems must be applied thoughtfully and carefully so that society, business, and industry can reap their enormous benefits
I have also included the 10 (ten) principles of effective information management because ‘Information management’ is an umbrella term that encompasses all the systems and processes within an organization for the creation and use of corporate information.

Information management
Improving information management practices is a key focus for many organizations, across both the public and private sectors.
This is being driven by a range of factors, including a need to improve the efficiency of business processes, the demands of compliance regulations and the desire to deliver new services.
In many cases, ‘information management’ has meant deploying new technology solutions, such as content or document management systems, data warehousing or portal applications.
These projects have a poor track record of success, and most organizations are still struggling to deliver an integrated information management environment.
Effective information management is not easy. There are many systems to integrate, a huge range of business needs to meet, and complex organizational (and cultural) issues to address.
This topic draws together a number of ‘critical success factors’ for information management projects. These do not provide an exhaustive list, but do offer a series of principles that can be used to guide the planning and implementation of information management activities.
From the outset, it must be emphasized that this is not an topic about technology. Rather, it is about the organizational, cultural and strategic factors that must be considered to improve the management of information within organizations.
In terms of technology, information management encompasses systems such as:
web content management (CM)
document management (DM)
records management (RM)
digital asset management (DAM)
learning management systems (LM)
learning content management systems (LCM)
enterprise search
and many more…
Information management is, however, much more than just technology. Equally importantly, it is about the business processes and practices that underpin the creation and use of information.
It is also about the information itself, including the structure of information (’information architecture’), metadata, content quality, and more.
Information management therefore encompasses:
Each of these must be addressed if information management projects are to succeed.

10 (ten) principles of effective information management

1.recognize (and manage) complexity
2.focus on adoption
3.deliver tangible & visible benefits
4.prioritize according to business needs
5.take a journey of a thousand steps
6.provide strong leadership
7.mitigate risks
8.communicate extensively
9.aim to deliver a seamless user experience
10.choose the first project very carefully

Principle 1: recognize (and manage) complexity
Organizations are very complex environments in which to deliver concrete solutions. As outlined above, there are many challenges that need to be overcome when planning and implementing information management projects.
When confronted with this complexity, project teams often fall back upon approaches such as:
Focusing on deploying just one technology in isolation.
Purchasing a very large suite of applications from a single vendor, in the hope that this can be used to solve all information management problems at once.
Rolling out rigid standardized solutions across a whole organization, even though individual business areas may have different needs.
Forcing the use of a single technology system in all cases, regardless of whether it is an appropriate solution.
Purchasing a product ‘for life’, even though business requirements will change over time.
Fully centralizing information management activities, to ensure that every activity is tightly controlled.
All of these approaches will fail, as they are attempting to convert a complex set of needs and problems into simple (even simplistic) solutions. The hope is that the complexity can be limited or avoided when planning and deploying solutions.
In practice, however, there is no way of avoiding the inherent complexities within organizations. New approaches to information management must therefore be found that recognize (and manage) this complexity.
Organizations must stop looking for simple approaches, and must stop believing vendors when they offer ’silver bullet’ technology solutions.
Instead, successful information management is underpinned by strong leadership that defines a clear direction (principle 6). Many small activities should then be planned to address in parallel the many needs and issues (principle 5).
Risks must then be identified and mitigated throughout the project (principle 7), to ensure that organizational complexities do not prevent the delivery of effective solutions.
Information systems are only successful if they are used.

Principle 2: focus on adoption
Information management systems are only successful if they are actually used by staff, and it is not sufficient to simply focus on installing the software centrally.
In practice, most information management systems need the active participation of staff throughout the organization.
For example:
Staff must save all key files into the document/records management system.
Decentralized authors must use the content management system to regularly update the intranet.
Lecturers must use the learning content management system to deliver e-learning packages to their students.
Front-line staff must capture call details in the customer relationship management system.
In all these cases, the challenge is to gain sufficient adoption to ensure that required information is captured in the system. Without a critical mass of usage, corporate repositories will not contain enough information to be useful.
This presents a considerable change management challenge for information management projects. In practice, it means that projects must be carefully designed from the outset to ensure that sufficient adoption is gained.
This may include:
Identifying the ‘what’s in it for me’ factors for end users of the system.
Communicating clearly to all staff the purpose and benefits of the project.
Carefully targeting initial projects to build momentum for the project (see principle 10).
Conducting extensive change management and cultural change activities throughout the project.
Ensuring that the systems that are deployed are useful and usable for staff.
These are just a few of the possible approaches, and they demonstrate the wide implications of needing to gain adoption by staff.
It is not enough to deliver ‘behind the scenes’ fixes.

