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 Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)

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Jevelyn Labor

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 08, 2009 2:33 am

• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
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Jevelyn Labor

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 08, 2009 2:33 am

• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?
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Roy Cuevas

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PostSubject: The Information Environment (Assignment 9)   Tue Sep 08, 2009 6:11 pm

With the fast pace of growth of technology, particularly in the IT field, there are many fields in which there is an information environment. Because there is a need for information technology in corporations and organizations now, there will always be an information environment available for IT professionals, its just what they choose that matters. For me, I really want to try out to be a part of these so called information environments. But what is an environment anyway?

Here is an article that I got from the Internet that tackles and talks about an information environment. Actually, it doesn’t say much, so I’m also gonna put definitions from other resources. Usually, what I could find in the Net about Information Environments were from the military of the United States of America. So, here it is.

“What is the Information Environment?

The concept of a "physical environment" is one that we understand well. We talk about the environment in general, and that has come to specifically mean our natural resources: the lakes, the streams, the land, our oceans and air. We can also talk about specifics of the environment that contribute to an immediate purpose. For instance, if we want to go swimming, we can talk about if the lake is free of fish or if the water is a good temperature for swimming.
If we are talking about the "physical environment of a room", such as a classroom, we can talk about the physical attributes of the room: the color of its walls, the cleanliness of its floor, the placement of windows, the temperature and the like. We can also talk about the attributes of the room that contribute to its specific purpose: whether there is a computer in the classroom for students, whether the chairs are comfortable, if the VCR is functioning, if the video feed is "wavy", and so on.

We also talk about the "political environment," which is not a physical environment, but an environment of ideas, attitudes, laws and emotions. For instance, if a law is proposed, legislators have to consider the political environment. Is there a sense that the general population would accept this law? What would be the consequences if the law was passed? What would be the consequences to a particular legislator (like the proposer of the legislation, particularly!) if it were even proposed? And this process of consideration would include the economic situation of the country (a related system), whether the proposer is about to retire (personal consequences), and the implications of the implementation of the law.

The information environment shares attributes of all of these definitions of an environment. It is both a physical environment and an environment of ideas. It is the ways that information is being presented to us, the kinds of information that is being presented to us, and the impact that that information has on us. And "us" means "us" as people living in an information-rich society, as well as "us" as "professionals". Without carrying the analogy too far, we can understand that in this context, information is all around us.

With this very broad definition, our information environment includes advertising, nutritional labels on cans of soup, and messages on our microwaves and the signs on our highways. These, by in large, we leave to others.
When we consider the information environment, we need to consider these aspects:
• The technologies being used
• Laws and policies - and rights and ethics - governing the transfer of information
• The impact of all of this on the information professional, and on the user
• Our changing sense of community
Information professionals have always focused on the information technologies of importance to its users: books, videos, maps, sound recordings and the like.”

This article is like a general definition of an information environment, right? Here is a more likely IT-related definition of an information environment.

“An information systems environment is an area in which information systems professionals apply management systems and technology skills professionally in an organization. An environment does not and cannot constitute a single, focused knowledge area such as applications in mathematics, art, technology, law, statistics, or desktop publishing. Instead, an environment represents an ecosystem in which information systems are employed. The environment surrounds and impacts the systems and technologies that support it and whose inputs, processes or outputs are closely intertwined with their information system.”

I got this definition from a fellow IT student, and I think it’s good. I just don’t know where that student got this definition. Well now, we’re going to proceed to the real deal.

As an Information Technology student, I really want to be in an information environment where there is IT-related tasks and so on. Of course, that’s why I took up BSIT here in USEP-Obrero, right? Actually, I’m also not sure of what information environment I’m going to be in when I get a job(if I get one,hehe). But I have many interests, and all of those information environments interest me. It’ll just depend on whether my skills as an IT student will be qualified for those particular environments. But for sure, I’d have to focus in one so I can work at my full potential.

Being an IT student, there will always be something related to programming in your course. And that’s also one of the reasons why I took up IT, so that I could learn programming. One of the information environments that I would like to be in would be in an environment like this, where I make programs and information solutions for a company or an organization. The thing I like most in programming is that I get satisfied when I make a program that runs good and does all the functions that it needs to do. I could be in a third party company making programs for companies and etc., or I could be an in-house programmer, and make and maintain the information system of the company that I work at.

Or I could be involved in a web developing environment. I really like surfing the Net, and I like how it works. Although I’m still not good at web design, but I can learn if I have the resources needed for it. That’s my problem now, I don’t have the resources. But that’s another story. The Internet is now almost like a necessity for people. Research for students, communication between families, entertainment, social communities, finding partners in life, entrepreneurship… almost all can be done in the Internet now. That only implies that there is a need for people that make web sites and maintain it. Those people from the web developing community are the ones responsible for that, and I’d like to be a part of that environment. The Internet is very useful for people, and I’d like to be a part of those people that do useful things for mankind (Wow).

I would also like to be in Multimedia, whatever it may be, as long as it has computers involved in it. Like in animation. Whenever I see movies like Shrek, Ice Age and other CGI movies, I always say to myself “I’d really love to make 3D animation”. I even imagine if I can make a mini-movie all by myself in 3D, and I’d do it all by myself. The direction, the 3D rendering and modeling, the script, the plot, the audio, everything! But I now I can’t because you need to have a team or another company to do that. I also love graphics, I just really don’t have the resources yet, hehe. And I’d also like to be a sound engineer, where you mix, edit and record songs by using particular audio software. I also have a passion for music, so my passion and my interest in computers blend with each other.

I also have an interest in hardware and networking and other stuff related to that. It’s just that I think IT doesn’t focus much on that. But I really have a knack for it. Whenever I se technicians setting up and doing their thing in Internet cafes and the like, I observe and be like “chismoso” and see what they’re doing. Also my cousin told me that the technicians in their company, which are CISQO certified, have high-paying salaries. Where there’s a big salary, that’s where we go, right? So, no need to elaborate. hehe.

These are the reasons why I took up BSIT. By being an IT professional you are qualified for different fields of work, only if it fits the Information Technology category. When you take up IT, you may be able to work in different information environment that suits your interest.

How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?

Well, I got the definition of the principles of information organization from the past forum, my thanks to them, for that’s also where I got the definition of information environment.
• Knowledge needs to be organized for communities
• Designing tools to support the organization of knowledge
• Guiding principle must that be that of user orientation and predominant usage
• Standardization and networking provide infrastructures, which facilitate effective and efficient access to information and documents

I would just generalize all of the information environments that I would like to be a part of with these principles of information organization.

For the first principle; Knowledge needs to be organized for communities:
Of course, in every company or organization that you’re gonna work in, there has to be knowledge that has to be organized, because if there’s none, then that could be total mayhem for the company. If your company is a big one, then knowledge has to be classified and organized. I can’t imagine the risks and the consequences if there would be misleading information and false knowledge in a company. Just think about it. For example, for a website making company. A large company hires them to make a website, and the web developer puts wrong information on the website, like let’s just say for a example a phone number for the client company. Many customers that inquire or need help or want to order or whatever they want to do would be really pissed off, and will be complaining to the company… All because of wrong knowledge and inaccurate data. That’s just how I put it. Or for example, a programmer makes a software for a company. One error in the content of the code could mean a loss for a company that has that program, and that loss could be money, reputation, etc. That’s how important organized knowledge is to a particular information environment.

For the second principle; Designing tools to support the organization of knowledge:
This is where software development comes in. For specific information environments, there has to be a set of tools, programs and applications needed for the company to be able to function properly. If you’re a programmer, you need to have a programming language that suits you, or you must be knowledgeable of what programming language the company wants you to utilize. If you are in multimedia, then you must use what graphics application software that you have mastered. In networking, you have to get the tools required for your job. Not just hardware, but also software.

For the third principle; Guiding principle must that be that of user orientation and predominant usage
Of course, what you do in the company, the tasks associated with it, you have to know it, and also your fellow workers.

And lastly, for the fourth principle; Standardization and networking provide infrastructures, which facilitate effective and efficient access to information and documents
In the company, where there a lot of people involved and working together and are interconnected with each other, you have to have an effective network topology that will increase the speed of communication and also will be budget friendly, depending on the income of the company. With this in hand, then the functions and tasks in the company will be more effective and will be more progressive. It will also lessen up the time for the work if the work involves networking.

What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

There are many challenges that I will be facing when I will be in an information environment. I will just state here the challenges that come to my mind right now.

Myself. If I will be working in an information environment, I must have discipline for myself. I have to be hardworking in my work, just like all my fellow workers will be doing. I mustn’t be late in work. I must follow what my boss says to me and must do it in time for the deadline, if there is. And I’ll just be absent if I really have an important excuse for it.

In an information environment, I must expect that I will be working with a team or if not, then other personnel. There are issues sometimes that fellow workers have arguments, and I must not be one of those workers. I have to a develop a camaraderie between my fellow workers so there will be no hindrance to the flow of work in our department. In short, there has to be chemistry,hehe.

Also, you have to be particular with the hardware and software that you’ll be dealing with when you work. What the company provides you; you have to make use of it. If you complain about it, then it’ll be a possible “kick out” for you. You’re just a worker following orders, and you really have a thick face (bagag nawong in bisaya) or in serious terms, boastful if you do that.

Well, I think that’s where my assignment ends.
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Shiela Marie P. Nara

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 08, 2009 7:02 pm

dentify an information environment of your choice and write an essay to address the following questions: (3000 words)


• What should be your role within this environment?
• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

DIGITAL INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT

Before getting into the topic, I think it is good to define the terms first. When I read the words “information
environment”, the first thing that came up in my mind is that information environment means an environment where information exists; as the name suggests but I doubt it and so I look for its deeper meaning.

In computer science, information simply means processed, stored, or transmitted data while environment means the entire set of conditions under which one operates a computer, as it relates to the hardware, operating platform, or operating system. So those are the meanings of the individual terms but when you combine these two terms its meaning would be converted as the aggregate of individuals, organizations, or systems that collect, process, or disseminate information; also included is the information itself.

In the context of information environment, one may be confuse on what specific meaning is implied in this particular topic and I’m of no exception. However, dealing with the topic a little deeper gives me an idea to choose digital information environment as my choice.

I can compare this information environment as a library in itself but in a digital era.
Libraries inform their users of what materials are available in their collections and how to access that information. Before the computer age, this was accomplished by the card catalog — a cabinet containing many drawers filled with index cards that identified books and other materials. In a large library, the card catalog often filled a large room. The emergence of the Internet, however, has led to the adoption of electronic catalog databases (often referred to as "webcats" or as online public access catalogs, OPACs), which allow users to search the library's holdings from any location with Internet access. This style of catalog maintenance is compatible with new types of libraries, such as digital libraries and distributed libraries, as well as older libraries that have been retrofitted. Electronic catalog databases are criticized by some who believe that the old card catalog system was both easier to navigate and allowed retention of information, by writing directly on the cards, that is lost in the electronic systems. This argument is analogous to the debate over paper books and e-books. While libraries have been accused of precipitously throwing out valuable information in card catalogs, most modern ones have nonetheless made the move to electronic catalog databases. Large libraries may be scattered within multiple buildings across a town, each having multiple floors, with multiple rooms housing the resources across a series of shelves. Once a user has located a resource within the catalog, they must then use navigational guidance to retrieve the resource physically; a process that may be assisted through signage, maps, GPS systems or RFID tagging.
A digital library is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible by computersThe digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. A digital library is a type of information retrieval system.

The DELOS Digital Library Reference Modeldefines a digital library as:
An organization, which might be virtual, that comprehensively collects, manages and preserves for the long term rich digital content, and offers to its user communities specialized functionality on that content, of measurable quality and according to codified policies.

The first use of the term digital library in print may have been in a 1988 report to the Corporation for National Research Initiatives[3] The term digital libraries was first popularized by the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994.[4] These draw heavily on As We May Think by Vannevar Bush in 1945, which set out a vision not in terms of technology, but user experience. The term virtual library was initially used interchangeably with digital library, but is now primarily used for libraries that are virtual in other senses (such as libraries which aggregate distributed content).

There is now a critical mass of digital information resources that can be used to support researchers, learners, teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required. There is the need to ensure that quality information isn’t lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation and serving of ‘quality’ information there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. The aim of the Information Environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location.

However, with the sets and collection of media and of media other than books for storing information, many libraries are now also repositories and access points for maps, prints, or other documents and various storage media such as microform (microfilm/microfiche), audio tapes, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, and DVDs. Libraries may also provide public facilities to access subscription databases and the Internet.
Thus, modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are understood as extending beyond the physical walls of a building, by including material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing tremendous amounts of knowledge with a variety of digital tools.
Patrons may not know how to fully use the library's resources. This can be due to some individuals' unease in approaching a staff member. Ways in which a library's content is displayed or accessed may have the most impact on use. An antiquated or clumsy search system, or staff unwilling or untrained to engage their patrons, will limit a library's usefulness. In United States public libraries, beginning in the 19th century, these problems drove the emergence of the library instruction movement, which advocated library user education. One of the early leaders was John Cotton Dana. The basic form of library instruction is generally known as information literacy.

ROLE

The digital information environment has dramatically changed the way that faculty and students access information offered by academic libraries.
My role in the digital information environment is merely on the user side. I am the user of the information in the environment. I am the client who requests certain information from the server who in turn uses it for my helpful purpose. This kind of information technology made me use of the information I wanted by just a click on the mouse or by the press of the keys. The world is really flat in the sense that I don’t have to go anywhere else just to gather the information I needed. As long as there is a connection between me and the server, I have no problem.

In school, I am a student who is a patron in our library but usually I don’t hold books when I have to research certain things. Instead I use computers. Our school library really has a scarcity of books. So, what do you expect me to do? Instead of having high blood pressure of searching the books which is in the database but is nowhere to find in the actual, a very tiring stuff to do, all I have to perform is to go to our so called “virtual library”. But when our virtual library is full of my fellow schoolmates and when the information is badly needed, I just go to internet cafes, searching for the information I really needed.

In an overview of performance measures in higher education and libraries, Kyrillidou ( 1998) identified three issues that should be taken into account when assessing the reliability and validity of academic library data: consistency across institutions and time, ease versus utility in gathering data; and values, meanings, and measurement. The last issue refers to the interpretation of data as guided by local conditions. The methodology for Web surveys demonstrated in this study, given the appropriate networking topology, meets all three of these issues. It can be meaningfully applied with consistency across institutions and time. It is easy to implement and gathers useful data quickly. The data can be interpreted locally, and indeed, local questions can be asked to guide specific service decisions about networked electronic resources.
The vast majority of networked services use occurs on-campus, either in the library or from other locations on-campus, although resources in the electronic information environment are available to authorized faculty and students anywhere they have access to a computer and a network connection. Interestingly the purpose of use (sponsored research, etc.,) varied far more dramatically in both medical and academic libraries when comparing in-library use to remote use, than did the categories of users (graduate student, etc.). The categories of users, to generalize, are similar in the library and outside of the library, but the purpose of use is very different. Use of networked electronic resources for sponsored research occurs outside of the library. Since it is unlikely that faculty would divide their time in such a way, or would come into the library for instructional purposes but not for research, one might speculate that the faculty who come into the library are different people from those who do not, despite the similar percentage distributions.

These data support the conclusion that patrons who log into networked electronic resources from outside the library are different from those who come into the library, a point that came up frequently in discussions with medical librarians. Yet, many libraries make service decisions based upon activity at service points, for example, the reference desk. These service point data are often extended inferentially to represent the library population, for example, in collection development decisions. Although the vendors supply usage statistics for their networked electronic resources, they do not distinguish between usage inside or outside the library. Librarians may incorrectly assume that the usage of networked electronic resources in the library resembles the usage outside of the library.

Further, many libraries are re-inventing their library as a place to attract grant-funded researchers and scientists into the library. It may be felt that the lack of researchers or grant-funded scientists physically present in the library is a result of dissatisfaction with or disinterest in library services. The data presented here support the notion that the library is indeed doing its job, and delivering resources electronically to its patrons, even though they do not come into the library. To reach funded researchers, the library should offer more electronic services in a virtual library, and not worry about their lack of attendance in the physical library.


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 08, 2009 7:05 pm

INFORMATION ORGANIZATION

The concept of information organization lies from the fact that information really needs to be organized. We organize information – in our minds and in information systems – in order to collect and record it, retrieve it, evaluate and select it, understand it, process and analyze it, apply it, and rearrange and reuse it. We also organize things, such as parts, merchandise in a store, or clothes in a closet, using similar principles for similar purposes.
Information organization can be understood from four perspectives: a data perspective, a relationship perspective, an operating system (OS) perspective, an application architecture perspective. But I chose the first perspective as the specific information organization I really needed

Data perspective of information organization

• the information organization of geographic data must be considered in terms of their descriptive elements and graphical elements because
o these two types of data elements have distinctly different characteristics
o the have different storage requirements
o they have different processing requirements
• for descriptive data, the most basic element of information organization is called a data item
o a data item represents an occurrence or instance of a particular characteristic pertaining to an entity (which can be a person, thing, event or phenomenon)
• a group of related data items form a record
o by related data items, it means that the items are occurrences of different characteristics pertaining to the same person, thing, event or phenomenon (e.g. in a forest resource inventory, a record may contain related data items such as stand identification number, dominant tree species, average height and average breast height diameter)
o a record may contain a combination of data items having different types of values (e.g. in the above example, a record has two character strings representing the stand identification number and dominant tree species; an integer representing the average tree height rounded to the nearest meter; and a floating-point number representing the average breast height diameter in meters)
• a set of related records constitutes a data file
o by related records, it means that the records represent different occurrences of the same type or class of people, things, events and phenomena
o a data file is individually identified by a filename
o a data file may contain records having different types of data values or having a single type of data value
o in data processing literature, collections of data items or records are sometimes referred to by other terms other than "data file" according to their characteristics and functions
• the concept of database is the approach to information organization in computer-based data processing today
o a database is defined as an automated, formally defined and centrally controlled collection of persistent data used and shared by different users in an enterprise (Date, 1995 and Everest, 1986)
? above definition excludes the informal, private and manual collection of data
? "centrally controlled" does not mean "physically centralized" --- databases today tend to be physically distributed in different computer systems, at the same or different locations
? a database is set up to serve the information needs of an organization
? data sharing is key to the concept of database
? data in a database are described as "permanent" in the sense that they are different from "transient" data such as input to and output from an information system
o the use of database does not mean the demise of data files
? data in a database are still organized and stored as data files
? the use of database represents a change in the perception of data, the mode of data processing and the purposes of using the data, rather than physical storage of the data
o databases can be organized in different ways known as database models
? the three conventional database models are: relational, network and hierarchical
? the emerging database model is object-oriented
• data are uniquely identified as individual objects that are classified into object types or classes according to the characteristics (attributes and operations) of the object

[color=red]CHALLENGES


When we say challenge, what does it really mean in the context of my role in the information environment? Is it about confrontations? Problems? Tests? In some sense, all of these things.
Lack of ICT Training
There is lack of such expertise in working librarians. All participants viewed it as a major challenge. Establishing a digital library without refreshing the information technology and information retrieval skills of library professionals is a difficult task. A breed of experts and continuous training programmes to handle and operate the latest technology in libraries is a dire need.

Lack of Awareness

Many studies have found that a lack of awareness is associated with lower use of electronic collections (Ibrahim 2004; Said, 2006; Warraich, 2007; Bashir, 2008). Hussain (2006) explores the perception of LIS professionals regarding digital libraries. He found the low IT literacy rate in Pakistan to be a barrier to digital libraries (pp. 50-56). Sadique (2005) found that lack of awareness about Information Resource Center (IRC) in PUL and low digital literacy were the main causes of lower use of electronic services. In a similar vein, a low level of understanding and awareness of available sources and services by the science and technology teachers of Punjab University limit the use of information systems (Muzammil, 2008).

User Orientation

Orienting users to modern library services is another challenge. Mahmood, (2003), Ameen, (2006) and Rehman, (2008) warn LIS schools that they must produce graduates who are up to the demands of the changing and challenging information market place. A study by Naz (2007) depicts significantly lower use of OPACs due to lack of orientation by librarians and low level of IT information literacy among students. Bashir (2008) asserts that training needs attention from university authorities and HEC for better service in libraries.

Bandwidth and Infrastructure

Developing countries may have limited bandwidth available. Universities were faced with purchasing dedicated bandwidth, but HEC provides shared bandwidth via Pakistan Telecommunication Limited (PTCL). Poor connectivity has been a big challenge for accessing and downloading information especially large files.

Improve the Use of Electronic Resources

HEC databases are great source of electronic access for Pakistani universities, and are very costly. Overall use statistics show relatively more use by public universities users than private. The use statistics compiled for 2005 show that the cost per article is less than $2.30, and the cost is borne by the HEC (Said, 2006, p.20).
Universities whose use of e-resources is low have their subscriptions automatically canceled by the NDL programme. Use statistics justify the subscriptions and their effective use. Increasing the use of the databases is essential for maintaining institutional access and requesting subscriptions to more sources. Increased use of resources is the result of user awareness and orientation. Creating awareness and increased use is important for increased research productivity.

Preservation

Due to financial problems and poor infrastructure, it is a concern that digital libraries may lack their current resources in the future. Ameen (2005) and Haider (2004) anticipate the future of digital collections and state that subscriptions to online resources often provide only access rather than ownership. The library may be emptyhanded after the subscription ends.

Technical Support and Security

Security for digital information is a demanding challenge for librarians. Piracy, virus inversions, and parallel satellite networking stress are some of the problems for which solutions are needed. Information technology skills and applications are changing and developing quickly. To endure, digital libraries need the latest technology and more technical staff or experts for this purpose.

New Field of Research

This is new field of research for library and information professionals and researchers. User satisfaction, perception, use, and usability studies regarding digital library sources will be helpful for improving this programme.

Myths about Digital Collections

It is a challenge to combat the myths about electronic resources and libraries. Library users think that the web is a substitute for the library and that there is no need of librarians in the digital environment. In fact, the librarian is a mediator between the huge sea of information and its users, and the need for a trained mediator is more apparent than ever. Ameen (2005) rightly points out that library patrons have confusion. These confusions include the belief that the web is the equivalent of a library and feelings of fear and anxiety.


ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES

Opportunities

It is a common saying that challenges are also opportunities. There are definitely opportunities for librarians at PUL and elsewhere.
Learning and Improvement of ICT Skills
Library professional can now get informal online education regarding about trends in librarianship on their desktops. They may improve their ability to retrieve information and serve users. Self learning regarding the use as well as understanding of new tools, acquisition of e-resources, and efficiency of retrieving information, dissemination, leadership qualities, and better use of human and financial resources can help meet digital library challenges.
Digital library services can play an increasing role in practical and specific tasks in teaching, learning, and research.

Marketing Strategies
Said (2006) points out that HEC allocated 7 percent of the NDL budget to marketing and promotion of e-resources and 12 percent for training researchers. This is great opportunity for LIS professionals to learn about marketing, develop marketing plans for better promotion , develop a marketing strategy to justify subscriptions to more databases or continuing existing sources, and learn about methods for internal and external communication. Marketing research, strategic analysis, and user segmentation can help librarians know their customers and develop a user-centered approach. Customer- centered services could enhance the use of electronic databases using marketing and promotion. Because of the market demand for more orientation, the LIS Department of the University of the Punjab conducted a workshop on this topic for working librarians. Such continuing education activities can help working professionals.

Improve the Image of Library

Punjab University librarians have a positive attitude towards the NDL. They are providing better services because of these digital sources. This programme not only improves the image of library but also the image of library professionals.

Awareness of Use of E-Resources and Researchers' Orientation

Library orientation can take place at the time of new enrollment, which is the practice at PUL. The role of departmental librarian is crucial. Hands-on exercises are helpful in introducing new students to electronic resources and services. Promotional material should also be distributed among all types of users. Said (2006) mentions that 8,850 faculty members and students were trained at the various seminars across the country from 2003-2006. The short courses and workshops conducted by HEC for library professionals can be a great opportunity for librarians to improve their IT literacy.

Design of Library Web Page

The library web page is used to promote library services and especially to provide access to e-resource links through ELIN. The library web page is an effective tool and should also be used to provide tips to researchers on search strategies and effective use of resources. LIS professionals have the opportunity to learn web page design and develop other ICT skills to help users.



REFERENCES:

http://www.thefreedictionary.com
http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub110/introduction.html
http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~cyberia/PIE/
http://www.informationenvironments.org.uk/
http://www.google.com.ph/#hl=en&source=hp&q=information+environments&btnG=Google
+Search&meta=&aq=0&oq=information+environment&fp=cec5a45a8751de0f
http://informationr.net/ir/9-4/paper187.html
http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/giscc/units/u051/
http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/~mbolin/wairrach.htm


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PostSubject: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 08, 2009 7:13 pm

Information environment


At the edge of modern technology, digital information is at rapid growth. We are in the age of information environment wherein changes are constant. That’s why; a proper and appropriate use of these resources is a must. It is required to deal information resource effectively.

For information is an everyday creation of emerging innovative ideas, there is a fast-paced run amongst these data. And we are to ensure that these thoughts must be utilized accordingly. Thus, management on this area should be given priority.

Now, let us make clear to what is an information environment. The Information Environment (IE) is a term used to refer a conducive place developed and provided of services which enable people to find and manage information efficiently and effectively in their learning, teaching or research.

The information resources which people need are very varied - books, journals, research papers, teaching resources, videos, maps and more - and while they might be in any format they are increasingly digital.

Information environment was continued to develop for it is designed to invest in the future. It aims to use information technology in improving ways of creating, managing, sharing, discovering, using and curetting it for more useful outputs in support of learning and research in higher education.

At this instant, I would like to reflect on my overview with regards to information environment.

E-library

Define as a list of some books and articles collection on the media and communication sectors accessible by a computer. The term digital library or the electronic library is disperse enough to be useful to a wide range of collections and organizations, but, to be considered an electronic library, an online collection of information must be managed by and made accessible to a community of users. Thus, some web sites can be considered digital libraries, but far from all.

Then now, the question is, how would I identify myself as a part of this kind of information environment?
We students are subject to pass all course that we are currently enrolled. For some instances, lectures and class discussions are not enough for us to fully understand what is ought to understand, right? So, we opt to find and search for any related learning’s that would impart other knowledge in our lessons.
One of the widespread options we chose to is visiting libraries. But, how do we differ E-library from a traditionally library?

For now, big network sites are continuing in large scale digitization projects. These developments are underway Google, the Million Book Project, MSN, and Yahoo!. With continued improvements in book handling and presentation technologies, e-libraries are rapidly growing in popularity.
For the reason that it is electronic ways had captured the trend nowadays, it is the convenient and easy way of learning. Mostly of the online provider of these e-libraries are providing a search interface that allows the available sources to be found.

For a fast-paced competency in the age of high technology, this accession to e-libraries is a great advantage given that you are having a means of easily and rapidly accessing books.
There is a limitation concerning storage space in traditional libraries; electronic libraries have the potential to store to a large extent of information, simply because digital information requires very little storage space to have it. As such, the cost of maintaining an electronic library is much lesser than that of a traditional library.
Moreover, a traditional library has got to spend large sums of money paying for staff, book maintenance, rent, and additional books. Digital libraries do away with these fees.

As an IT person, who abides and trust the essence of information technology, I would promote and contribute to this innovation. I would adopt this innovative step towards information environment.

My role of encouraging my fellow students to pursue the use of e-libraries would be firm and as a supporter itself, I am willing to follow and make an initial step.

Unfortunately, this is someway a challenging role for me, because we are to switch what we are used to be for many times and for an instance we are turning to a new way of learning by digital electronic library.

Electronic library would impart a great change, such as affecting one's social capability. if you rely solely in electronic way of accessing books instead of what you used to do before.

But anyways, in one way or another, information environment such as E-library is a great contribution to our continued learning.


♥http://www.knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/ELibrary/[/size]
♥ http://www.jisc.ac.uk


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Sep 09, 2009 2:29 pm

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Thu Sep 10, 2009 12:14 pm

• What should be your
role within this environment?


What is actually an Information Environment first??


There is now a critical mass of digital information resources that can be used to support researchers, learners, teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required. There is the
need to ensure that quality information isn’t lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation and serving of ‘quality’ information there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. The aim of the Information Environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource
management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location.


So, what should be my role in this environment??

The aim is to create a reliable source of information that other applications, such as portals, can
freely access through machine-to-machine protocols to help their end users discover resources of assistance to them.

The IESR contains information about the resources themselves, technical details about how to access the resources, and contact details for the resource providers. For resource providers the IESR will hold a master description of their electronic resources, to which other potential users of the resources may be directed.

Some of those examples I’ve just seen through net is this:

JISC's mission is to provide world-class leadership in the innovative use of Information and Communications Technology to support education and research JISC will deliver its mission through:

* JISC's mission is to provide world-class leadership in the innovative use of Information and Communications Technology to support education and research innovative and sustainable ICT infrastructure, services and practice that support institutions in meeting their mission

* promoting the development, uptake and effective use of ICT to support learning and teaching

* promoting the development, uptake and effective use of ICT to support research

* promoting the development, uptake and effective use of ICT within institutions and in support of their management

* developing and implementing a programme to support institutions' engagement with the wider community

* continuing to improve its own working practices

The strategy gives an overall direction to the work of the JISC sub-committees2 and programmes3. The JISC Board4 will receive a six monthly report detailing progress against the strategic aims, so the strategy will be kept under continuous review. The strategy is supported by an operating plan which is a dynamic plan that is reviewed and updated on a quarterly basis.

York Digital Library – Integration for the Next Generation

This project (YODL-ING) will implement and develop a number of technologies to enhance and embed repositories into the information infrastructure of the University of York.

We already have an EPrints repository (WRRO), shared with Leeds and Sheffield Universities and a multimedia Digital Library (YODL). YODL-ING will particularly develop the functionality of our YODL service, based on Fedora Commons, and will significantly impact on how this system integrates with a number of other repositories and systems at York and beyond.

Working with project partners, YODL-ING will build two significant services. One will utilise the SWORD protocol to expedite deposit into a number of repositories from a single deposit interface. The other will offer a simple, yet scalable solution to access control, enabling the expression of policies in machine-readable format and utilising Shibboleth to control access to users at York and at any other Higher Education institution. Crucial to this is that we maintain the ability to offer a hybrid repository, where access controlled content is managed alongside open access resources.

The project will also explore tools, semantic approaches and web services to enhance metadata
generation and resource submission, and will look at new ways to access content. Two final work elements will examine accessibility to ensure the widest possible support for users and a study of digital preservation will facilitate preservation strategy planning for the long-term.


Overall, the project aims to offer re-usable solutions and recommendations for the wider HE, JISC and Fedora communities.

• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?

There is now a critical mass of digital information resources that can be used to support
researchers, learners, teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required. There is the need to ensure that quality information isn't lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation and serving of 'quality'
information, there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. The aim of the Information Environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location.

The JISC Strategic aims include developing and providing innovative and sustainable ICT
infrastructure, services and practice that support institutions in meeting their mission. This can be summarised as the development, provision and use of an e-Infrastructure (Information Environment) for education and research. Alongside this there is the aim to promote the development, uptake and effective use of ICT to support learners and teachers and to support
researchers.

Aims & objectives

The aim of this programme is to improve the capacity of the sector to manage, discover and use information resources. This will be achieved by delivering a range of benefits to the sector that align with the general benefits that JISC seeks to deliver for the sector:

* Enhanced capacity, knowledge and skills to enable positive and informed change in the sector (through piloting new technologies and approaches)

* Guidance to the sector on 'best practice' models for using technology that can be used at departmental, institutional, regional or national levels

* Strategic leadership to the sector and other bodies in specialist areas and to influence national and international agendas

* Knowledge and experience as a basis for future funding decisions for the JISC and its sub committees

* New or enhanced services, infrastructure, standards or applications that may be used at departmental, institutional, regional or national levels

• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

Aims

The e-Learning programme aims to:

* Identify the benefits of e-learning
* Give advice on its implementation
* Develop an improved understanding of the potential of digital technologies to support learning and teaching
* Consider the strategic implications of this


* Inform and support the delivery of national policy in this area
Our work is applicable to policy makers, senior institutional managers and educational practitioners throughout further and higher education.

The e-Learning programme is funded by the JISC Learning and Teaching Committee1.

The JISC e-learning programme enables the development and effective use of digital technologies to support learning and teaching in universities and colleges, so that staff benefit from e-learning and students enjoy a more flexible learning experience.

Theme 1: Finding the way

Focuses on exploring guiding principles for technology-enhanced learning and teaching. Drawing on insights from recent JISC-funded research and other leading thinkers in thefield, this theme asks questions such as:

* How can we ensure that adoption of technology will enhance learning and transform teaching and assessment practice?

* What are the benefits and challenges posed by open educational resources?
* Is there a role for social media in institutional practice?
* What are learners’ experiences of
technology in learning and teaching? Can institutions meet the challenges posed by learners’ needs and expectations?

Theme 2: Meeting the challenge

Looks at the integration of technology-mediated practice under specific agendas: meeting the needs of employers, delivering learning on a global scale, developing sustainable and external-facing strategies for curriculum development.

* How can institutions respond with more agility to the changing needs of the workplace?
* How can institutions engage employers in curriculum design?
* Adopt or avoid? Can virtual worlds open up new routes to learning?
* What are the top 5 challenges facing institutions in the 21st century?

If you are a researcher, institutional manager or practitioner involved in technology-enhanced learning and teaching, Innovating e-Learning 2009 will be of interest to you. Delegates from further and higher education and from overseas are welcome.


You may also visit my sire @ http://deshai08.blogspot.com/


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Ariel Serenado

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Thu Sep 10, 2009 12:42 pm

For this assignment we are tasked to identify an Information Environment. Let us first be acquainted with what is Information Environment. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required. There is the need to ensure that quality of information is not lost amongst masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation an serving ‘quality’ information, there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. The aim of the information environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment ails to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location.

By knowing Information Environment, I have chosen the E-Infrastructure as an information environment. Actually, this kind of information environment is under The Research Infrastructures part of the FP7 Capacities Programme, this supports an innovative way of conducting scientific research (referred to as e-science) by the creation environment for academic and industrial research in which virtual communities share, federate and exploit the collective power of European scientific facilities.

The term e-infrastructure refers to this new research environment in which all researchers – whether working in the context of their home institutions or in national or multinational scientific initiatives – have shared access to unique or distributed scientific facilities (including data, instruments, computing and communications), regardless of their type and locations in the world. The e-infrastructure activity will extend and reinforce the high capacity communication infrastructure; strengthen multidisciplinary grid and supercomputing infrastructures; expand scientific data infrastructure; encourage the adoption of e-infrastructure by an increasing number of user communities; stimulate new organizational models; and support the construction of new computation and data treatment facilities. Specifically, e-infrastructure aims to improve the capacity of he sector to manage, discover the use of information resources. This will be achieved by delivering a range of benefits to the sector that align with the general benefits, these are the following:


  • Enhanced capacity, knowledge and skills to enable positive and informed change in the sector


  • Guidance to the sector on ‘best practice’ models for using technology that can be used at departmental, institutional, regional or national levels


  • Strategic leadership to the sector and the other bodies in specialist areas to influence national and international agendas


  • Knowledge and experience as a basis for future funding decisions


  • New or enhanced services, infrastructure, standards or applications that may be used at departmental, institutional, regional or national levels

If I’ll get myself involved in such environment, I’ll be doing my roles that I must bear to satisfy the aim of this environment. One role that I will be possessing is the role to improve information management practices, because this is a key focus for many organizations, across both the public and private sector. Information environment is, however, much more than just technology. Equally importantly, it is about the business processes and practices that underpin the creation and use of information. Another role is develop guidelines for description and build systems that do a better job of supporting the information-seeking tasks of users; to be aware complexity of certain organizations, thus provide some necessary actions to overcome challenges in terms of planning and implementing any projects. Of course, these roles I have mentioned will not be perfectly done by my intellectual properties only, I have to adheres some options, ways and means in order to satisfy these roles. With this demand, the principles of Information Organization and representation is of big help to realize the roles I must posses.