Principle 3: deliver tangible & visible benefits
It is not enough to simply improve the management of information ‘behind the scenes’. While this will deliver real benefits, it will not drive the required cultural changes, or assist with gaining adoption by staff (principle 2).
In many cases, information management projects initially focus on improving the productivity of publishers or information managers.
While these are valuable projects, they are invisible to the rest of the organization. When challenged, it can be hard to demonstrate the return on investment of these projects, and they do little to assist project teams to gain further funding.
Instead, information management projects must always be designed so that they deliver tangible and visible benefits.
Delivering tangible benefits involves identifying concrete business needs that must be met (principle 4). This allows meaningful measurement of the impact of the projects on the operation of the organization.
The projects should also target issues or needs that are very visible within the organization. When solutions are delivered, the improvement should be obvious, and widely promoted throughout the organization.
For example, improving the information available to call centre staff can have a very visible and tangible impact on customer service.
In contrast, creating a standard taxonomy for classifying information across systems is hard to quantify and rarely visible to general staff.
This is not to say that ‘behind the scenes’ improvements are not required, but rather that they should always be partnered with changes that deliver more visible benefits.
This also has a major impact on the choice of the initial activities conducted (principle 10).
Tackle the most urgent business needs first.

Principle 4: priorities according to business needs
It can be difficult to know where to start when planning information management projects.
While some organizations attempt to priorities projects according to the ’simplicity’ of the technology to be deployed, this is not a meaningful approach. In particular, this often doesn’t deliver short-term benefits that are tangible and visible (principle 3).
Instead of this technology-driven approach, the planning process should be turned around entirely, to drive projects based on their ability to address business needs.
In this way, information management projects are targeted at the most urgent business needs or issues. These in turn are derived from the overall business strategy and direction for the organization as a whole.
For example, the rate of errors in home loan applications might be identified as a strategic issue for the organization. A new system might therefore be put in place (along with other activities) to better manage the information that supports the processing of these applications.
Alternatively, a new call centre might be in the process of being planned. Information management activities can be put in place to support the establishment of the new call centre, and the training of new staff.
Avoid ’silver bullet’ solutions that promise to fix everything.

Principle 5:
take a journey of a thousand steps
There is no single application or project that will address and resolve all the information management problems of an organization.
Where organizations look for such solutions, large and costly strategic plans are developed. Assuming the results of this strategic planning are actually delivered (which they often aren’t), they usually describe a long-term vision but give few clear directions for immediate actions.
In practice, anyone looking to design the complete information management solution will be trapped by ‘analysis paralysis’: the inability to escape the planning process.
Organizations are simply too complex to consider all the factors when developing strategies or planning activities.
The answer is to let go of the desire for a perfectly planned approach. Instead, project teams should take a ‘journey of a thousand steps’.
This approach recognizes that there are hundreds (or thousands) of often small changes that are needed to improve the information management practices across an organization. These changes will often be implemented in parallel.
While some of these changes are organization-wide, most are actually implemented at business unit (or even team) level. When added up over time, these numerous small changes have a major impact on the organization.
This is a very different approach to that typically taken in organizations, and it replaces a single large (centralized) project with many individual initiatives conducted by multiple teams.
While this can be challenging to coordinate and manage, this ‘thousand steps’ approach recognizes the inherent complexity of organizations (principle 1) and is a very effective way of mitigating risks (principle 7).
It also ensures that ‘quick wins’ can be delivered early on (principle 3), and allows solutions to be targeted to individual business needs (principle 4).
Successful projects require strong leadership.
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PostSubject: cont Ass-9   Fri Oct 16, 2009 11:26 pm

Principle 6: provide strong leadership
Successful information management is about organizational and cultural change, and this can only be achieved through strong leadership.
The starting point is to create a clear vision of the desired outcomes of the information management strategy. This will describe how the organization will operate, more than just describing how the information systems themselves will work.
Effort must then be put into generating a sufficient sense of urgency to drive the deployment and adoption of new systems and processes.
Stakeholders must also be engaged and involved in the project, to ensure that there is support at all levels in the organization.
This focus on leadership then underpins a range of communications activities (principle Cool that ensure that the organization has a clear understanding of the projects and the benefits they will deliver.
When projects are solely driven by the acquisition and deployment of new technology solutions, this leadership is often lacking. Without the engagement and support of key stakeholder outside the IT area, these projects often have little impact.
Apply good risk management to ensure success.