Now, as I go over the internet I have known the principles of information management, I think these are most likely similar with information organization. We all know that an information management encompasses people, process, technology and content. Each of these must be addresses if information organization projects are to succeed. Here are the principles:


  • Recognize (and manage) complexity


  • Focus on adoption


  • Deliver tangible and visible benefits


  • Prioritize according to business needs


  • Take the journey of a thousand steps


  • Provide a strong leadership


  • Mitigate risks


  • Communicate extensively


  • Aim to deliver a seamless user experience


  • Choose the first project very carefully

With the first one which is to recognize (and manage) complexity, we all know for the fact that organizations are very complex environment in which to deliver concrete solutions. With these principle it will help my role to be perform correctly by way of fully centralizing information management activities, to ensure that every activity is tightly controlled and by way of rolling out rigid, standardized solutions across whole organization, even though individual business areas may have different needs. In practice, however, there is no way of avoiding the inherent complexities within organizations. New approaches to information management must therefore be found that recognize (and manage) this complexity. Risks must then be identified and mitigated throughout the project, to ensure that organizational complexities do not prevent the delivery of effective solutions.

In practice, most information management systems need the active participation of staff throughout the organization, this is the implication of the second principle. Staff must save all the key files into the document/records management system; front-line staff must capture call details in the customer relationship management system. In all these cases, the challenges is to gain the sufficient adoption to ensure that the required information is captured by the system. Without a critical mass of usage, corporate repositories will not contain enough information to be useful. This may include:


  • Identifying the ‘what’s in it for me’ factors for end users of the system


  • Communicating clearly to all staff the purpose and benefits of the project


  • Carefully targeting initial projects to build momentum for the project


  • Conducting extensive change management and cultural change activities throughout the project.


  • Ensuring that the systems that are deployed are useful and usable for the staff.

Another principle implies that delivering tangible benefits involves identifying concrete
Business needs that must be met. This allows meaningful measurement of the impact of the projects on the operation of the organization. As involved in an information environment such as e-infrastructure one’s implementations should target issues or needs that are very visible within the organization. When the solutions are delivered, the improvement should be obvious, and widely promoted throughout the organization. For example, improving the information available to call centre staff can have a very visible and tangible impact on customer service. Another principle that can help in possessing my role in the environment that I have chosen is to prioritize according to business needs. It can be difficult to where to start when planning information management projects. While some organization attempt to prioritize projects according to the ‘simplicity’ of the technology to de deployed, this is not a meaningful approach. In particular, this often doesn’t deliver short-term benefits that are tangible and visible. Instead of this technology-driven approach< the planning process should be turned around entirely, to drive projects based on their ability to address business needs. In this way, information management projects are targeted at the most urgent business needs or issues. These in turn are derived form the overall business strategy and direction for the organization as a whole. One of the most important principle role is to provide strong leadership. Successful information management is about organizational and cultural change, and this can only be achieved through strong leadership. The starting point is to create a clear vision of the desired outcomes of the information management strategy. This will describe how the organization will operate, more than just describing how the information systems themselves will work. Effort must then be put into generating a sufficient sense of urgency to drive the deployment and adoption of new systems and processes. This focus on leadership then underpins a range of communications activities that ensure that the organization has a clear understanding of the projects and the benefits they will deliver.

Also, mitigate risks is also an important principle that help posses the role. Due to the inherent complexity of the environment within organizations, there are many risks in implementing information management solutions. These risks include:

? Selecting an inappropriate technology solution
? Time and budget overruns
? Changing business requirements
? Technical issues, particularly relating to integrating systems
? Failure to gain adoption by staff

At the outset of planning an information management strategy, the risks should be clearly identified. An approach must then be identified for each risk, either avoiding or mitigating the risk. Risk management approaches should then be used to plan all aspects of the project, including the activities conducted and the budget spent. To communicate extensively is also a big help in possessing my roles in the information environment I have chosen. Extensive communication from the project team is critical for a successful information management initiative. This communication ensures that staffs have a clear understanding of the project, and the benefits it will deliver. This is a pre-requisite for achieving the required level of adoption.

For all these reasons, the first step in an information management project should be to develop a clear communications ‘message’. This should then be supported by a communications plan that describes target audiences, and methods of communication. Project teams should also consider establishing a ‘project site’ on the intranet as the outset, to provide a location for planning documents, news releases, and other updates. Above all, when one is engaging himself’/herself in an information environment, one must take into account the principle that would affect the entire engagement activities of the information environment. The principle I am talking about is choosing a project very carefully.

The choice of conduct projects is part of broader information management strategy is critical. This project must be selected carefully, to ensure that it:
• demonstrates the value of the information management strategy
• builds momentum for future activities
• generates interest and enthusiasm from both end-users and stakeholders
• delivers tangible and visible benefits
• addresses an important or urgent business need
• can be clearly communicated to staff and stakeholders
• assists the project team in gaining further resources and support

Actions speak louder than words. The project is the single best (and perhaps only) opportunity to set the organization on the right path towards better information management practices and technologies. Te project must therefore be chosen according to its ability to act as a ‘catalyst’ for further organizational and cultural changes. In practice, this often involves starting with one problem or one area of the business that the organization as a whole would be interested in, and cares about. For example, starting by restructuring the corporate policies and procedures will generate little interest or enthusiasm. In contrast, delivering a system that greatly assists salespeople in the field would be something that could be widely promoted throughout the organization.

In practice, challenges have never turned its way. Challenges encompass once facing the roles in an information environment. Organizations are confronted with many information management problems and issues. In many ways, the growth of electronic information (rather than paper) has only worsened these issues over the last decade or two.

Common challenges that might occur in performing such roles within the e-infrastructure as an information environment.

• Large number of disparate information management systems.
• Little integration or coordination between information systems.
• Range of legacy systems requiring upgrading or replacement.
• Direct competition between information management systems.
• No clear strategic direction for the overall technology environment.
• Limited and patchy adoption of existing information systems by staff.
• Poor quality of information, including lack of consistency, duplication, and out-of-date information.
• Little recognition and support of information management by senior management.
• Limited resources for deploying, managing or improving information systems.
• Lack of enterprise-wide definitions for information types and values (no corporate-wide taxonomy).
• Large number of diverse business needs and issues to be addressed.
• Lack of clarity around broader organizational strategies and directions.
• Difficulties in changing working practices and processes of staff.
• Internal politics impacting on the ability to coordinate activities enterprise-wide.


Source:

http://www.steptwo.com.au/papers/kmc_effectiveim
http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/e-infrastructure/

magBLOG link: http://www.arielserenado.blogspot.com


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John Paul Pulido

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PostSubject: Assignment 9   Sun Sep 13, 2009 11:56 pm

Information Environment:

There is now a critical mass of digital information resources that can be used to support researchers, learners,teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required. There is the need to ensure that quality information isn’t lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation and serving of ‘quality’ information there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. The aim of the Information Environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location.

What is a eBusiness?

An ebusiness may also use the Internet to acquire wholesale products or supplies for in-house production. This facet of ebusiness is sometimes referred to as eprocurement, and may offer businesses the opportunity to cut their costs dramatically. Even many ebusinesses which operate without an electronic storefront now use eprocurement as a way to better track and manage their purchasing.

In addition to buying and selling products, ebusiness may also handle other traditional business aspects. The use of electronic chat as a form of technical and customer support is an excellent example of this. An ebusiness which uses chat to supplement its traditional phone support finds a system which saves incredible amounts of time while providing opportunities unavailable through traditional support. By using virtual computer systems, for example, technical support operators can remotely access a customer's computer and assist them in correcting a problem. And with the download of a small program, all pertinent information about the hardware and software specifications for a user's computer may be relayed to the support operator directly, without having to walk a customer through personally collecting the data.

Web design is a kind of graphic design intended for development and styling of objects of the Internet's information environment to provide them with high-end consumer features and aesthetic qualities. The offered definition separates web design from web programming, emphasizing the functional features of a web site, as well as positioning web design as a kind of graphic design.

Environment in terms of layout is a double edged sword: on the one hand, it is the expression of a framework that actively shapes the web designer. On the other hand, as the designer adapts that framework to projects, layout is the means of content delivery. Publishing a web engages communication throughout the production process as well as within the product created. Publication implies adaptation of culture and content standards. Web design incorporates multiple intersections between many layers of technical and social understanding, demanding creative direction, design element structure, and some form of social organization. Differing goals and methods resolve effectively in successful deployment of education, software and team management during the design process. However, many competing and evolving platforms and environments challenge acceptance, completion and continuity of every design product.




What should be your role within this environment?

As a student, my role in this environment is just a simple yet wide researcher. Maybe, I can also post some information through the Internet that will help other student and countrymen to learn and reflect with it.


How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?

The principles of information system will really help me in this duty. I can use it in posting good materials in the internet.

What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

The challenges I may face in implementing these are the tools to be used, lack of time in posting, and lack of money to support this doing.




REFERENCE:
http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/themes/informationenvironment.aspx

http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-ebusiness.htm


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 15, 2009 2:42 pm

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 15, 2009 8:17 pm

The Information Environment (IE) is a term used to refer to JISC's work to develop and provide services which enable people to find and manage information efficiently and effectively in their learning, teaching or research. The information resources which people need are very varied - books, journals, research papers, teaching resources, videos, maps and more - and while they might be in any format they are increasingly digital.

Reference: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/themes/informationenvironment/overview.aspx


Combining the two definitions involve which are the Information and environment it entails that just to come up a definition that will suit for the related definition and meaning. Information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it, while the environment is the workplace where the data is process, and a nature where the information is taken care and put in a certain container that exclusive for the certain data. The information does have an environment because as time goes by information change, it is either reduced or improved. In order to manage the information, it must have a system to taken care of it.
Today, the term information technology deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store protect, process, transmit, and securely retrieve information. It has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology, and the term has become very recognizable. IT professionals perform a variety of duties that range from installing applications to designing complex compute networks and information databases. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, database and software design, as well as the management. With the use of technology the information is being manage, talking about management there the following information how information being management using a concept.

In regards to the assignment, the environment of information is defined broadly that is why I just can’t choose just one. Actually, I want to involve myself as many IT related works and activities. I really do like the course IT I just have difficulty in programming aspects, but still I don’t want to stay on that side, I know that there is something that really suits my ability and interest in Information Environment. I know that their place for me and I am looking forward to discover it.

This is the following reasons why I involve myself in IT. I thought that involving into information technology will be my gate pass for me to be competent in technical things in this generation. I really want to involve in animation. Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. It is an optical illusion of motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision, and can be created and demonstrated in a number of ways. The most common method of presenting animation is as a motion picture or video program, although several other forms of presenting animation also exist Even before I am really fascinated about how the anime works and do an amazing animations and transitions. I love to learn how their visual effects are performed and how to make one. This is first encouraging me to get into here to live in information environment. I know that someday if I really involve myself in technology I know I will have this ability to be the best in it, it might not today, not in this place or not in this time but I know it will come and I am very near on it.

I like technical things. I love to know more about hardware and software. I love to know more about computer hardware and software which helps me to fix my pc on my own. I really want to be computer technician too. I want to enhance and optimizing my own pc. Computer hardware, upon which can be installed an operating system and a multitude of software to perform the operator's desired functions. While the Computer software is often regarded as anything but hardware, meaning that the "hard" are the parts that are tangible while the "soft" part is the intangible objects inside the computer. Software encompasses an extremely wide array of products and technologies developed using different techniques like programming languages, scripting languages, microcode, or an FPGA configuration. Software usually runs on underlying software operating systems such as the Linux or Microsoft Windows. Software also includes video games and the logic systems of modern consumer devices such as automobiles, televisions, and toasters. I really love dismantling and assembling gadgets and equipments just to find out want are inside of it.

I really want to learn about networking and be good on it. I want to understand all this terms below and be good on it. I want to be good at networking, method of network connection and network technologies. Computer networks classification according to the hardware and software technology that is used to interconnect the individual devices in the network, such as Optical fiber, Ethernet, Wireless LAN or Power line communication. Ethernet uses physical wiring to connect devices. Frequently deployed devices include hubs, switches, bridges and/or routers. Wireless LAN technology is designed to connect devices without wiring. These devices use radio waves or infrared signals as a transmission medium.

Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to 3D Computer Animation

1. Squash and Stretch - defining the rigidity and mass of an object by distorting its shape during an action
2. Timing and Motion - spacing actions to define the weight and size of objects and the personality of characters
3. Anticipation - the preparation for an action
4. Staging - presenting an idea so that it is unmistakably clear
5. Follow Through and Overlapping Action - the termination of an action and establishing its relationship to the next action
6. Straight Ahead Action and Pose-to-Pose Action - The two contrasting approaches to the creation of movement
7. Slow In and Out - the spacing of the in-between frames to achieve subtlety of timing and movement
8. Arcs - the visual path of action for natural movement
9. Exaggeration - Accentuating the essence of an idea via the design and the action
10. Secondary Action - the action of an object resulting from another action
11. Appeal - creating a design or an action that the audience enjoys watching

Reference:
John Lasseter, "Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to 3D Computer Animation", Computer Graphics, pp. 35-44, 21:4, July 1987 (SIGGRAPH 87).

George Maestri, "Digital Character Animation", New Riders Press, 1996.
Introduction

I know that incline with this principles will be key tools to make my own animation be successful and effective. All this guidelines will the things I must basically follow and apply some of the principles that still available that help me makes as one good animator.



10 Principles of Effective Web Design


In order to use the principles properly we first need to understand how users interact with web-sites, how they think and what the basic patterns of users’ behavior are.

1. How do users think?

Basically, users’ habits on the Web aren’t that different from customers’ habits in a store. Visitors glance at each new page, scan some of the text, and click on the first link that catches their interest or vaguely resembles the thing they’re looking for. In fact, there are large parts of the page they don’t even look at. Most users search for something interesting (or useful) and clickable; as soon as some promising candidates are found, users click. If the new page doesn’t meet users’ expectations, the Back button is clicked and the search process is continued.

• Users appreciate quality and credibility. If a page provides users with high-quality content, they are willing to compromise the content with advertisements and the design of the site. This is the reason why not-that-well-designed web-sites with high-quality content gain a lot of traffic over years. Content is more important than the design which supports it.

• Users don’t read they scan. Analyzing a web-page, users search for some fixed points or anchors which would guide them through the content of the page. Notice how “hot” areas abrupt in the middle of sentences. This is typical for the scanning process.

• Web users are impatient and insist on instant gratification. Very simple principle: If a web-site isn’t able to meet users’ expectations, then designer failed to get his job done properly and the company loses money. The higher is the cognitive load and the less intuitive is the navigation, the more willing are users to leave the web-site and search for alternatives.

• Users don’t make optimal choices. Users don’t search for the quickest way to find the information they’re looking for. Neither do they scan web-page in a linear fashion, going sequentially from one site section to another one. Instead users satisfice; they choose the first reasonable option. As soon as they find a link that seems like it might lead to the goal, there is a very good chance that it will be immediately clicked. Optimizing is hard, and it takes a long time. Satisficing is more efficient.

• Users follow their intuition. In most cases users muddle through instead of reading the information a designer has provided. According to Steve Krug, the basic reason for that is that users don’t care. “If we find something that works, we stick to it. It doesn’t matter to us if we understand how things work, as long as we can use them. If your audience is going to act like you’re designing billboard, then design great billboards.”

• Users want to have control. Users want to be able to control their browser and rely on the consistent data presentation throughout the site. E.g. they don’t want new windows popping up unexpectedly and they want to be able to get back with a “Back”-button to the site they’ve been before: therefore it’s a good practice to never open links in new browser windows.

1. Don’t make users think

According to Krug’s first law of usability, the web-page should be obvious and self-explanatory. When you’re creating a site, your job is to get rid of the question marks — the decisions users need to make consciously, considering pros, cons and alternatives. If the navigation and site architecture aren’t intuitive, the number of question marks grows and makes it harder for users to comprehend how the system works and how to get from point A to point B. A clear structure, moderate visual clues and easily recognizable links can help users to find their path to their aim. By reducing cognitive load you make it easier for visitors to grasp the idea behind the system. Once you’ve achieved this, you can communicate why the system is useful and how users can benefit from it. People won’t use your web site if they can’t find their way around it.

2. Don’t squander users’ patience

In every project when you are going to offer your visitors some service or tool, try to keep your user requirements minimal. The less action is required from users to test a service, the more likely a random visitor is to actually try it out. First-time visitors are willing to play with the service, not filling long web forms for an account they might never use in the future. Let users explore the site and discover your services without forcing them into sharing private data. It’s not reasonable to force users to enter an email address to test the feature. Ideally remove all barriers, don’t require subscriptions or registrations first. A user registration alone is enough of an impediment to user navigation to cut down on incoming traffic.
3. Manage to focus users’ attention

As web-sites provide both static and dynamic content, some aspects of the user interface attract attention more than others do. Obviously, images are more eye-catching than the text — just as the sentences marked as bold are more attractive than plain text. The human eye is a highly non-linear device, and web-users can instantly recognize edges, patterns and motions. This is why video-based advertisements are extremely annoying and distracting, but from the marketing perspective they perfectly do the job of capturing users’ attention. Focusing users’ attention to specific areas of the site with a moderate use of visual elements can help your visitors to get from point A to point B without thinking of how it actually is supposed to be done. The less question marks visitors have, the better sense of orientation they have and the more trust they can develop towards the company the site represents. In other words: the less thinking needs to happen behind the scenes, the better is the user experience which is the aim of usability in the first place.