Principle 7:
mitigate risks
Due to the inherent complexity of the environment within organizations (principle 1), there are many risks in implementing information management solutions. These risks include:
selecting an inappropriate technology solution
time and budget overruns
changing business requirements
technical issues, particularly relating to integrating systems
failure to gain adoption by staff
At the outset of planning an information management strategy, the risks should be clearly identified. An approach must then be identified for each risk, either avoiding or mitigating the risk.
Risk management approaches should then be used to plan all aspects of the project, including the activities conducted and the budget spent.
For example, a simple but effective way of mitigating risks is to spend less money. This might involve conducting pilot projects to identifying issues and potential solutions, rather than starting with enterprise-wide deployments.

Principle 8:
communicate extensively

Extensive communication from the project team (and project sponsors) is critical for a successful information management initiative.
This communication ensures that staffs have a clear understanding of the project, and the benefits it will deliver. This is a pre-requisite for achieving the required level of adoption.
With many projects happening simultaneously (principle 5), coordination becomes paramount. All project teams should devote time to work closely with each other, to ensure that activities and outcomes are aligned.
In a complex environment, it is not possible to enforce a strict command-and-control approach to management (principle 1).
Instead, a clear end point (’vision’) must be created for the information management project, and communicated widely. This allows each project team to align themselves to the eventual goal, and to make informed decisions about the best approaches.
For all these reasons, the first step in an information management project should be to develop a clear communications ‘message’. This should then be supported by a communications plan that describes target audiences, and methods of communication.
Project teams should also consider establishing a ‘project site’ on the intranet as the outset, to provide a location for planning documents, news releases, and other updates.
Staffs do not understand the distinction between systems.

Principle 9: aim to deliver a seamless user experience
Users don’t understand systems. When presented with six different information systems, each containing one-sixth of what they want, they generally rely on a piece of paper instead (or ask the person next to them).
Educating staff in the purpose and use of a disparate set of information systems is difficult, and generally fruitless. The underlying goal should therefore be to deliver a seamless user experience, one that hides the systems that the information is coming from.
This is not to say that there should be one enterprise-wide system that contains all information.
There will always be a need to have multiple information systems, but the information contained within them should be presented in a human-friendly way.
In practice, this means:
Delivering a single intranet (or equivalent) that gives access to all information and tools.
Ensuring a consistent look-and-feel across all applications, including standard navigation and page layouts.
Providing ’single sign-on’ to all applications.
Ultimately, it also means breaking down the distinctions between applications, and delivering tools and information along task and subject lines.
For example, many organizations store HR procedures on the intranet, but require staff to log a separate ‘HR self-service’ application that provides a completely different menu structure and appearance.
Improving on this, leave details should be located alongside the leave form itself. In this model, the HR application becomes a background system, invisible to the user.
Care should also be taken, however, when looking to a silver-bullet solution for providing a seamless user experience. Despite the promises, portal applications do not automatically deliver this.
Instead, a better approach may be to leverage the inherent benefits of the web platform. As long as the applications all look the same, the user will be unaware that they are accessing multiple systems and servers behind the scenes.
Of course, achieving a truly seamless user experience is not a short-term goal. Plan to incrementally move towards this goal, delivering one improvement at a time.
The first project must build momentum for further work.