4. Strive for feature exposure

Modern web designs are usually criticized due to their approach of guiding users with visually appealing 1-2-3-done-steps, large buttons with visual effects etc. But from the design perspective these elements actually aren’t a bad thing. On the contrary, such guidelines are extremely effective as they lead the visitors through the site content in a very simple and user-friendly way. Letting the user see clearly what functions are available is a fundamental principle of successful user interface design. It doesn’t really matter how this is achieved. What matters is that the content is well-understood and visitors feel comfortable with the way they interact with the system.

5. Make use of effective writing

As the Web is different from print, it’s necessary to adjust the writing style to users’ preferences and browsing habits. Promotional writing won’t be read. Long text blocks without images and keywords marked in bold or italics will be skipped. Exaggerated language will be ignored. Talk business. Avoid cute or clever names, marketing-induced names, company-specific names, and unfamiliar technical names. For instance, if you describe a service and want users to create an account, “sign up” is better than “start now!” which is again better than “explore our services”.

• use short and concise phrases (come to the point as quickly as possible),
• use checkable layout (categorize the content, use multiple heading levels, use visual elements and bulleted lists which break the flow of uniform text blocks),
• use plain and objective language (a promotion doesn’t need to sound like advertisement; give your users some reasonable and objective reason why they should use your service or stay on your web-site)

6. Strive for simplicity

The “keep it simple”-principle (KIS) should be the primary goal of site design. Users are rarely on a site to enjoy the design; furthermore, in most cases they are looking for the information despite the design. Strive for simplicity instead of complexity. From the visitors’ point of view, the best site design is a pure text, without any advertisements or further content blocks matching exactly the query visitors used or the content they’ve been looking for. This is one of the reasons why a user-friendly print-version of web pages is essential for good user experience.

7. Don’t be afraid of the white space

Actually it’s really hard to overestimate the importance of white space. Not only does it help to reduce the cognitive load for the visitors, but it makes it possible to perceive the information presented on the screen. When a new visitor approaches a design layout, the first thing he/she tries to do is to scan the page and divide the content area into digestible pieces of information.

8. Communicate effectively with a “visible language”

In his papers on effective visual communication, Aaron Marcus states three fundamental principles involved in the use of the so-called “visible language” — the content users see on a screen.

• Organize: provide the user with a clear and consistent conceptual structure. Consistency, screen layout, relationships and navigability are important concepts of organization. The same conventions and rules should be applied to all elements.
• Economize: do the most with the least amount of cues and visual elements. Four major points to be considered: simplicity, clarity, distinctiveness, and emphasis. Simplicity includes only the elements that are most important for communication. Clarity: all components should be designed so their meaning is not ambiguous. Distinctiveness: the important properties of the necessary elements should be distinguishable. Emphasis: the most important elements should be easily perceived.
• Communicate: match the presentation to the capabilities of the user. The user interface must keep in balance legibility, readability, typography, symbolism, multiple views, and color or texture in order to communicate successfully. Use max. 3 typefaces in a maximum of 3 point sizes — a maximum of 18 words or 50-80 characters per line of text.

9. Conventions are our friends

Conventional design of site elements doesn’t result in a boring web site. In fact, conventions are very useful as they reduce the learning curve, the need to figure out how things work. For instance, it would be a usability nightmare if all web-sites had different visual presentation of RSS-feeds. That’s not that different from our regular life where we tend to get used to basic principles of how we organize data (folders) or do shopping (placement of products). With conventions you can gain users’ confidence, trust, reliability and prove your credibility. Follow users’ expectations — understand what they’re expecting from a site navigation, text structure, search placement etc. (see Nielsen’s Usability Alertbox for more information)

10. Test early, test often

This so-called TETO-principle should be applied to every web design project as usability tests often provide crucial insights into significant problems and issues related to a given layout. “Test not too late, not too little and not for the wrong reasons”, that means that you can’t universally answer whether some layout is better than the other one as you need to analyze it from a very specific point of view (considering requirements, stakeholders, budget etc.).

This is all consideration and principles of how to satisfy user and customer ton the web design you offer to them. This might I use in the future if ever I will be good at making wed designing but as of now, I’m hoping and looking forward that it will be done. This principle is taken from the experience of others, which must be considered by most web designer.

Seven Principles of Software Development

The First Principle: The Reason It All Exists
A software system exists for one reason: to provide value to its users. All decisions should be made with this in mind. Before specifying a system requirement, before noting a piece of system functionality, before determining the hardware platforms or development processes, ask yourself questions such as: "Does this add real VALUE to the system?" If the answer is "no", don't do it

The Second Principle: KISS (Keep It Simple, Stupid!)
Software design is not a haphazard process. There are many factors to consider in any design effort. All design should be as simple as possible, but no simpler. This facilitates having a more easily understood, and easily maintained system. This is not to say that features, even internal features, should be discarded in the name of simplicity. Indeed, the more elegant designs are usually the more simple ones. Simple also does not mean "quick and dirty." In fact, it often takes a lot of thought and work over multiple iterations to simplify. The payoff is software that is more maintainable and less error-prone.

The Third Principle: Maintain the Vision
A clear vision is essential to the success of a software project. Without one, a project almost unfailingly ends up being "of two [or more] minds" about itself. Without conceptual integrity, a system threatens to become a patchwork of incompatible designs, held together by the wrong kind of screws. Compromising the architectural vision of a software system weakens and will eventually break even the most well designed systems.

The Fourth Principle: What You Produce, Others Will Consume
Seldom is an industrial-strength software system constructed and used in a vacuum. In some way or other, someone else will use, maintain, document, or otherwise depend on being able to understand your system. So, always specify, design, and implement knowing someone else will have to understand what you are doing. The audience for any product of software development is potentially large. Specify with an eye to the users. Someone may have to debug the code you write, and that makes them a user of your code. Making their job easier adds value to the system.

The Fifth Principle: Be Open to the Future
A system with a long lifetime has more value. In today's computing environments, where specifications change on a moment's notice and hardware platforms are obsolete when just a few months old, software lifetimes are typically measured in months instead of years. However, true "industrial-strength" software systems must endure far longer. To do this successfully, these systems must be ready to adapt to these and other changes. Systems that do this successfully are those that have been designed this way from the start. Never design yourself into a corner. Always ask "what if ", and prepare for all possible answers by creating systems that solve the general problem, not just the specific one. This could very possibly lead to the reuse of an entire system.
Abusing this principle is where I see many developers go wrong. One of the benefits of having both years of experience and many of them on a single project is that you learn the virtues of You Arent Gonna Need It. As developers, we often guess wrong on how a system is going to change unless we are also domain experts. Further, systems do change but often converge so the generalized solution becomes baggage. -- Sal Mangano

The Sixth Principle: Plan Ahead for Reuse

Reuse saves time and effort. Achieving a high level of reuse is arguably the hardest goal to accomplish in developing a software system. The reuse of code and designs has been proclaimed as a major benefit of using object-oriented technologies. However, the return on this investment is not automatic. To leverage the reuse possibilities that OO programming provides requires forethought and planning. There are many techniques to realize reuse at every level of the system development process. Those at the detailed design and code level are well known and documented. New literature is addressing the reuse of design in the form of software patterns. However, this is just part of the battle. Communicating opportunities for reuse to others in the organization is paramount. How can you reuse something that you don't know exists? Planning ahead for reuse reduces the cost and increases the value of both the reusable components and the systems into which they are incorporated.

The Seventh Principle: Think!

This last Principle is probably the most overlooked. Placing clear, complete thought before action almost always produces better results. When you think about something, you are more likely to do it right. You also gain knowledge about how to do it right again. If you do think about something and still do it wrong, it becomes valuable experience. A side effect of thinking is learning to recognize when you don t know something, at which point you can research the answer. When clear thought has gone into a system, value comes out. Applying the first six Principles requires intense thought, for which the potential rewards are enormous.

Reference:
http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?SevenPrinciplesOfSoftwareDevelopment


For now, these are my ideas. I know this is subject to change as time comes. However, I am certain that I always dreamed of seeing myself in the future working in a big and top company here in the Philippines as a business intelligence analyst wherein my role would be to design and develop company data analysis and report solutions; review and analyze data from internal and external resources; communicate analysis results and make recommendations to senior management. I will provide a bridge between the business and IT, working with both sides to propose changes to processes and systems to meet the needs of the business. I will act as a liaison between functional areas such as HR, finance, marketing and technical areas, like development. I know I will encounter challenges, that is why, as of now, I'm slowly practicing myself so that I will become a competent applicant after I graduated. The world is all about competition and lucky are those who start to prepare early. Also, I have to apply the principles of information organization and representation so that I can perform my role effectively.


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ailaine adaptar

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 15, 2009 8:21 pm

A 3000-word essay?!

I was awfully bothered reading this thread last two weeks. I did found it very hard to identify an information environment. To help myself, I read all the threads in this forum regarding this topic. I won’t deny that... I know majority of my mates did the same! In my observation, I would conclude that the answers found herein vary on how we understand the question. So I came to think that maybe I was right with my first chosen Information Environment.

To begin with . . .


I am one of those what they call “probinsiyana” and I am swollen with pride to say that. I believe that most of us, when we hear province, the instant idea of the scenario would be the same as what we always see in the televisions and movies. Many would assume that there are farm animals wandering and working around, rice or corn fields flourishing the area, houses surrounded by trees and are made of wood, roads not concrete, the means of transportation is hard and the technological development is poor.

Yes, the above pre-assumption is close to the truth. Some provinces may have these characteristics but please do not apply sweeping generalization! Along the way towards my hometown- Municipality of New Bataan, Compostela Valley Province (New Bataan is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Compostela Valley, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 42,549 people in 8,592 households.), you’ll notice prospering farms with expected farm animals. But, unlike what’s state above, not all houses are made of wood. In fact, huge concrete houses are observed and the roads are concrete and some are wide. Thus, the means of transportation is good. However, sadly, I would not contradict that there, the technological development is crawling.

I’ve found a statement in this thread that would relate to my answer: “We are in the age of information environment wherein changes are constant…”

Oh … that’s really factual. I won’t contradict that! The information age has made technology, particularly information and communications technology, indispensable. What has been the Information Technology (IT) and Telecommunications situation in my hometown?

It’s true that telecommunication infrastructure remains one of the major issues affecting technology deployment required for growth and development in New Bataan. There has however, been massive improvement in agriculture over the past few years. But how about technological advancement? Yes, as stated above, changes are constant… but how fast? or should I say how sluggish?

I would say that the agricultural market is large. Opportunities abound! But more needs to be done to encourage investment in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), especially in the knowledge and creative areas. This is the mere reason why I chose my hometown as the information environment to review.

It is a dark era characterized by slow Internet links, poor service, high cost, lack of infrastructure and an unprogressive telecoms monopoly. I hate to admit that my hometown is in this state.

Last month, I had gone home. Like any other Information Technology student, I am passionate of browsing the internet most of the time. So missing the internet, I went to some “cyber café” available in our area. Luckily, I found two! At least! But, I was sad to find out that there are only five units and only two units connected to the internet. Lucky, perhaps, to have two units. But in the fast changing, dominating and blooming technology, still, my hometown is positioned behind. (1) That’s my first concern, more “cyber café’s” in New Bataan.

To address this, I would encourage the owners of these cafés, which are friends of mine, to invest more in their business. Oh.. I know their financial capacity! I know they can afford more units. I know they can invest more! I think all they need is encouragement. Having them aware of the benefit it gives to the students, to the municipality, to other concerns and to their business would be a help. I found this nice text relevant to my topic: "if information is power, then the internet must be the easiest way of empowering those that have traditionally been left behind.” .

I had gone also to our Information Center. It is our Municipal library located besides our Municipal office. I am happy to know that the books there had increased in number. But, no matter how many books you’ll find, you can never find as many as the internet can offer. Sadly, there is no single e-learning you can find there. (2) That’s my second concern, an E-library.

I’d like our Information Center offer an E-library that aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location. By simply writing a proposal in the suggestion box (as far as I could remember, there is a suggestion box in our Municipal Information Center). I am not expecting that my suggestion to have this e-learning/e-library would be approved and be implemented right away. What am I after is to awaken our local government about this area that is left unnoticed. I want to theme to remember that the improvement in the telecom situation in the said municipality will create significant impact in all sectors - commerce, social and educational.

I, or should I say, we are looking forward that few years from now, "cyber café" (An internet café or cybercafé is a place where one can use a computer with Internet access, most for a fee, usually per hour or minute; sometimes one can have unmetered access with a pass for a day or month, etc. It may serve as a regular café as well, with food and drinks being served.)won’t be a strange word in our municipality. That someday, cyber cafés will exist in virtually every neighborhood especially in the rural centers; that although the cost of ICT is still relatively high for most individuals and rural areas, the cyber cafe will significantly improved accessibility to the Internet in them.

I got to think that depending on how dire your situation is, you may not have the luxury of being entirely ready when you launch your new offering. For that reason, the safest approach is not to pull out all the stops immediately. The facts are there for all to see. There has been substantial improvement in access to telecom facilities and unprecedented growth in the telecoms network. So has night turned to day? Not quite. In view of New Bataan’s size and requirements telecommunications infrastructure is still grossly inadequate. But does size determine quality? It should be more about growth and qualitative infrastructure than just having a big or the fastest growing market. Furthermore, with the opening up of the telecoms space further dramatic growth is expected as service and reliability demands increase. However, in-depth penetration and qualitative infrastructure growth is critical.

study Cost
Access is not just about availability. Cost affects usage. High cost is still a barrier. While prices have definitely come down the cost of access is still too high to have a transformatory impact. There are presently price competition battles going on involving providers, which are steps in this direction. The provision of Internet is also helping. But more needs to be done about bringing down call tariffs and rates not just communications acquisition cost. The aim should be low cost Internet and phone service.

Technologies are commendable and should be encouraged. However, because most of the computer hardware in use in the said municipality must be imported, high computer prices are barrier to access. E-business, Telecommunication Infrastructure is incomplete without affordable computing facilities. Although just like the phone and Internet costs, computer prices have been falling, more people, not just businesses, need to have access to reasonably priced computers for education, recreation, business and other creative activities. 

study Poor electricity supply

Epileptic power supply increases the cost of access. Supply of electricity needs to be optimal to enable businesses and banks to provide seamless online services through local areas networks, wide area networks and the Internet. Inefficiency is the word to describe a situation where everybody has to depend on power generators, as the primary, reliable power supply. This constitutes a barrier to growth and sustainable development. The growth of real e-business cannot take place or be of any significance in an environment with unreliable public power supply.

study Quality of service

While availability has grown, this has not been matched by quality of service. It is not enough to have cheap lines and low cost bandwidth. Efficiency and accessibility of telecoms service should be paramount. Most operators have a lot of work to do in Quos especially in the areas of congestion and support.

study ICT Incentives

As what I have stated above, the market is large – the biggest in Africa! Opportunities abound! But more needs to be done to encourage investment in ICT, especially in the knowledge and creative areas. There is a need for a combination of incentives: reduction of import duties on ICT equipment, tax incentives for ICT companies, tax incentives for investment in ICT research, development and training efforts, local manufacture of telecommunications equipment and infrastructure. Again the essence of these incentives is to encourage growth and reduce access cost. If most ICT providers are faced with the problem of multiplicity of taxes, as is the case now, is this in sync with the growth that is needed? (ICT: Information and communication technologies (ICT) is an umbrella term that covers all technical means for processing and communicating information. The term has gained popularity partially due to the convergence of information technology (IT) and telecom technology. ICT defines a broad range of technologies, including methods for communication (communication protocols, transmission techniques, communications equipment, media (communication)), as well as techniques for storing and processing information (computing, data storage, etc.);There are claims that the expression "information and communication technology" should not refer only to contemporary or automated technological artifacts; paper-based writing, being itself a technology ontologically, can be included as pre-digital means of generating information (or communication). The term ICT has been incorrectly associated only with digital technologies - analogue and even mechanical systems can be considered as ICT, although the use of the expression in that context is rare and limited. Another shortcoming, particularly in education, is that the term ‘ICT’ is used synonymously with the term computer technology, and is not usually applied with the rest of the technologies that are used in our daily lives - cell phones, cameras, satellite receivers, media players, game consoles, etc.)

study Building expertise

More efforts should be invested in encouraging the development of IT and Telecoms expertise in New Bataan. "The biggest market", "the fastest growing teledensity" or just "the biggest consumers"? Consumption alone cannot engender growth. There is a need to develop human capacity in areas such as: technical, management, research and development, security, strategic and operational. For example, while there has been a cyber café boom, management has been a major source of concern for cyber café businesses. Also with the many IT and Telecoms projects that are taking off, project management skills will be required to get benefit.

Human development in ICT can be encouraged through increased awareness of opportunities and capabilities in ICT. The environment should encourage ICT education and provide incentives especially for those investing in research, development, training, software and other creative efforts. Acquiring infrastructure is great but it is serious investment in education that will bridge the digital divide and enhance the quality of infrastructure, the quality of access, the quality of usage, the quality of growth.

Initiatives from profit-driven members of the private sector should be encouraged, but such schemes are on their own not enough to make Nigeria an ICT-capable country or a key player in the global ICT revolution.
An emphasis on infrastructure would widen access to ICT facilities. Nigeria can't afford the luxury of ignoring the multiplier effects of access to ICT. New BAtaan has not done well so far in improving infrastructure capacity in "record time", it's time to start focusing on it. 

At the end of the day, infrastructure is not just about access, it's about what you do with access.


Reference:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_and_communication_technologies
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Bataan,_Compostela_Valley


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Sep 16, 2009 1:33 pm

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Thu Sep 17, 2009 10:15 pm

buffering..

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sat Sep 19, 2009 4:43 pm

We are asked to identify an information environment of our choice and write an essay to address questions like “What should be your role within this environment?”,“How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?”, “What are the challenges facing you in performing the role ?and “How will you address these challenges?”

To start with an essay addressing to these questions, let me first give the definition of what an information environment is according to an article that I have searched. The information environment is the aggregate of individuals, organizations, and systems that collect, process, disseminate, or act on information. The actors include leaders, decision makers, individuals, and organizations. Resources include the materials and systems employed to collect, analyze, apply, or disseminate information. The information environment is where humans and automated systems observe, orient, decide, and act upon information, and is therefore the principal environment of decision making. Even though the information environment is considered distinct, it resides within each of the four domains. The information environment is made up of three interrelated dimensions: physical, informational, and cognitive.