Principle 10:
choose the first project very carefully
The choice of the first project conducted as part of a broader information management strategy is critical. This project must be selected carefully, to ensure that it:
demonstrates the value of the information management strategy
builds momentum for future activities
generates interest and enthusiasm from both end-users and stakeholders
delivers tangible and visible benefits (principle 3)
addresses an important or urgent business need (principle 4)
can be clearly communicated to staff and stakeholders (principle Cool
assists the project team in gaining further resources and support
Actions speak louder than words. The first project is the single best (and perhaps only) opportunity to set the organization on the right path towards better information management practices and technologies.
The first project must therefore be chosen according to its ability to act as a ‘catalyst’ for further organizational and cultural changes.
In practice, this often involves starting with one problem or one area of the business that the organization as a whole would be interested in, and cares about.
For example, starting by restructuring the corporate policies and procedures will generate little interest or enthusiasm. In contrast, delivering a system that greatly assists salespeople in the field would be something that could be widely promoted throughout the organization.


Implementing information technology solutions in a complex and ever-changing organizational environment is never easy.
The challenges inherent in information management projects mean that new approaches need to be taken, if they are to succeed.
This has enumerated ten key principles of effective information management. These focus on the organizational and cultural changes required to drive forward improvements.
This also outline a pragmatic, step-by-step approach to implementing solutions that starts with addressing key needs and building support for further initiatives. A focus on adoption then ensures that staff actually uses the solutions that are deployed.
Information management challenges
Organizations are confronted with many information management problems and issues. In many ways, the growth of electronic information (rather than paper) has only worsened these issues over the last decade or two.
Common information management problems include:
Large number of disparate information management systems.
Little integration or coordination between information systems.
Range of legacy systems requiring upgrading or replacement.
Direct competition between information management systems.
No clear strategic direction for the overall technology environment.
Limited and patchy adoption of existing information systems by staff.
Poor quality of information, including lack of consistency, duplication, and out-of-date information.
Little recognition and support of information management by senior management.
Limited resources for deploying, managing or improving information systems.
Lack of enterprise-wide definitions for information types and values (no corporate-wide taxonomy).
Large number of diverse business needs and issues to be addressed.
Lack of clarity around broader organizational strategies and directions.
Difficulties in changing working practices and processes of staff.
Internal politics impacting on the ability to coordinate activities enterprise-wide.
While this can be an overwhelming list, there are practical ways of delivering solutions that work within these limitations and issues.
Information management issues can be overwhelming.
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joverly gonzales

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PostSubject: Assignment#9   Sat Oct 17, 2009 2:24 pm

Information Environment

There is now a critical mass of digital information resources that can be used to support researchers, learners, teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required. There is the need to ensure that quality information isn’t lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation and serving of ‘quality’ information there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. The aim of the Information Environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location.

What does the term 'Information Environment' mean?
The Information Environment (IE) is a term used to refer to the organization’s work to develop and provide services which enable people to find and manage information efficiently and effectively in their learning, teaching or research.
The information resources which people need are very varied - books, journals, research papers, teaching resources, videos, maps and more - and while they might be in any format they are increasingly in digital.

The Information Environment of my Choice

E-commerce, (electronic commerce), is online commerce verses real-world commerce. E-commerce includes retail shopping, banking, stocks and bonds trading, auctions, real estate transactions, airline booking, movie rentals—nearly anything you can imagine in the real world. Even personal services such as hair and nail salons can benefit from e-commerce by providing a website for the sale of related health and beauty products, normally available to local customers exclusively. While e-commerce once required an expensive interface and personal security certificate, this is no longer the case. Virtual storefronts are offered by a variety of hosting services and large Internet presences such as eBay and Yahoo!, which offer turnkey solutions to vendors with little or no online experience. Tools for running successful e-commerce websites are built into the hosting servers, eliminating the need for the individual merchant to redesign the wheel. These tools include benefits like shopping carts, inventory and sales logs, and the ability to accept a variety of payment options including secure credit card transactions.

Though early e-commerce was stunted by security fears, improved technology has made millions of people worldwide feel comfortable buying online. Seeing the vast potential in e-commerce, most credit card companies helped allay fears by guaranteeing cardholders would not be held responsible for fraudulent charges as a result of online shopping. All of these factors have helped e-commerce become the booming industry it is today.
The growing popularity of e-commerce is understandable considering the time and hassle involved in running from store to store, searching for an item in the real world. It not only takes valuable time and energy, but gasoline. With today’s crowded cities and high gas prices, shopping online whenever the mood strikes—even in the middle of the night—has unarguable, unbeatable advantages. Not only is it convenient to shop at a myriad of vendors from the comfort of your computer chair, it’s also a snap to find the best deal by allowing sites like PriceGrabber and Fro ogle sift through hundreds of sellers for you.