With the given definition above, it had reminded me of my future, after I had graduated with this course. Of course every student, or should I say, everybody aims to have work. To earn money not just for ourselves but also for our families. We all know that the very reason why students enroll to college is to learn and of course to prepare themselves to a better job. Being an Information Technology student, I am well aware of the fact that after I have graduated to this course, I will soon engage myself in the Information Technology environment. An environment where one should be capable of observing, orienting, deciding and acting upon information, thus is therefore, the principal environment of decision-making. As part of our training to be in this environment, we are tasked to get ourselves involved in the real world where information systems play a vital role. We are to observe and evaluate the information systems of a particular industry. With this kind of training, we are able to see the real value and role of information technology in the organizations where soon, we will be involved.

When asked about what would be the kind of information environment I would like to engage myself soon, I got confused with what I have to answer. Of course I want to work in such really big companies such as the Philippine Long Distance Telecommunications, San Miguel Corporations and abroad like Google. I dream to work with these companies. Be paid with high salaries and got to work abroad. It isn’t a sin to dream though so I would really dream big. I dream of designing and developing new computer systems by choosing and configuring hardware and software. I wanted to learn how to devise ways to apply existing systems’ resources to additional tasks. I may not have the greatest qualifications to be in such job but I do believe that with my perseverance and eagerness to learn and engage myself with new technologies and proper training, I would be able to do the task the best way I can. Thus, I dreamed of working in such an environment where I can harness my skills and will be able to learn a lot new things. A kind of environment where I would be able to extend my hands to help them use technology effectively and to incorporate rapidly changing technologies into their existing systems.

Furthermore, I would like to work as a Computer Systems Analyst. Computer systems analysts solve computer problems and use computer technology to meet the needs of an organization. My job is to design and develop new computer systems by choosing and configuring hardware and software. I will also devise ways to apply existing systems’ resources to additional tasks. I will then be working with specific types of computer systems—for example, business, accounting, or financial systems or scientific and engineering systems—that vary with the kind of organization. The work of a computer system analyst begins with consulting to managers and users to define the goals of the system. I will then design a system to meet those goals. I will specify the inputs that the system will access, decide how the inputs will be processed, and format the output to meet users’ needs.

When a system is approved, I will then determine what computer hardware and software will be needed to set it up. I will coordinate tests and observe the initial use of the system to ensure that it performs as planned. Also part of my job is to prepare specifications, flow charts, and process diagrams for computer programmers to follow.

Now that I have stated the kind of information environment I want to impart myself with and my role for this environment, another question then arises. The question that asks about the principles of information organization and representation help would help me in performing this role.

Upon working in a company, there are lots of things to consider for we all know that we will not work alone, we are going to work and deal with different kinds of people and suit ourselves with them so that we will become an effective employee. The moment that I will be going to work, I know I have to consider lots of factor and one of these are the principles of information organization and representation. I should know all these things so that I can perform my role effectively. There are many principles of information organization and I think it differs in every organization but three of which are common principles of information organization that I have to consider. Among these principles involve the planning and organization of knowledge and information for the society. With this principle, I’d be able to keep the fact that it is always the customer or client’s welfare that should be prioritized and with regard to this detail the learning, knowledge and information should be structured well. Another principle involves designing tools to support the organization of knowledge, guiding principles must be that of user orientation and main and predominant usage. This idea focuses and discusses about the layout and design and display options that should be in tune with our understanding of the target community. This will help in better recognition and comprehension of web designs. And lastly, standardization and networking provide infrastructures, which facilitate effective and efficient access to information and documents. Infrastructures refers to the availability and use of advanced information services by means of a variety of high-capacity facilities especially computers and computers networks. In relation to the adopted information environment, having such upgraded infrastructure will help improve and provide abundant information at high capacities to the generic public. The notion of information representation and organization traditionally means creating catalogs and indexes for publications of any kind. It includes the description of the attributes of a document and the representation of its intellectual content. Today the library catalog is no longer a tool for its own collection for the library visitors; it has become a network node that users can visit from anywhere in the world via a computer connected to the Web information space that is being used for e-publishing, e-businesses, and e-commerce.

These principles, if properly used will help me to become even more effective in my job.
By identifying and being familiar with the principles I hope to make them part of my habit in working to make me more progressive. These principles would be an advantage for me in doing my role in the said information environment such that it enables me to identify how can I execute my job properly, who will be affected by my decisions, how can I represent myself and my job and the information that I have at the moment.

However, with the roles that I will perform in an organization, there would also be challenges accompanied by these roles. Challenges arise because there is a need for someone to be enhanced. These challenges serve as training for someone for him to be a better individual. One challenge that I would face when I’m already in the information environment that I want is the challenge of being an inexperienced individual. When we say inexperience, this means lacking of gained experience. Although deep inside, you certainly know that you can do the job but there is fear inside you that you don’t have experience in doing the job that’s why you are not that confident enough to do the job so. There is a realization inside you that tells that you still need to have more experience and information about that certain job. Another challenge that would arise is competition. This is one of those several challenges that we would face when we are already in the real environment. This challenge arises because everyone inside that environment is aiming to be the best. With regards to the kind of information environment that I have chosen, one challenge is that I have to be familiar or should I say, “expert” in networking tasks since this is part of my job. I need to make the computer systems within an organization, or across organizations, compatible so that information can be shared. For now, I still don’t know how I can manage to do this task but I hope that in the coming days or months, my knowledge and experience about the certain task would be broaden.

With the challenges that I have stated above, a question about how would I address to these challenges arise. With regards to the challenge of being an inexperienced, I think I can cope to this problem by reading and searching a lot. “Practice makes perfect”, as what others would always say. Practicing would be a great help as well as asking your colleagues for assistance. “Marunong ang Nagtatanong”. Addressing to the second problem, I think I just have to be more competitive. I mean, I need to aim for myself to be the best. I need to make sure that I am competent and have the potential to be on the job. Lastly, with the challenge with regards to technical expertise, I think I need to ask the help from the experts to teach me and guide me. As what I have said earlier, “Practice makes Perfect”, if one is really eager to learn, then he/she will be able to gain much more knowledge and experience.
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leah_saavedra

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Sep 21, 2009 12:24 am

When i was browsing the internet, i encountered many information environment. But digital libraries caught my attention. So i decided to choose this information environment.

History of digital libraries

The idea of easy, finger-tip access to information-what we conceptualize as digital libraries today-began with Vannenar Bush's Memex machine (Bush, 1945) and has continued to evolve with each advance in information technology. With the arrival of computers, the concept centered on large bibliographic databases, the now familiar online retrieval and public access systems that are part of any contemporary library. When computers were connected into large networks
forming the Internet, the concept evolved again, and research turned to creating libraries of digital information that could be accessed by anyone from anywhere in the world. Phrases like "virtual library," "electronic library," "library without walls" and, most recently, "digital library," all have been used interchangeably to describe this broad concept.

What is a digital library?

There is much confusion surrounding this phrase, stemming from three factors. First, the library community has used several different phrases over the years to denote this concept-electronic library, virtual library, library without walls-and it
never was quite clear what each of these different phrases meant. "Digital library" is simply the most current and most widely accepted term and is now used almost exclusively at conferences, online, and in the literature.

One thing digital libraries will not be is a single, completely digital system that provides instant access to all information, for all sectors of society, from anywhere in the world. This is simply unrealistic. This concept comes from the early days
when people were unaware of the complexities of building digital libraries. Instead, they will most likely be a collection of disparate resources and disparate systems, catering to specific communities and user groups, created for specific purposes. They also will include, perhaps indefinitely, paper-based collections. Further, interoperability across digital libraries-of technical architectures, metadata, and document formats-will also only likely be possible within relatively bounded systems developed for those specific purposes and communities.

For librarians, this definition of a digital library, and these characteristics, are the most logical because it expands and extends the traditional library, preserves the valuable work that they do, while integrating new technologies, new processes, and new media.

To start with, let us first know some related information that will help me identify my role in the environment.

There is now a critical mass of digital information resources that can be used to support researchers, learners, teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this
effectively are required. There is the need to ensure that quality information isn’t lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation and serving of ‘quality’ information there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research
communities.



Nowadays, it is so important to maximize your time since you have many work to do and you have limited time per day. It is also important to be at ease while doing your tasks. Since technology is growing fast, digital library was created to
help those people who have busy schedules like us, students or teachers and other employees.


The aim of the Information Environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location.

My role in this kind of environment is to dessiminate reliable and sufficient information since many rely on digital libraries for their research. And if the information given was wrong, insufficient or hoax, that would give our subcribers
another problem. Since our goal is to provide fast and easy access to information, we should not give the people another problem.

The digital library community seems to face a dilemma at this point. Through its pursuit of design goals of flexibility, extensibility, modularity and abstraction, and its promulgation of those goals as common practice through its implementation of XML metadata standards, it has managed to substantially impede progress towards another commonly held goal, interoperability of digital library content across a range of systems.


Challenges

Creating “effective” digital libraries poses serious challenges for existing and future technologies. The integration of digital media into traditional collections will not be straightforward, like previous new media (e.g., video audio tapes), because of the unique nature of digital information it is less fixed, easily copied, and remotely accessible by multiple users simultaneously. Traditional library processes such as collection development and reference, though forming a potential basis for "digital library" work, will have to be revised and enhanced to accommodate these differences. Taking what we know about libraries as a starting point, we can begin to examine in more detail what the specific challenges might be.

Metadata

Metadata is another issue central to the development of digital libraries. Metadata is the data the describes the content and attributes of any particular item in a digital library. It is a concept familiar to librarians because it is one of the primary
things that librarians do--they create cataloguing records that describe documents. Metadata is important in digital libraries because it is the key to resource discovery and use of any document. Anyone who has used Alta Vista, Excite, or any of the other search engines on the Internet knows that simple full-text searches don't scale in a large network. One can get thousands of hits, but most of them will be irrelevant. While there are formal library standards for metadata, namely AACR, such records are very time-consuming to create and require specially trained personnel. Human cataloguing, though superior, is just too labour extensive for the already large and rapidly expanding information environment. Thus, simpler schemes for metadata are being proposed as solutions.

While they are still in their infancy, a number of schemes have emerged, the most prominent of which is the Dublin Core, an effort to try and determine the "core" elements needed to describe materials. The first workshop took place at OCLC
headquarters in Dublin, Ohio, hence the name "Dublin Core." The Dublin Core workshops defined a set of fifteen metadata elements--much simpler than those used in traditional library cataloguing. They were designed to be simple enough to
be used authors, but at the same time, descriptive enough to be useful in resource discovery.

The lack of common metadata standards-ideally, defined for use in some specified context-is yet another a barrier to information access and use in a digital library, or in a coordinated digital library scheme.


Naming, identifiers, and persistence

The fifth issue is related to metadata. It is the problem of naming in a digital library. Names are strings that uniquely identify digital objects and are part of any document's metadata. Names are as important in a digital library as an ISBN
number is in a traditional library.

Any system of naming that is developed must be permanent, lasting indefinitely. This means, among other things, that the name can't be bound up with a specific location. The unique name and its location must be separate. This is very much
unlike URLs, the current method for identifying objects on the Internet. URL's confound in one string several items that should be separate. They include the method by which a document is accessed (e.g., HTTP), a machine name and
document path (its location), and a document file name which may or may not be unique (e.g., how many index.html files do you have on your Web site?). URLs are very bad names because whenever a file is moved, the document is often lost
entirely.

Copyright / rights management

Copyright has been called the "single most vexing barrier to digital library development" (Chepesuik, 1997:49). The current paper-based concept of copyright breaks down in the digital environment because the control of copies is
lost. Digital objects are less fixed, easily copied, and remotely accessible by multiple users simultaneously. The problem for libraries is that, unlike private businesses or publishers that own their information, libraries are, for the most part,
simply caretakers of information--they don't own the copyright of the material they hold. It is unlikely that libraries will ever be able to freely digitize and provide access to the copyrighted materials in their collections. Instead, they will have to develop mechanisms for managing copyright, mechanisms that allow them to provide information without violating copyright, called rights management.

Preservation

Another important issue is preservation--keeping digital information available in perpetuity. In the preservation of digital materials, the real issue is technical obsolescence. Technical obsolescence in the digital age is like the deterioration of
paper in the paper age. Libraries in the pre-digital era had to worry about climate control and the de-acidification of books, but the preservation of digital information will mean constantly coming up with new technical solutions.

The purpose of preservation is to ensure protection of information of enduring value for access by present and future generations (Conway, 1990: 206). Libraries and archives have served as the central institutional focus for preservation, and both types of institutions include preservation as one of their core functions. In recent decades, many major libraries and archives have established formal preservation programs for traditional materials which include regular allocation of resources for preservation, preventive measures to arrest deterioration of materials, remedial measures to restore the usability of selected materials, and the incorporation of preservation needs and requirements into overall program planning.

Preservationists within the library and archival community have been instrumental in developing an array of tools and methodologies to reduce the decay of traditional materials and to restore books and documents that have deteriorated to such an extent that their longevity and usability are threatened. Provisions for fire protection and adequate environmental controls frequently are incorporated into new library and archival facilities. Rehousing of acid-based paper materials is a common task in many repositories and microfilming is used extensively and cost effectively to preserve endangered materials. Undertakings such as the brittle books initiative, the American Newspapers Project, and the NEH-funded microfilming program have saved millions of unique and imperiled items (Preserving the Intellectual Heritage). Many libraries and archives have curbed their voracious appetites for acquisition and collecting in an effort to balance the breadth and depth of their holdings against long-term stewardship responsibilities. The change over from acid to alkaline paper in publishing and much desktop printing counts as a significant victory for preservation.


Libraries around the world have been working on this daunting set of challenges for several years now. They have created many digital library initiatives and projects, and have formed various national schemes for jointly exploring key issues. With several years accumulated experience, the initial enthusiasm surrounding the development of the digital library has been replaced by sober second thought. Librarians have discovered that, with a few exceptions, making a business case for digitization and investments in digital technology is more difficult than first envisioned, especially given the technical and legal constraints that must first be overcome. As with most other technical developments in libraries over the years,
we will have to move forward in small, manageable, evolutionary steps, rather than in an rapid revolutionary manner.

As information professionals, we live in very interesting times. Effective search and discovery over open and hidden digital resources on the Internet remains a problematic and challenging task. The difficulties are exacerbated by today's
greatly distributed scholarly information landscape. This distributed information environment is populated by silos of: full-text repositories maintained by commercial and professional society publishers; preprint servers and Open Archive
Initiative (OAI) provider sites; specialized Abstracting and Indexing (A & I) services; publisher and vendor vertical portals; local, regional, and national online catalogs; Web search and metasearch engines; local e-resource registries and
digital content databases; campus institutional repository systems; and learning
management systems.



All the information i have gathered were based on my research. If i am part of the digital library institute i would like to address those problem and give better solutions to it. Since I too, rely on digital libraries on my research.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_library
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 22, 2009 7:07 pm

Identify an information environment of your choice and write an essay to address the following questions: (3000 words)

• What should be your role within this environment?
• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?


Last edited by Tanya Clarissa G. Amancio on Tue Oct 06, 2009 7:47 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: MIS Assignement # 9   Fri Sep 25, 2009 11:11 pm





We are to identify an information environment of our choice and write an essay to address the following questions:


• What should be our role within this environment?
• How can the principles of information organization and representation help us in performing this role?
• What are our challenges facing in performing the role? How we will address these challenges?



Before identifying environment issues of my choice, let me first discuss the meaning of Information Environment as a whole.

Information Environment

There is now a critical mass of digital information resources that can be used to support researchers, learners, teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required. There is the need to ensure that quality information isn’t lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation and serving of ‘quality’ information there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. The aim of the Information Environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location.


We as human beings have grown accustomed to using up nonrenewable resources. I feel the role of humans is to first acknowledge our mistakes and then go about changing our behavior. This means trying to recycle, use renewable energy, not littering, using public transportation, buying products from green companies so that economically it is more profitable to conserve than waste, calling our congressman, etc. In short we must accept that we are wrong in thinking that it is someone else's problem. Look up on the inter net how you can help and do it. Make good habits in conservation, learn all you can and share with others what you have learned. You and I are the problem and unless we change, our environment could reach a critical threshold that takes thousands of years to fix. I am an environmental scientists and I know what could happen.

It is always like that ,those living in Paradise have no idea of what they got. I call them Pigs in Paradise

In civilized countries people love the Environment and many people are trying to return to it ,with gardens ,parks or doing some horticulture on free holds ,also many people are buying farms together with some friends and are returning to a healthy country way of life ,usually working for far less money ,but aiming for a better quality of life. So the attitudes are probably opposite of what one would think .

I’m very close to nature ,living in the jungle and with a tremendous knowledge of plants and animals ,but their forefathers were much more involved, Christianity is weaning people away from their roots ,and the difference is great when one compares converted native people to those who are still living the traditional way

As far as mental effects are concerned ,country people are more relaxed and time has a different meaning ,they tend to think in days instead of in minutes and are definitely more polite ,gracious and hospitable ,appreciating when people visit as opposed to people from the cities. They further one goes into the sticks the more polite people become and the more respectful they are of others and their surroundings.

Many are said to be the issues in our environment today, and its a massive problem which every country crucially facing nowadays. Two of these are the issue of nuclear energy in the environment and the most rampant Global Warming. I have to discuss these two major problems in our environment for it is widely spread in the entire globe. This are the meaning and my thoughts about the said matter:

Nuclear Energy:

Nuclear Energy and the Environment In our society, nuclear energy has become one of the most criticized forms of energy by the environmentalists. Thus, a look at nuclear energy and the environment and its impact on economic growth. Lewis Munford, an analyst, once wrote, Too much energy is as fatal as too little, hence the regulation of energy input and output not its unlimited expansion, is in fact one of the main laws of life. This is true when dealing with nuclear power. Because our societies structure and processes both depend upon energy, man is searching for the most efficient and cheapest form of energy that can be used on a long term basis. And because we equate power with growth, the more energy that a country uses, - the greater their expected economic growth. The problem is that energy is considered to have two facets or parts: it is a major source of man-made repercussions as well as being the basis of life support systems. Therefore, we are between two sections in which one is the section of resource availability and waste, and the other the continuity of life support systems pertinent to survival.

Thus, the environmentalists believe that nuclear energy should not be used for various reasons. First of all, the waste product, i.e. plutonium, is extremely radioactive, which may cause the people who are working or living in or around the area of storage or use, to acquire leukemia and other cancers. They also show how billions of dollars are spent yearly on safety devices for a single reactor, and this still doesn't ensure the impossibility of a melt down. Two examples were then given of Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, in 1979, when thousands of people were killed and incapacitated. Finally, the environmentalists claim that if society wastes less energy, and develops the means to use the energy more efficiency, then there would be a definite decrease in the requirement for more energy producing plants. On the other hand, some business men and economists say that the present conditions should be kept intact, as the other forms of energy, e.g. oil, natural gas and coal, are only temporary, in dealing with surplus, and give off more pollution with less economic growth.

Concurrently, countries wanted a more reliable, smokeless form of energy not controlled by OPEC, and very little uranium was required to produce such a high amount of resultant energy. Lastly, they said that renewable energy is (a) unreliable in that the wind, for example, could not be depended upon to blow, nor the sun to shine, and (b) were intermittent in that a 1,000 mega-watt solar farm may occupy about 5,000 acres of land, compared with less than 150 acres of land for a similar capacity nuclear power generation station. Because the energy technology that society employs directly influences the quantity and quality of life, the energy option that is chosen should have the greatest cost- benefit effectiveness as well as maximizing flexibility and purchases. However, those who believe in continuous energy consumption growth, seem to forget that there is only a limited supply of energy in every energy system, and to overdo any resource may provide for an unacceptable impact upon global and regional ecology.

Thus, if the business world pushes the environment as far as it can go, Ceribus Paribus, please refer to figure 1. Thus, to use petroleum as a substitute for uranium, which is needed to power the nuclear system, would not be economically or environmentally sensible. I say this because, first of all, there is a major supply of uranium considering it was one of the last energy sources to be found as well as only a small amount of it is required to produce a lot of energy. Secondly, petroleum gives off carbon monoxide which is one of the reasons for ozone depletion; whereas, the uranium does not give off pollution except that it produces plutonium which needs to be buried for more than fifty years to get rid of its radiation. Finally, because so much of the petroleum will be required to power the vast area that nuclear energy can cover, the cost to us as the consumer would be massive! This would mean slower economic growth and/or expansion, especially when compared to nuclear energy.

Global Warming:

Global Warming The beginning of the Industrial Revolution brought many new, exciting inventions into our lives to simplify our lives and made them more efficient. Such inventions included cars, household appliances and plants that burn solid waste, fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal, and wood and wood products for fuel. Before the Industrial Revolution, human activities caused very few gases to be released into the atmosphere, but now scientists say, through the burning of fossil fuels, a large population growth and deforestation, humans are affecting the mixture of gases in the atmosphere. This mixture of gases in the atmosphere is causing the worldwide problem known as Global Warming. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the earth has a natural “greenhouse effect” which is caused by energy from the sun controlling the earth’s weather and climate, and heats the earth’s surface.

In response to the sun, the earth radiates energy back into space. Atmospheric greenhouse gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases, trap the energy leaving the earth and retaining it as heat, much like a greenhouse ceiling. This is a natural and necessary effect, without it temperatures on earth would be much lower than they are now and life as it is today would not be possible, but with the greenhouse effect the earth’s average temperature is a more comfortable and life-supporting 60 degrees Fahrenheit. The problems that have arisen with the greenhouse effect have occurred due to the increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases.

Some major issues in the Environment:

At the very heart of these obstacles are several factors and events that reflect future environmental challenges:

• Some oil companies and the World Wildlife Fund agree to prohibit World Heritage site exploration
• The abundance and appeal of heavy oil resources in Canada and Venezuela and a new focus on producing those resources have collided with greenhouse gas commitments and waste disposal issues
• Aggressive “environmental liability management” has become the norm for major companies in dealing with legacy issues and in avoiding future liabilities
• The need to accurately measure and manage greenhouse gas emissions data for purposes of future internal and external trading is driving a U.S./industry push for “standardization” of management techniques
• Even as the consequences of global warming are becoming clearer - climate change impacts already recognized in the Arctic, with measurable disruptions to Aboriginal lifestyles, wildlife, existing communities, and industrial development —the exact causes are still debated, and in turn uneven global approaches have created unique business challenges
• There is a dire need to mitigate the worldwide loss of fisheries and underwater habitats due to overexploitation and collateral damage
• Activities in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea demonstrate the technical and cost benefits of oil company collaboration in addressing environmental research, and developing an environmental management strategy
The environmental challenges facing industrial companies and governments throughout the world are numerous and complex. Most governments and industrial companies now clearly realize and embrace the paradigm that environmental issues are intertwined with social/ cultural and socioeconomic issues. In fact, social and cultural concerns may far outweigh all other factors as industry and government make critical decisions regarding environmental issues.

Governmental Concerns


Promoting economic growth with environmental and human health safeguards in place seems to be the path forward for most governments. Decades of environmental mismanagement have created severe legacy issues throughout the developed and developing world. At the crux of this challenge are the current energy policies: economic growth demands energy and the choices for government – e.g., fossil fuel-based energy, renewable energy sources, and hybrid systems – drive related environmental management strategies.
The two huge tasks facing governments are: (1.) determining how to clean up legacy problems, restore natural resources, and achieve human health protection; and (2.) designing strategies to allow for future growth, while protecting the environment, maintaining biodiversity, safeguarding human health, and preserving cultural/ social values. This results in a very complex decision network for governments with varied experiences. A regulatory framework that leverages good science yet is targeted at supporting each country’s social and cultural values is an essential ingredient.

The study suggests that some environmental campaigning currently operates inadvertently to exacerbate these unhelpful aspects of identity. It also points to ways in which environmental organisations could begin to work in order to activate more helpful aspects of identity. Finally, it highlights new opportunities for collaborations across diverse civil society organisations to begin to address fundamental barriers to delivery on a range of concerns - from biodiversity loss to poverty alleviation, and racism to animal welfare abuses.

“Never have environmental problems appeared so insuperable. Whatever the past victories of the environment movement, we need a new and deeper approach - one that begins to engage the human values and identities that lie at the heart of environmental challenges. Meeting Environmental Challenges: The Role of Human Identity does not flinch in insisting on both the possibility and the absolute necessity of working in this way. As such, it makes a clear and important contribution to a realistic response to today’s environmental crisis.”

Basic Principles on the Environment

1.Overall Policy


Give serious consideration to the impact on the environment in every aspect of corporate activities, including R&D, production, distribution, marketing, procurement and clerical works, and make the best efforts to conserve and improve the environment.

• (1) Consider the global environmental issues including nature, ecological system and resources for all business activities based on “Think globally, act locally”, and act actively for environmental protection starting around ourselves.
• (2) Review impacts on the environment and effects of measures of all the corporate activities such as research & development, production, distribution, sales, procurement, and clerical work all the time, and take necessary measures to cope with a situation flexibly and appropriately.
• (3) Regarding business activities abroad, not only comply with regulations in the country, but also promote measures contributing to keep the environment preferable voluntarily in accordance with condition of nature and society in the country.
• (4) Timely prepare corporate organization related to environmental issues and related regulations including handling the global environmental issues.


2.Efficient Utilization of Resources and Minimization of Waste


Conserve energy and other resources, and actively pursue waste minimization and resource recycling.
• (1) Minimize industrial waste and maximize recycling by focusing on production activity.
• (2) Promote to introduce a system including transportation and inventory control, which is more energy efficient and produce less waste, by focusing on distribution activity.
• (3) Actively promote reduction of energy and waste as well as recycling in office operation.


3.Assessment of Environmental Impact from Products and Manufacturing Processes


When developing new products and processes, evaluate the impact on the environment in advance, during development, and periodically after commercialization. Consider the entire business cycle from procurement of raw materials and supplies through the use and the final disposal of products to reduce the impact on the global environment.
• (1) Regarding our products, introduce a viewpoint of environmental protection in design idea of their development, and reduce impacts on and loads to the environment in a whole life cycle of the products from research & development at an early stage to manufacturing, distribution, use, consumption, and final disposal.
• (2) Regarding manufacturing processes, design to reduce environmental loads and energy consumption from a stage of research & development.
• (3) Minimize impacts on the environment, safety and health of handling substances.


4.Development and Utilization of Environmental Technologies


Develop technologies for environmental protection and improvement, and actively pursue outside technologies when it is beneficial.
• (1) Promote to develop efficient technologies for preventing environment pollution.
• (2) Develop alternative technologies not to use substances which pollute the environment.
• (3) Actively obtain, keep in correct order, and use information on environmental technologies.


5.Response to Emergencies


When an adverse effect on the environment is foreseen, exercise the best possible contingent efforts to eliminate or minimize such adverse impact.
• (1) Make efforts to prevent its occurrence in order not to give serious impacts on the environment.
• (2) While sending information to those who are related appropriately, make maximum efforts to minimize environmental impacts in emergency where adverse effects are given or likely to be given on the environment.


6.Clear Definition of Accountability and Responsibility


Appoint executives and managers in charge of environment-related activities and clearly define their authority.
• (1) Appoint an executive who is responsible for corporate environmental issues.
• (2) Assign a responsible person for the environment at business sections and work places.


7.Cooperation with the Community and Society at Large


Actively cooperate with the environmental efforts of local communities and provide fair and unbiased information.
• (1) Make our work places be green in a planned manner by planting, and cooperate in making surrounding areas greener.
• (2) Actively participate activities of implementation of environment protection and recycling activity such as creating comfortable environment in the area as a member of the area.
• (3) Make efforts to provide appropriate information to consumers, residents in the area, industry organizations, administration, and others.


8.Education and Training


Educate and train each employee to understand and realize the importance of environmental issues and to act accordingly in his or her daily routine.
• (1) Request that the employees improve understanding and awareness for local and global environmental protection as well as conservation of resources and energy.
• (2) Promote voluntary educational activity regarding environment protection in all departments of the business activity.


Sources:

http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/themes/informationenvironment.aspxSources:
http://www.takeda.com/csr/policies/article_1007.html
http://www.battelle.org/Environment/publications/envupdates/Fall2003/article6.stm


My Blog:http:http://brian-takealook.blogspot.com/




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karl philip abregana

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PostSubject: ASSIGNMENT 9   Tue Sep 29, 2009 7:19 pm

Information Environment

What is the Information Environment?

The Information Environment (IE) is a term used to refer to work to develop and provide services which enable people to find and manage information efficiently and effectively in their learning, teaching or research.
The information resources which people need are very varied - books, journals, research papers, teaching resources, videos, maps and more - and while they might be in any format they are increasingly digital.

There is now a critical mass of digital information resources that can be used to support researchers, learners, teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required. There is the need to ensure that quality information isn’t lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation and serving of ‘quality’ information there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. The aim of the Information Environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location.



A changing environment

Over time there has been a great deal of change to the context in which we are working. The Information Environment programmes have primarily worked with the over-riding aim of improving access to and use of heterogeneous resources but have also taken account of changes and provided a way to test, develop and evolve appropriate means to manage and use resources.

The significant environmental changes have been:

* moves towards Open Access research and learning being undertaken on the Web as the Web is able to support flexible models of research and learning
* dominance of search engines e.g. Google
* the development of ‘Web 2.0’ applications and services which support collaborative working and the creation and sharing of digital resources
* cloud computing
* the huge and continuing growth in digital 'data'
* increased awareness of the utility of service and resource orientated approaches to designing services

Cloud computing is a paradigm of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure in the "cloud" that supports them.

The rise in importance of repositories as a means of managing and sharing digital resources created as part of learning and research has meant that since 2005 much of the JISC Information Environment programme investment has focused on that area. Whilst in the last tranche of repository funding there was some work in the area of preservation, discovery, and other shared infrastructure, there is now a need to move away from the emphasis on 'repository' and to see repositories and the wide variety of resources and delivery mechanisms as part of the wider Information Environment context.









References:
http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/themes/informationenvironment.aspx
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shane sacramento

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 29, 2009 8:08 pm

Have you ever heard of the Quezon City Controlled Disposal Facility? You may not be familiar., but I'll tell you anyway. The Quezon City Controlled Disposal Facility was before called the Payatas Dumpsite, which has burried more than 200 lives on the year 2000. The new system that was implemented of the said place was having a better use of the biogas emmitted by garbage on the said site. They have made used of they're problem before. In which this biogas emissions will be converted into electricity that is enough to empower numbers of cloth irons.

One of the potential solutions in social and environmental sustainability in municipal solid waste management (MSW) in Metro Manila is to combine community-based recycling and sound landfill management strategies. The marriage of the two puts importance on recycling as a source of livelihood while proper landfill management aims to improve the aesthetic and environmental quality of disposal facilities in urban areas. To do this, a social mapping of wastepickers, junkshops and local recycling practices needs to be undertaken and at the same time assess strategies of the national and local governments vis-à-vis existing laws on municipal solid waste. The case of Payatas controlled disposal facility was taken as a pilot study because it represents the general condition of disposal sites in Metro Manila and the social landscape that it currently has. In addition, a waste-to-energy (WTE) project has been established in Payatas to produce electricity from methane gas. Preliminary interviews with wastepickers show that development interventions in disposal sites such as WTE pose no opposition from host communities for as long as alternative livelihood opportunities are provided. Regulating the flow of wastepickers into the landfill has advantages like improved income and security. Felt needs were also articulated like provision of financial support or capital for junkshop operation and skills training. Overall, a smooth relationship between the local government and community associations pays well in a transitioning landfill management scheme such as Payatas.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B8CX4-4W45TP3-C&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1028165164&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=2ab9fbae8bd428dc04602b2b86b2660a

The latest typhoon called Ondoy that hit Luzon, Metro Manila and nearby cities and places. According to PAG-ASA, the typhoon sustained winds 85 kph and almost reached up to 100 kph. It was just a day of surprised flooding and yet it has ended many lives without any hesitation, whether lives are young or not. The flood even reached as high as Meralco posts.

Ondoy was not the only disaster that hit Philippines, the landslides that have killed numbers of lives and we’re still counting for more disasters to come. It is normal that we have typhoons but the latest disaster the Philippines encountered was far from normal. It isn’t normal to sink the whole town with just a signal number one typhoon. It didn’t even choose whom to kill and even the Philippine celebrities, which are expected to be safer have not even, become safer than any other Filipino people.

The Philippines is a very crucial country Philippines is said to belong on the Pacific Ring of Fire. Pacific Ring of Fire is an area where large numbers of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km curve shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts or plate movements. The Ring of Fire has 45 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes.

About 90% of the world's earthquakes and 80% of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The next most seismic region (5–6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world's largest earthquakes) is the Alpide belt, which extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the third most prominent earthquake belt.

The Ring of Fire is a direct result of plate tectonics and the movement and collisions of crustal plates. The eastern section of the ring is the result of the Nazca Plate and the Cocos Plate being subducted beneath the westward moving South American Plate. A portion of the Pacific Plate along with the small Juan de Fuca Plate are being subducted beneath the North American Plate. Along the northern portion the northwestward moving Pacific plate is being subducted beneath the Aleutian Islands arc. Further west the Pacific plate is being subducted along the Kamchatka Peninsula arcs on south past Japan. The southern portion is more complex with a number of smaller tectonic plates in collision with the Pacific plate from the Mariana Islands, the Philippines, Bougainville, Tonga, and New Zealand. Indonesia lies between the Ring of Fire along the northeastern islands adjacent to and including New Guinea and the Alpide belt along the south and west from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Flores, and Timor. The famous and very active San Andreas Fault zone of California is a transform fault which offsets a portion of the East Pacific Rise under southwestern United States and Mexico. The motion of the fault generates numerous small earthquakes, at multiple times a day, most of which are too small to be felt. The active Queen Charlotte Fault on the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada, has generated three large earthquakes during the 20th century: a magnitude 7 event in 1929, a magnitude 8.1 occurred in 1949 (Canada's largest recorded earthquake) and a magnitude 7.4 in 1970.
In the Philippines, the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo is the world's second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. Successful predictions of the onset of the climactic eruption led to the evacuation of tens of thousands of people from the surrounding areas, saving many lives, but as the surrounding areas were severely damaged by pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and later, lahars caused by rainwater remobilising earlier volcanic deposits, thousands of houses were destroyed.

Mayon Volcano is the Philippines' most active volcano. The volcano has steep upper slopes that average 35–40 degrees and is capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this basaltic-andesitic volcano dates back to 1616 and ranges from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian eruptions. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas.

Taal Volcano has had 33 recorded eruptions since 1572. A devastating eruption occurred in 1911, which claimed more than a thousand lives. The deposits of that eruption consisted of a yellowish, fairly decomposed (non-juvenile) tephra with a high sulfur content. The most recent period of activity lasted from 1965 to 1977, and was characterized by the interaction of magma with the lake water, which produced violent phreatic explosions. Although the volcano has been dormant since 1977, it has shown signs of unrest since 1991, with strong seismic activity and ground fracturing events, as well as the formation of small mud geysers on parts of the island.

Kanlaon is the most active volcano in central Philippines and has erupted 25 times since 1866. Eruptions are typically phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano. On August 10, 1996, Kanlaon erupted without warning, killing British student Julian Green and Filipinos Noel Tragico and Neil Perez, who were among 24 mountainclimbers who were trapped near the summit.
And now, we are slowly drowning due to global warming, which melts the ice glaciers all over the world. It is even rumored that by the time that all of the ice glaciers melted, the highest peak, Mt. Apo, will become a small island. Doesn’t it fear? While we are enjoying the modern world discoveries, we have forgotten and became deaf of our mother earth’s voice. We have become deaf due to the noises that are emitted by large machines that also emit large smokes that suffocate the globe more than we are.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Ring_of_Fire

So what can we young ones do? Simple, we can at least reduce smokes and stacked garbage. By small actions, like throwing garbage in its right place and segregating them will reduce even 0.00000001 garbage that aren’t on its right place. We can replace plastic bags with paper bags or even cloth bags. We should bear in mind that plastic bags takes more than a lifetime to decay.