E-commerce also has other advantages. Employee overhead is virtually nonexistent, and the yearly fee for an e-commerce website is nominal. Compare this to rental of storefront property, particularly in a busy mall. To top it off, most transactions are handled by software processes, never requiring a real person until the item is ready to be packed and shipped. This translates into real savings to the customer. As a result, real world businesses often cannot compete with their e-commerce counterparts, though one does have to watch for inflated shipping fees that might negate savings.

The Role within the E-Commerce

ECommerce Website Designer
Every website designer or website designer has their own specific roles. The main roles of a website designer (graphics artist) are to plan, analyze and then design a visual answer to a communication problem. Meaning they will create and illustrate in a form of graphics to deliver information or messages through visual form.
There are many ways the website designer or graphics artist can deliver the messages. Normally, they will decide the best format that can be done to deliver the news. It is up to them how they get the message across, and it can either be through the use of print, film or some form of electronic media using various different methods. The methods that they will use in order to convey this message will be through the use of type, photography, animation, illustration, color and certain print and layout methods. In today trends, website is one of the best and easiest methods to deliver company messages or information to the world.
Every website designer or website designer has their own specific roles. The main roles of a website designer (graphics artist) are to plan, analyze and then design a visual answer to a communication problem. Meaning they will create and illustrate in a form of graphics to deliver information or messages through visual form.
There are many ways the website designer or graphics artist can deliver the messages. Normally, they will decide the best format that can be done to deliver the news. It is up to them how they get the message across, and it can either be through the use of print, film or some form of electronic media using various different methods. The methods that they will use in order to convey this message will be through the use of type, photography, animation, illustration, color and certain print and layout methods. In today trends, website is one of the best and easiest methods to deliver company messages or information to the world.

There are few processes involves when designing and developing a website design. When developing a design for their clients, a website designer will look at several different factors in order to plan and execute their design at their target audience. The factors that they will take into consideration in order to achieve this include the following:-
2. Cultural
3. Physical
4. Social
Many website designers today will now use a wide range of graphics and layout software in order to help them produce their designs. Certainly, when it comes to producing designs for web pages or other forms of interactive media, then this website designer will use computer animation and programming packages in order to develop and produce a design for their clients.

What are the challenges facing you in performing the role?
• Identification of the origin of the visitor is required.
Identification of the Origin of the Visitor Web is the most anonymous thing on the earth and the web site visitors want to be anonymous. It is a great challenge to discover the personalities of these anonymous visitors based on their behavior during the time they interact with your web site, and capturing enough information to do so without infringing into their privacy.

• Calculation of the “Dwell” time for a content page.
The time spent by the visitor on a particular page provides a good measure showing the interests of the visitor. Direct ways are not available to calculate the dwell time of a visitor on a page.

• Identification of a User-Session.
A visitor can be characterized by studying his browsing behavior in a session, which is a collection of web based transactions related by time. Computing the start and end of a session is a complex process.

• Managing E-commerce Website Structure Information:
Information Web sites may serve static or dynamic pages or a combination of both and each page served may contain or have links to different types of files or documents, images, multimedia, embedded scripts, etc. Pages can be static html documents or can just consist of a template and an Application Server can serve the content for the different components of the template. The type of files served may change frequently. Many new pages can be added on a daily or weekly basis and the old pages may be superseded. According to its purpose, the files may have a classification like Company information, Product catalogue, Technical support, Ordering page, etc. Content pages may have page titles, which will be required for analysis and it should be extracted and loaded to page dimensions.

How will you address these challenges?

Challenge 1:
Identification of the Origin of the Visitor Web is the most anonymous thing on the earth and the web site visitors want to be anonymous. It is a great challenge to discover the personalities of these anonymous visitors based on their behavior during the time they interact with your web site, and capturing enough information to do so without infringing into their privacy. There are four levels in which a user can be identified.

o Based on Visitor's IP Address

o A persistent identifier for that session only

o A persistent identifier that lets you know the same web browser on a particular computer has returned for a repeat session

o A persistent identifier that lets know the particular human being has returned to our web site
Based on the Visitor's IP address gets the country rather than the person name.
It is better to know at least the country of the visitor instead of anonymity. Knowing the country of the visitor provides with opportunities to personalize the web site for his needs as well in gaining the browsing behavior of the person with respect to the local time of the user.