With regards to the modernized machines and technology, since development of technology is the main reason why global warming has gone so far. Yes, it is true that we can’t take technology and gadgets away from the people of the world. The people have adopted them and have learned to live them. Another thing is, it would be difficult to go back to the old ways, where we get to walk at least a kilometer just to get to the middle of the town. We have been living the way we live today with great ease, in which we forget or oversee the negative results it will bring when the time comes.

Like our lives, earth is also one in the whole world. Everything is changing and change is nature itself. I am not saying that it is fine to change the world, I am rather emphasizing that we can’t change the past but we can we can always regret them, thus, giving us an overview of what will happen if don’t move today.
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Franz Cie B. Suico

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: Septemeber 7, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Sep 29, 2009 11:09 pm

Identify an information environment of your choice and write an essay to address the following questions: (3000 words)

• What should be your role within this environment?
• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

Technology, nowadays, it has come to have rapidly developed and expanded through time. It has brought forth to the civilization the significant and convenient applications and innovations to our modern world. It has provided the world with ease and comfort particularly on communications and transportations and etc., with regard to management of information, automation of manual systems has been made. And so there is what we called IS (Information System).

What is an Information Environment?

According to what I have read in the internet, they define information environment as the aggregate of individuals, organizations, and systems that collect, process, disseminate, or act on information. The actors include leaders, decision makers, individuals, and organizations. Resources include the materials and systems employed to collect, analyze, apply, or disseminate information. In addition, the information environment is where humans and automated systems observe, orient, decide, and act upon information given, and is therefore the principal environment of decision making. Also, I have read that the information environment is made up of three interrelated dimensions: physical, informational, and cognitive.

There is now a critical mass of digital information resources that can be used to support researchers, learners, teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required. There is the need to ensure that quality information isn't lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation and serving of 'quality' information, there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. The aim of the Information Environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location. 

There are programs in which they include developing and providing innovative and sustainable ICT infrastructure, services and practice that support institutions in meeting their mission. This can be summarized as the development, provision and use of an e-Infrastructure (Information Environment) for education and research. Alongside this there is the aim to promote the development, uptake and effective use of ICT to support learners and teachers and to support researchers. 

Aims & objectives

The aim of information environment is to improve the capacity of the sector to manage, discover and use information resources.
· Enhanced capacity, knowledge and skills to enable positive and informed change in the sector (through piloting new technologies and approaches)
· Guidance to the sector on 'best practice' models for using technology that can be used at departmental, institutional, regional or national levels
· Strategic leadership to the sector and other bodies in specialist areas and to influence national and international agendas
· Knowledge and experience as a basis for future funding decisions
· New or enhanced services, infrastructure, standards or applications that may be used at departmental, institutional, regional or national levels

So what environment would I choose?

For me I really dreamed to be in the broadcasting industry. From the news and current affairs, to entertainment, and etc., I really dreamed that someday I will be part of it. But I really would love to be serving my fellow country men in an honest and just way of newscasting. For me as an Information Technology student and knowing that information and time is essential in broadcasting/newscasting, in my own way I can help them at the same time fulfilling what I’ve always dreamed of. To start with, if given the chance to choose an information environment for me to show my expertise in IT, I’d choose to be in line with the multimedia industry.
But before that let me elaborate more about what is Multimedia Industry.
According to the council of the INFO2000 program, the definition of Multimedia is 'combinations of data, text, sound, graphics, animations, still & moving images, stored in digital form & interactively accessible'. Multimedia to me is the utilization of electronic technology to make all those things. People are exposed to the effects of the multimedia industry everyday, probably without even realizing. Brochures, CD-ROM's, DVD's, web pages, playstation games are all part of the multi industry. There are so many jobs in the multimedia industry, ranging from animators, graphic designers, programmers, website designers, photographers, producers, creative directors, researchers, sound designers to videographers. Jobs within the multimedia industry can be in a range of fields, from covering the development of software, to advertising or entertainment production. The growth in the industry is becoming wider.
Ever since several kinds of broadcast methods started, multimedia industry has also become a part of the big picture. I mean, what would be the broadcasting’s art without it? Broadcasting itself is already multimedia. Never will multimedia survive without being supplied with the latest in information technology. In this vast and fast progression of information in our generation, updates in multimedia are a big demand. In order to be competitive enough in this industry, it is a must that you’ll be the frontier in the latest update in information today.

Now, what are some of the common multimedia representation that is in us? Examples are advertisement, animations, graphics, audio, website, and even other applications in some common gadgets. Animation, what comes in your mind when you her anime? For sure you’ll think of cartoons. How about animation? Maybe how cartoons are made. Well that could be accepted. But see, animation has been playing a big role in commerce. It has shown a big impact from young ones until adults. Simple animations can generate your pocket with more money. Television commercials are made through animations that attract consumers. Also in movie industry, animation plays a big role. This has also become a part of the information environment.

Graphics has also become a part of this multimedia industry that also gave a big impact. I’m so much inclined in creating graphics. It’s not just about making images. Graphical multimedia also includes several stuffs that involve graphics. Like me, I’m also fund of creating shirt designs. But then again, it’s another good source of income. As early as now I could gain profit from my designs that is why I also am more into this kind of information environment.

Audio multimedia has also now become a trend. But not just speaking of being trendy, it also is a part of this information era. You just don’t create sounds or whatever. You also have to learn it. It doesn’t always have to be made by artists. Remember that software used by recording companies is made by computer wizards. Singers don’t make it. This still includes us techie guys as one of the people group who can work on several areas. There’s just got to be some sort of specialization. Animation and audio industry as a link to the information environment is more likely to be understood as some sort of industry where information is needed. It doesn’t mean you have to be an artist or whatever it needs to be. I’m citing the fact that as information technology specialist, we could participate in these areas through establishing specializations in creating some sort of software that could help enhance the certain industries.

Websites, web developing, or other web thingy. These play a big part in the world of information. Everywhere you go, as long as internet is accessible, the World Wide Web is just at the tips of your fingers. Information can be shared in and is at the reach of every mankind. Now what’s interesting in engaging yourself into the world of internet? Though some are not totally beneficial, if you know what I mean, being a part of its world can give you more than what you want, more than what you need. But still it is not a god. Businesses, lifestyle, communication, I mean everything is in store for you. Internet has changed the lives of several people. This is one reason why others even me myself would want to be in this kind of trend. You could even change something through the web. Earning money is more than just a piece of cake. Since when did clicking make money? When internet began, almost all of the things to make life easy came to reality. Communication became more intimate; selling has now reached the overseas.

Even as a programming major or networking major, the information environment of multimedia still fits the job. In all these aspects, the expertise can be applied. It’s not merely engaging in this industry just to be one of those who are good in using, but making use of the profession as ones who will enhance the innovation of existing technology. This wide range of opportunity will enable people under the information industry participate in major economical issues. Through this, information industry can dominate the economy.

Below is some additional random excerpts about Multimedia Industry from papers.

DVD's are created using multimedia procedures and programs. It's not just the entertainment industry that uses multimedia, the automotive industry use it & engineering principals can be applied through it leading to reductions in costs and time for those companies. The Multimedia Industry is a huge, fast moving industry that involves almost everything we see and use in our today world. Many things have driven the growth in the multi industry, but in particular the huge growth in the use of the Internet. I think education will be an area that multimedia will influence a great deal more over the next 5-10 years, through more online learning programs and there are more opportunities for the long distance learner. Engineers are using interactive programs to work with circuits and architects are creating 3D presentations of houses before they are built all because of multimedia. The home use of the Internet has also grown with there being a greater acceptance of online services such as e-commerce and the drop in prices of technology. Multimedia will continue to make life easier for everyone and influence the way we live (if you're not a hippy). The Multimedia Industry has changed the way people live and will continue to do so through he means of jobs, education, recreation and economy. nces in technology mean people in the industry constantly need to improve training and qualifications to be on top. Although I don't think the Internet as such will ever totally take over the role of a teacher, multimedia developments and programs will continue to influence they way things are taught and learnt. Businesses are using it to advertise, to sell online and to transfer money. We have a whole range of games for computers, PS2 and X-box created within the multimedia industry. People who work in this industry need to be flexible and creative. We've seen animations done by Pixar in movies like Finding Nemo and Toy Story.

Components of the multimedia industry cluster

Markets:
· Education
· Entertainment
· Healthcare
· Communication, Advertising
 End Products
· Distance Learning, Instruction
· Home entertainment, Movies/TV, Virtual Reality, Animation
· Medical Imagign
· Teleradiology
· Video Conference, Training, Presentations
Content Providers
· Information Providers
· Publishers/news organizations
· Producers: film, tv, video
Multimedia Developers
· Artists, writers, animators, graphic designers
· Original content developers
· Programmers, interface designers
Technology providers
· Manufacturers of computers and electronics
· Suppliers of chips and components
· Digital carriers
· Software developers
Infrastructure
· Telephone and cable lines
· Trade organizations, events, publications
· Professional services
· Education and training institutions
· Research and development laboratories

These are some example of what multimedia industry can offer to us. So for me as being one of them I really want to share my talent in servicing my fellow country men in newscasting.

What should be my role in this environment?

I believe that in broadcasting/newscasting, information gathering is one of the most important parts in broadcasting news to the public. Information operations are vital in giving honest and just broadcasting of news to the public. But not only in broadcasting that Information Technology is applied. In TV, radio, internet and etc., as we all know that we are all in an internet world. All information can be acquired by the use on internet. Through all these technologies that are available to us it is just a proof that Information Technology is being the most important in all aspects of the world. Without information technology we would still be all rubbing stones just to create fire. So my role in this environment is to be able to do my job successfully, even not perfect but at least with the best ability that I can give.

So how can the principles of information organization and representation help me in performing this role?

Since putting I’m looking forward for myself in taking this step for my status or even now that I am slowly making it happen, the principles will help me establish my goal, whether to pursue or change my mind. As I mold myself as a being participating in such environment, considering the principles would be helpful enough to look forward for plans, and young as I am, I can establish visions and goals I have to achieve the moment I put myself into it. I should consider the place I will be participating, that all those things I am planning to pursue under the environment will be enough to support it. Looking forward to a positive outcome is always our aim, how could someone think of a plan without merely reflecting. Making a pre-step in my plans will enable me to push through the plans that I have. In this information environment of multimedia, considering the principles is a must, looking at it to see if the principles may be applied in my zone. As early as now, I do have to decide where I will be working for that plan, and the principles will help guide me through the destination of my work responsibility.

What are the challenges that I will take in stepping through this plan? Or what are those barriers that I should consider?

Well this is what makes it hard; the competition between people participating in multimedia is very strong. As if the traffic of vehicles are heavy. As I heard some experiences, being recognized or being on top you have to go through several sacrifices. You see, even elementary got the know-how on computers. I could consider them as challenge. Can you imagine even those kids could bring down ideas of elders. How could you pursue if at the first place your initial rivals are kids? That is one good challenge for me. But as for the experience and status, if a student really finishes studies and got some bonus skill plus patience, there is nothing impossible in reaching goals.
Another thing that I could take as a serious challenge is the real world of multimedia, you see, if you apply to a company that is inclined to multimedia it’s either of the two, you get the job or you find another job. But I don’t. The very hard thing is being a freelancer. But as a graduate, why would you go freelancing if you could manage to give it your shot for companies?

So sum up all, I would want to be part of the multimedia industry, in order to be able to practice all the knowledge that I gained during my school days. Being part of it is an honor for me, for the reason that I believe serving the people is also serving the lord. It is still up to you if you want to pursue this industry. Just strive hard and aim for the best.

References:
www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmer/inf11.aspx
www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/21893.html
http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/reps/nameri/vusa/cgla/latrad/lamume.html

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Gabrielle Anne Rae Deseo

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PostSubject: Assignment 9   Wed Sep 30, 2009 12:19 pm

Information Environment

Our task is to identify an information environment of our choice and write an essay to address the following questions:

• What should be your role within this environment?
• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?




Defining Information Environment

There is now a critical mass of digital information resources that can be used to support researchers, learners, teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required. There is the need to ensure that quality information isn’t lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation and serving of ‘quality’ information there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. The aim of the Information Environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location.
http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/themes/informationenvironment.aspx

By definition, mass communication is a message created by a person or a group of people sent through a transmitting device (a medium) to a large audience or market.

So What Exactly is Mass Media?
Mass media is any medium used to transmit mass communication. Until recently mass media was clearly defined and was comprised of the eight mass media industries; Books, Newspapers, Magazines, and Recordings, Radio, Movies, Television and The Internet.
Defining mass media is no longer clear cut or simple. The continuing explosion of digital communication technology is producing more than a little confusion on the subject.
Developing new technology breeds new questions. Should cell phones be included in a definition of mass media? What about video and computer games? Is “World of Warcraft” a mass medium strictly speaking?
Considerable debate surrounds this topic at the moment and the answer is still not entirely clear.

http://medialiteracy.suite101.com/article.cfm/what_is_mass_media_


Well I got my ideas of what is an information environment from my classmates. As what I’ve understood, information environment refers to an environment which provides with effective knowledge from such information resources.

I chose mass media as my information environment. We all know for a fact that mass media plays a big part of transmitting to us so many information.

Mass media denotes a section of the media specifically designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. The term was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks, mass-circulation newspapers and magazines. However, some forms of mass media such as books and manuscripts had already been in use centuries. The term public media has a similar meaning: it is the sum of the public mass distributors of news and entertainment across media such as newspapers, television, radio, broadcasting, which may require union membership in some large markets such as Newspaper Guild, AFTRA, & text publishers.
Mass media includes Internet media (like blogs, message boards, podcasts, and video sharingu) because individuals now have a means to exposure that is comparable in scale to that previously restricted to a select group of mass media producers. The communications audience has been viewed by some commentators as forming a mass society with special characteristics, notably atomization or lack of social connections, which render it especially susceptible to the influence of modern mass-media techniques such as advertising and propaganda. The term "MSM" or "mainstream media" has been widely used in the blogosphere in discussion of the mass media and media bias.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_media

What are the Purpose of Mass media?
Mass media can be used for various purposes:
• Advocacy, both for business and social concerns. This can include advertising, marketing, propaganda, public relations, and political communication.
• Entertainment, traditionally through performances of acting, music, and sports, along with light reading; since the late 20th century also through video and computer games.
• Public service announcements.

Negative characteristics of mass media
Another description of Mass Media is central media which implies:
• An inability to transmit tacit knowledge (or perhaps it can only transfer bad tacit).
• The manipulation of large groups of people through media outlets, for the benefit of a particular political party and/or group of people.
• Marshall McLuhan, one of the biggest critics in media's history, brought up the idea that "the medium is the message."
• Bias, political or otherwise, towards favoring a certain individual, outcome or resolution of an event.
• "The corporate media is not a watchdog protecting us from the powerful, it is a lapdog begging for scraps."
This view of central media can be contrasted with lateral media, such as email networks, where messages are all slightly different and spread by a process of lateral diffusion.

Journalism
Journalism is the discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying and presenting information regarding current events, trends, issues and people. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists.
News-oriented journalism is sometimes described as the "first rough draft of history" (attributed to Phil Graham), because journalists often record important events, producing news articles on short deadlines. While under pressure to be first with their stories, news media organizations usually edit and proofread their reports prior to publication, adhering to each organization's standards of accuracy, quality and style. Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holding government officials and institutions accountable to the public, while media critics have raised questions about holding the press itself accountable.

Public relations
Public relations is the art and science of managing communication between an organization and its key publics to build, manage and sustain its positive image. Examples include:
• Corporations use marketing public relations (MPR) to convey information about the products they manufacture or services they provide to potential customers to support their direct sales efforts. Typically, they support sales in the short and long term, establishing and burnishing the corporation's branding for a strong, ongoing market.
• Corporations also use public-relations as a vehicle to reach legislators and other politicians, seeking favorable tax, regulatory, and other treatment, and they may use public relations to portray themselves as enlightened employers, in support of human-resources recruiting programs.
• Non-profit organizations, including schools and universities, hospitals, and human and social service agencies, use public relations in support of awareness programs, fund-raising programs, staff recruiting, and to increase patronage of their services.
• Politicians use public relations to attract votes and raise money, and, when successful at the ballot box, to promote and defend their service in office, with an eye to the next election or, at career’s end, to their legacy.

Forms of mass media
Electronic media and print media include:
• Broadcasting, in the narrow sense, for radio and television.
• Various types of discs or tapes. In the 20th century, these were mainly used for music. Video and computer uses followed.
• Film, most often used for entertainment, but also for documentaries.
Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. The origin of the name comes from the fact that photographic film (also called filmstock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist — motion pictures (or just pictures and "picture"), the silver screen, photoplays, the cinema, picture shows, flicks — and commonly movies.

• Internet, which has many uses and presents both opportunities and challenges. Blogs and podcasts (such as news, music, pre-recorded speech, and video)
The Internet (also known simply as "the Net" or "the Web") is a more interactive medium of mass media, and can be briefly described as "a network of networks". Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and governmental networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.
Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet is the system of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections etc.; the Web is the contents, or the interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World Wide Web is accessible through the Internet, along with many other services including e-mail, file sharing and others described below.
The internet thus far has become an extremely dominant form of media.
Blogs (Web Logs)
Blogging has become a huge form of media, popular through the internet. A blog is a website, usually maintained by an individual, with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse chronological order. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic. The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (artlog), photographs (photoblog), sketchblog, videos (vlog), music (MP3 blog), audio (podcasting) are part of a wider network of social media. Micro-blogging is another type of blogging which consists of blogs with very short posts.
RSS feeds
RSS is a format for syndicating news and the content of news-like sites, including major news sites like Wired, news-oriented community sites like Slashdot, and personal blogs. It is a family of Web feed formats used to publish frequently updated content such as blog entries, news headlines, and podcasts. An RSS document (which is called a "feed" or "web feed" or "channel") contains either a summary of content from an associated web site or the full text. RSS makes it possible for people to keep up with web sites in an automated manner that can be piped into special programs or filtered displays.

Podcast
Main article: Podcast
A podcast is a series of digital-media files which are distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and computers. The term podcast, like broadcast, can refer either to the series of content itself or to the method by which it is syndicated; the latter is also called podcasting. The host or author of a podcast is often called a podcaster.

• Mobile phones, often called the 7th Mass Media, used for rapid breaking news, short clips of entertainment like jokes, horoscopes, alerts, games, music, and advertising
Mobile phones were introduced in Japan in 1979 but became a mass media only in 1998 when the first downloadable ringing tones were introduced in Finland. Soon most forms of media content were introduced on mobile phones, and today the total value of media consumed on mobile towers over that of internet content, and was worth over 31 billion dollars in 2007 (source Informa). The mobile media content includes over 8 billion dollars worth of mobile music (ringing tones, ringback tones, truetones, MP3 files, karaoke, music videos, music streaming services etc); over 5 billion dollars worth of mobile gaming; and various news, entertainment and advertising services. In Japan mobile phone books are so popular that five of the ten best-selling printed books were originally released as mobile phone books.

• Publishing is the industry concerned with the production of literature or information – the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers.
Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include websites, blogs, and the like.
As a business, publishing includes the development, marketing, production, and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works, software, other works dealing with information.
Forms of Publishing
Magazine
A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising and/or purchase by readers.
Magazines are typically published weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly, with a date on the cover that is in advance of the date it is actually published. They are often printed in color on coated paper, and are bound with a soft cover.
Magazines fall into two broad categories: consumer magazines and business magazines. In practice, magazines are a subset of periodicals, distinct from those periodicals produced by scientific, artistic, academic or special interest publishers which are subscription-only, more expensive, narrowly limited in circulation, and often have little or no advertising.
Newspaper
A newspaper is a publication containing news and information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. It may be general or special interest, most often published daily or weekly. The first printed newspaper was published in 1605, and the form has thrived even in the face of competition from technologies such as radio and television. Recent developments on the Internet are posing major threats to its business model, however. Paid circulation is declining in most countries, and advertising revenue, which makes up the bulk of a newspaper's income, is shifting from print to online; some commentators, nevertheless, point out that historically new media such as radio and television did not entirely supplant existing.
Software publishing
A software publisher is a publishing company in the software industry between the developer and the distributor. In some companies, two or all three of these roles may be combined (and indeed, may reside in a single person, especially in the case of shareware).
Software publishers often license software from developers with specific limitations, such as a time limit or geographical region. The terms of licensing vary enormously, and are typically secret.
Developers may use publishers to reach larger or foreign markets, or to avoid focussing on marketing. Or publishers may use developers to create software to meet a market need that the publisher has identified.
Mass wire media
Mass wire media is a new frontier of news reporting in the high-tech age. A few decades ago news reporting was through newspapers and radio and television. The radio broadcasts that were made famous by Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II changed the way radio was looked at. These fireside chats made the radio news and news radio. Things are different now as we are witnessing a revolution of people-oriented reporting in real time and other times. This element of intimate knowledge of the event or story being reported has dramatically changed the way we all view news stories.
This is called by some the Social Media Revolution. This revolution has intrinsically altered the way news is reported almost the way it happens. The trend of people-oriented reporting is only on the rise as reporting news becomes more personal and more accurate - although also more subjective.

• Video games,
A video game is a computer-controlled game where a video display such as a monitor or television is the primary feedback device. The term "computer game" also includes games which display only text (and which can therefore theoretically be played on a teletypewriter) or which use other methods, such as sound or vibration, as their primary feedback device, but there are very few new games in these categories. There always must also be some sort of input device, usually in the form of button/joystick combinations (on arcade games), a keyboard & mouse/trackball combination (computer games), or a controller (console games), or a combination of any of the above. Also, more esoteric devices have been used for input. Usually there are rules and goals, but in more open-ended games the player may be free to do whatever they like within the confines of the virtual universe.

Personal media
Non-mass or "personal" media (point-to-point and person-to-person communication) include:
• Gestures
• Interactive
• Internet
• Mail
• Speech
• Telephony
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_media

What should be your role within this environment?
In the environment of mass media, we all have the benefit of having been the receiver of such information that the mass media brings about. My role now is just to see and benefit with the information the mass media delivers to us. Sometimes the mass media brings out the consciousness of people and leading them to be active in the society. It is a challenge for us to be aware of what is happening to the environment and thanks to the mass media for relaying such information to us.



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creza_jill_bulacito

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PostSubject: assignment 9   Wed Sep 30, 2009 3:27 pm

Information Environment
There is now a critical mass of digital information resources that can be used to support researchers, learners, teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required. There is the need to ensure that quality information isn’t lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation and serving of ‘quality’ information there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. The aim of the Information Environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location.

Open Linking in the Scholarly Information Environment Using the OpenURL Framework

This paper provides insights into the concepts underlying the OpenURL framework for open reference linking in the web-based scholarly information environment. The OpenURL framework has its roots in the SFX-research conducted by Herbert Van de Sompel and his colleagues at Ghent University, Belgium, from 1998 to 2000.
This discussion starts by briefly reiterating the problems with reference linking initially described and later addressed as part of the SFX research. Notions at the core of the SFX research are described: extended service-links, closed and non-context-sensitive linking, and open and context-sensitive linking.
Next, the paper details the OpenURL framework for open linking and reports on its current deployment in the scholarly information environment. A key component in the OpenURL framework is the OpenURL. The OpenURL provides a standardized format for transporting bibliographic metadata about objects between information services. As an illustration of the ongoing interest in the OpenURL framework, special attention is accorded to a prototype in which the OpenURL framework is integrated with the DOI/CrossRef linking solution. This paper focuses on concrete solutions, leaving more abstract dimensions of the context-sensitive resolution mechanisms for a forthcoming paper.
Extended service-links
The term extended service-link was introduced (Van de Sompel and Hochstenbach 1999a) to refer to a link in scholarly information resources that goes beyond the classic notion of a reference link, which is typically understood to be a link from metadata to the full-content described by the metadata. The notion of extended services was introduced to refer to a bundle of such extended service-links, thereby stressing that:
• Many services that go well beyond the classical reference link can be delivered for a given metadata description;
• Delivery of such services becomes increasingly important to adequately navigate the web-based scholarly information environment.
Extended service links that are commonly encountered when exploring scholarly digital libraries lead:
• From a record in an abstracting and indexing database (A&I) to the full-text described by the record;
• From a record describing a book in a library catalogue to a description of the same book in an Internet book shop;
• From a reference in a journal article to a record matching that reference in an A&I database.
More creative extended services can be imagined, and have already been introduced in operational environments that use the SFX server software. Such service links lead:
• From a citation in a journal article to a record in a library catalogue that shows the library holdings of the cited journal;
• From a journal title to impact factor information in ISI's Journal Citation Reports;
• From a stock ticker symbol found in a record from the ABI/Inform database to on-line stock information;
• From title words or subject headings of a scholarly article to related information in Internet search engines.
Closed and non-context-sensitive linking frameworks
It has been argued (Van de Sompel and Hochstenbach 1999a) that the way in which the information industry provides such extended service-links is not satisfactory because the manner in which this is done is:
• Non-context-sensitive: the established linking frameworks provide service-links that fail to take into account the context of the user who follows a link;
• Limited in scope: the established linking frameworks are narrowly focused, both regarding the types of extended services that are being provided as well as regarding the action radius of those links, which is often limited by the scope of business agreements between information providers;
• Closed: the established linking frameworks do not allow third parties -- such as the user's library -- to compensate for these problems by enabling the delivery of self-defined context-sensitive extended service-links.
Therefore, such linking frameworks have been referred to as closed and non-context-sensitive linking frameworks. Although these terms have quite different meanings, they have frequently been used as synonyms to refer to the combination of the problems described above.
A specific instance of the problems introduced by non-context-sensitive linking frameworks is known as the appropriate copy problem for links to full-text (Caplan and Arms 1999). This problem refers to the fact that such linking frameworks fail to provide links that lead from a citation of a journal article to the appropriate full-text copy of that article. A full-text link typically leads to a publisher-defined default copy of the article, which usually resides in the publisher's repository. However, access to the copy of the article that is appropriate in the context of a certain user may very well require the provision of an alternative link:
• The user's library may hold a subscription to the electronic journal in which the article was published via an intermediary service. In this case, resolving the reference link to the publisher's default copy may result in a denial of access, because the publisher may not be directly aware of each individual entitled to have access to the desired article. Still, via the library's subscription, the user has legitimate access to the content of the article. In this example, the alternative resolution must take into account the fact that this particular user is allowed to access the article via an intermediary, not directly via the publisher. Hence, the resolution of the reference link must lead to the intermediary's services, where an alternative copy of the article may reside, or where access to the publisher's copy may be cleared.
• The user's library may store a copy of the article in a local repository. Again, resolving the reference link to the publisher's default copy may result in a denial of access. Even if access to the publisher's copy would be granted, such resolution is not the preferred one, because it bypasses the library's motivations to actually store content locally. Hence, the preferred resolution should lead to the appropriate copy of the article in the library's repository.
• The user's library may not have licensed access to an electronic copy of the article. However, the library may have other means to provide the required content to the user: it may hold a paper subscription to the journal; it may be able to handle a document delivery request; etc.
It has been shown that the appropriate copy problem for links to journal articles is in fact only an instance of a more general problem (Van de Sompel and Hochstenbach 1999a) that -- by analogy -- could be named the appropriate extended-services problem. This problem refers to the fact that established linking frameworks, in general, fail to take into account the context of the user in the provision of extended service-links. A simple illustration of this lack of context in the provision of extended services can be seen in the information industries' widespread use of the PubMed full-featured Entrez link-to mechanism. Publishers take advantage of the Entrez system to include links that lead from references in their articles into the PubMed database. These service-links -- leading into the default PubMed implementation of the Medline database -- are definitely attractive to the user. However, users may find it more attractive if these links would lead into the appropriate Medline implementation provided by their library to which the users are accustomed. And users may find it even more attractive if additional service links would allow them to look up the reference in their local OPAC system, etc. Many more examples have been given (Van de Sompel and Hochstenbach 1999a, Van de Sompel and Hochstenbach 1999c) that illustrate the common lack of context-sensitivity in operational linking solutions. These problems extend well beyond the appropriate copy problem.
The SFX research
In response to the dissatisfaction with closed and non-context-sensitive linking frameworks, research has been conducted to design a proper architecture that will address the problems described in the above. In this research, which went by the working title SFX (for Special Effects), the term open and context-sensitive linking framework has conveniently been used to refer to a proposed architecture that could make the difference. In the SFX research on context-sensitive linking, the notion of context has been related directly to a user's institutional affiliation. It encompasses contextual elements such as:
• The content that is accessible to the user via the institutional digital library:
o The collection of A&I and citation databases to which the user has access;
o The collection of electronic journals that are accessible to the user;
o The OPAC system of the user's institution;
o E-print systems that are accessible to the user;
• The specific implementation of access to the above content, e.g., which implementation of a specific A&I database is used;
• The user's preferences regarding the interaction with the digital library collection.
Over the course of three complex experiments, the SFX research demonstrated the feasibility of an open and context-sensitive linking framework for the scholarly information environment (Van de Sompel and Hochstenbach 1999b; Van de Sompel, Hochstenbach 1999c; Van de Sompel and et. al. 2000). As part of the research, a linking server-software by the name SFX server was implemented.
The OpenURL framework in the scholarly information environment
The fundamental notion introduced in the SFX research is that of disconnecting the provision of linking services for a work from the description of the work, as presented to users in electronic information resources (Figure 1 and Figure 2). A reference link associated with metadata describing a scholarly work should not be considered part of the metadata, but rather as a service that builds upon the metadata. Once this conceptual disconnection is made, the next logical step is to realize that such linking services for a given metadata description can be provided by many parties: it is no longer necessary that the information service that presents metadata to users be the sole provider of service links for that metadata. Rather, overlay service components can be introduced to provide extended linking services for scholarly works described in the various resources that are accessible to the user. If users -- irrespective of the resource they are navigating -- can call upon their chosen service component, it becomes possible to create a consistent linking environment that extends beyond the typically narrow focus of the linking solutions glued to a single resource. Moreover, if such a service component appropriately takes into account the user's library collection, the linking services will lead to appropriate services.
http://www.dlib.org/dlib/march01/vandesompel/03vandesompel.html


What should be your role within this environment?

On a rapid development of technology, everyone has its own roles to play on every field we are currently in line with. The information environment I chose is all about openURL framework and open linking. My role will be enhancing the framework regarding on open linking this is such a vital work for open linking works with concepts underlying the OpenURL framework for open reference linking in the web-based scholarly information environment.

How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
The different principles of information organization and representation help me to achieve my goals, whether I am doing my part regarding with the role I am in to.

What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?
Challenges can’t be avoided on different phase of life. There are complications working on performing the role. There are competitions with other networks or companies. To address these challenges I will ask for advises and review new trends to help me cope with the role I am playing on information environment.
visit my blog http://rs-crezaharu/blogspot.com
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Gleizelle Jen Dieparine

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PostSubject: Information Environment   Wed Sep 30, 2009 8:44 pm

Identify an information environment of your choice and write an essay to address the following questions:

• What should be your role within this environment?
• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?
• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

Before we could answer the question above we should define some terms to instantiate our answers.
Information Environment
There is now a critical mass of digital information resources that can be used to support researchers, learners, teachers and administrators in their work and study. The production of information is on the increase and ways to deal with this effectively are required. There is the need to ensure that quality information isn’t lost amongst the masses of digital data created everyday. If we can continue to improve the management, interrogation and serving of ‘quality’ information there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. The aim of the Information Environment is to help provide convenient access to resources for research and learning through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice. The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location.

Fundamental to this research is an understanding of end users and their applications for content,
or the information they require to support research, teaching, and learning. The model on the
following page illustrates a cohesive view of the demand and supply sides of the information
market.
End users, based on their specific functional roles and their institutional affiliations, solve
problems and make decisions that require information. As functional roles and needs change,
users apply and use information differently, which requires providers of information (libraries,
publishers, and other intermediaries) to create and deploy content and services based on a clear
understanding of the needs of the demand side of the information equation.
The higher education market consists of academic institutions of varying types, sizes, and
geographies. There are research and doctoral universities, comprehensive universities, regional
universities, general and liberal arts colleges, and community colleges. Throughout the education
market, students and faculty tend to behave in the context of their chosen segment of the
education environment and their functional role and discipline. While there are parallels in the
needs of users across types of academic institutions, there are important differences. An
understanding of the information needs, applications and uses at each intersection of Functional



What should be your role within this environment?

The Information Environment aims to allow discovery, access and use of resources for research and learning irrespective of their location. The world of the internet has a wide scope that would help us gather information and make it an data to supply information to the other people, As a student my role to this environment is to continue cooperating with this environment to improve the management, interrogation and serving of ‘quality’ information there is huge potential to enhance knowledge creation across learning and research communities. I could gather some information in my research and soon I could imply some data in the net for supporting the people accessing in information environment for their work and study. But then some information in this environment doesn’t provide convenient access to resources for research and learning but then through the use of resource discovery and resource management tools and the development of better services and practice .
Information Representation
In this paper, I propose principles for good representation of information applicable to six categories of communication: speeches, written texts, presentations, Web pages, movies/videos, and source programs. For each of these categories, many tips have been proposed for creating good information representation. The meaning of good information representation can be interpreted in two ways: as attractive or impressive, and effective in conveying facts and opinions. Although these two ways cannot be said to be independent of each other, I focus here only the latter. The need to establish explicit principles for good information representation is urgent, because information must be transmitted accurately (without loss of fidelity). Bad information representation is proliferating at a rapid pace because of the Internet.

Information Organization
Advances in information and communication technologies are associated with a wide and increasing range of social consequences, which are experienced by individuals, work groups, organizations, interorganizational networks, and societies at large. Information technologies are implicated in all industries and in public as well as private
Mass media
denotes a section of the media specifically designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. The term was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks, mass-circulation newspapers and magazines. However, some forms of mass media such as books and manuscripts had already been in use centuries. The term public media has a similar meaning: it is the sum of the public mass distributors of news and entertainment across media such as newspapers, television, radio, broadcasting, which may require union membership in some large markets such as Newspaper Guild, AFTRA, & text publishers.
Mass media includes Internet media (like blogs, message boards, podcasts, and video sharing) because individuals now have a means to exposure that is comparable in scale to that previously restricted to a select group of mass media producers. The communications audience has been viewed by some commentators as forming a mass society with special characteristics, notably atomization or lack of social connections, which render it especially susceptible to the influence of modern mass-media techniques such as advertising and propaganda. The term "MSM" or "mainstream media" has been widely used in the blogosphere in discussion of the mass media and media bias.


How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?

By these principles ,it could help me for the good speeches, written texts, presentations, Web pages, movies/videos, and source programs that I would create . It could help me to state acquired information in a right way of writing.
These are the point of view to make our works better, and can be satisfactory information to held. As of now ,it is not easy to write information to our blog because of the wrong grammars, not reliable information, and even attractive blog ,we can’t provide. So ,in these principle we can enhance our speeches , , written texts, presentations, Web pages, movies/videos, and source programs to be a good supplier of information environment soon.

What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

I have many challenges in performing these role since the capability our works are involved .As
I have said a while a go the internet has a wide scope in getting information and when I’m the one who will give information could I assure that these are reliable for supporting people .
I will address these challenges by myself with the help of my classmates, teachers since these are some people could help and specially me, with the efforts and practices ,and enjoying what I’m doing I could easy perform these role.

References:

http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/themes/informationenvironment.aspx
http://www2.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/IPCC.2009.5208725

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