The IP addresses are allocated dynamically by the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to their customers. The IP address is not the unique way to identify a web site visitor. There are databases maintained for each part of the globe which gives the country, contact person of the ISP, his mail-id, phone number, fax number, IP address allocating authority and the route to the IP address etc. This helps to identify the part of the globe from which the visitor is originating.

A persistent identifier for that session only can be passed through URLs, hidden fields or session identifiers. This will help avoid the problem of proxy servers. But only current session can be recorded No way of tracking repeat visits and the browser Caching. Clicking of the back button is not recorded in the web server log. This makes it impossible to have a complete map of user’s actions. A possible solution for this could be the use of No-Cache tags in the HTML content

A persistent identifier that lets know the same web browser on a particular computer has returned for a repeat session can be implemented through persistent cookies stored on the client machine. The cookie is a record placed on a user's PC by a web browser in response to a request from a web server. The cookie contents are specified by the web server and can only be read from the domain that has specified the cookie. This provides a way to identify the machine from which the user is accessing the net and not the user. The problems with cookies are that the user might have disabled the cookies. Even if the cookies are enabled the user may delete it at any point of time.
A persistent identifier that lets know the particular human being has returned to the web site is normally implemented via access through user/password. Online forms like registration or preferences for customization are an excellent source to link customers to clicks generated by them. By far, it is the most effective method of gathering visitor information. Online forms also have problems. It is believed that when asked for their name on an Internet form, men will enter a pseudonym 50 percent of the time, and women will use a pseudonym 80 percent of the time. It is not preferable to ask the user to fill in the form while he is visiting the site for the first time, as it can be repulsive.

Challenge 2:
Calculation of Dwell Time Dwell time is the time spent by the visitor on a content page. It is an important measure of the relevance of the content for the user and effectiveness of the page in attracting the visitor. The dwell time can be calculated by finding the difference between the 2 content page requests and subtracting the time required to load the content page and the ancillary files from the value. But the time required to load streaming media files like real audio and mpeg may not be considered for the dwell time computation. In this case, the dwell time is to be computed using the beginning of the streaming media download regardless of whether the rest of the content if fully downloaded.

Challenge 3:
Identification of User Session The start and end of a user session is to be identified in order to analyze the user behavior in a session as well as for measuring the effectiveness of the design of the web site in keeping the visitor for more time in the site. This also helps in identifying the various entry pages through which a visitor enters the web site.
These pages by providing links to other pages and putting appropriate ad-banners in the pages depending upon the context. Any page in a web site can be the entry page for a visitor as key word search in search engines can lead the visitor to any page in the web site. The identification of a session also helps in identifying the most popular exit pages, which could be the session killers. Identifying the session killers and effectively redesigning them may keep the users in the web site for more time. But there is no direct way to identify the start and the end of a user session.

Challenge 4:
Managing E-commerce Website Structure
Information Web sites may serve static or dynamic pages or a combination of both and each page served may contain or have links to different types of files or documents, images, multimedia, embedded scripts, etc. Pages can be static html documents or can just consist of a template and an Application Server can serve the content for the different components of the template. The type of files served may change frequently. Many new pages can be added on a daily or weekly basis and the old pages may be superseded. According to its purpose, the files may have a classification like Company information, Product catalogue, Technical support, Ordering page, etc. Content pages may have page titles, which will be required for analysis and it should be extracted and loaded to page dimensions.

Dynamic pages
Pages can be generated and served dynamically based on the parameters given by the visitor in a previous page. A dynamic page can consist of a template with different components and the content for each component can be generated dynamically based on a given set of parameters. The page used will be the same but the content served will be different at different instances of time. Storing all the instances of the dynamic page will drastically increase the size of the page dimension.

Main Challenges
Building a successful data warehouse itself is a challenging task and building a data mining model on the data poses lots of challenges, starting from the understanding of the business problem, data preparation to the building and deploying the mining model. Web poses specific challenges in terms of cleaning, transforming and loading the data for the purpose of analysis, as normally 90% of the click-stream data is of not much importance from analytic perspective.


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Today at 3:05 am

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Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)
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